Handbook of Denominations in the United States - PDF Free Download (2023)

Handbook of Denominations in the United States - 11th Edition Frank S. Mead Samuel S. Hill 11th Edition Revised by Craig D. Atwood Abingdon Press Nashville Copyright Information In Memory of Frank S. Mead (1898-1982 )

FOREWORD Frank Mead's Handbook of Appellations in the United States has a long and respected history. Doctor Mead updated the work regularly throughout his long career; After his death, the task of revising it fell to Samuel Hill, the leading religious scholar in the American South. Doctor Hill was able to increase the presence of African American churches and evangelical groups in the manual. He also strove to reflect the growing presence of world religions in the United States. I had the pleasure of studying with Professor Hill at the University of North Carolina and was honored to further develop his work in this eleventh edition of the Handbook. With the dawn of a new millennium, it seemed appropriate to undertake a major revision of this classic and seminal work. To this end, the book has been completely restructured, adding some new categories of churches, such as fundamentalist churches, and there are longer descriptions of each category. Categories are provided to tell the story of American religion historically and typologically; they are not intended to be prescriptive or normative. In many cases, a community can fall into two or more categories, and I apologize to anyone who feels they have been "kicked out." Additionally, many designations that had been in the works since the 1950s have been omitted from this edition as they have diminished or disappeared. With few exceptions, the religious organizations listed here have at least 5,000 active members. New entries appear in place of deleted entries, reflecting the vitality of American religion at the end of the 20th century. Also, the sections on Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy have been significantly expanded. Another change is a new directory of churches that includes their websites. The Internet has proven to be a valuable resource in the preparation of this issue, and the reader will find that most denominations are now using the new technology effectively. An editorial decision was particularly difficult. Recent editions of the Handbook include entries on Eastern religions in the United States. The presence of non-Western religions is increasing daily through immigration and conversion, and every year American religion becomes more diverse. The old Protestant hegemony in this country has disappeared, and American religion textbooks can no longer assume that the nation is exclusively, or even primarily, Christian and Jewish. However, this volume is not a guide to religion in the United States; It is a guide to denominations. Therefore, rather than treat the world's various religions superficially, or drastically reduce the space given to the various denominations, I have chosen to include only those religions that derive from the Abrahamic monotheistic tradition. Since all of the religious bodies presented here claim allegiance to Abraham's faith in some way, they share many similarities in their ethical approaches.

Worship and Sacred Texts. Most new religions such as Scientology, New Age belief systems, and groups often referred to as "cults" are excluded from this presentation due to their size or because they are not in the Abrahamic tradition. Again, this focus on Christianity, Judaism, and Islam is not meant to suggest that only they are real or important religions; on the contrary, it must give conceptual coherence to the work and establish clear limits. A final word is needed on membership statistics. Most of the statistics used in the manual come from various religious organizations and appear in the Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches. Reports on religious affiliation are not always reliable, especially for comparison purposes. Some denominations report that all people are baptized, whether they attend church or not; others report only on those who have made an adult profession of faith; and some don't even keep membership records. It should also be noted that many people consider themselves to be members of a particular denomination or tradition, even though they do not appear in official records. Therefore, all statistics are only the best estimates currently available. (Membership statistics refer to the United States unless otherwise noted.) I would like to express my gratitude to Fran Swajkoski, Kennette Lawrence, and Melissa Hall for their help with the church database and directory. I also thank Paul Kemeny for his help with this project. I would like to especially thank my wife Julie. craig atwood

Religion in America Craig D. Atwood Frank Mead's Handbook of Denominations in the United States has been a standard reference work for half a century and is now in its eleventh edition. The manual's continuing usefulness indicates its value to academics and laymen alike. However, we may wonder why such a reference book is necessary. What makes American religion so diverse and confusing? Why did the idea of ​​“denominations” arise in the United States so that we could talk about different religious groups without using the word cults, which is often pejorative? To answer these questions, we must take a step back in history and examine some central factors in the American religious experience. First of all, we must be clear that until modern times, even until the rise of the United States, civil harmony was thought to depend on religious conformity. There must be "one king, one faith, one law", in Louis XIV's famous phrase. Religion was seen as the link in the social fabric, the glue that held different states together and balanced conflicting interests. Religious diversity was equated with civil unrest and riots. The idea that a nation could not only tolerate different Christian churches but also radically different religions was considered crazy until the Enlightenment. Modern Americans, who have always lived by the Bill of Rights and its guarantee of religious liberty, find it hard to see what a truly radical experiment the First Amendment was when it was proposed by Madison and Jefferson. Once the constitution was ratified, the government was prohibited from interfering in matters of personal faith. There have been notable cases where local and national authorities have outlawed this civil right, but for the most part, the spirit of religious liberty has reigned in the United States for more than two centuries. This meant that no force other than popular opinion could prevent the formation of new religious organizations, new churches, and even new religions. Anyone who could gather a following could be the founder of a new denomination. Sometimes these new religions were rejected by the public and became what we might call cults, but some of them, like the Mormons, have become very popular and dynamic faith traditions. Instead of leading to the demise of religion, as many critics (and some supporters) of the First Amendment had hoped, this freedom of religious expression has led to a marked increase in religious belief and practice in the United States over the past two years. centuries. Unlike other developed nations, the United States still has high levels of personal faith, membership in religious organizations, and participation in religious activities. It may seem ironic that the world's first completely secular government fostered one of the most religious societies, but the reason is quite simple. abroad

In the corporate system of American religion, denominations have always had to compete for the hearts and minds of the masses. Denominations in the United States needed to present their message in a way that would appeal to current and potential members. Even churches that emphasize hierarchical and traditional values ​​have had to adopt proselytizing church methods to retain members. Free competition has caused American religion to respond in unique ways to changes in society as churches adapt popular culture, particularly music, to attract members. Each generation has seen the formation of new religious bodies and the transformation of older bodies as the churches sought to address the anxieties of their time and offer hope for the perceived future. This process of adjustment and change has often led to divisions within denominations, with one party embracing new techniques such as large revival gatherings and the other promoting traditional approaches such as belief in classical creeds and the use of ancient liturgical forms. New denominations can be innovative or traditionalist, but even traditionalists must “sell” the virtues of the tradition to members and potential members. The following pages describe how new churches develop out of older churches. For example, most Pentecostal churches grew out of the Old Holiness churches, which in turn grew out of the Methodist churches, which in turn grew out of the Anglican Church. The free enterprise approach to religion also encouraged experimentation with forms of worship, doctrines, and even scriptures. Nineteenth century America was the birthplace of some of the most dynamic religious movements of modern times. Many of these denominations arose during the heady days of the Second Great Awakening in the early days of the Republic (1800-1830), when it seemed that the common man could realize any dream.1 When peasants could serve in Congress and peasants could establish a new government, why wouldn't an angel appear to a simple man and reveal a new scripture? Why can't a former housewife be the new incarnation of Christ? Because most of these new religious movements, such as the Shakers and Mormons, have roots in traditional Christianity, they are not generally considered new religions; However, some of them are actually radical variations on ancient Christian themes. Even among those closest to mainstream Protestantism, there was a widespread feeling that religious authorities could be ignored and that common people could remake the church based on their own understanding of the Bible. From this belief arose the denominations associated with Alexander Campbell and Barton Stone (see CHRISTIAN CHURCHES). Later, Pentecostals, Adventists, and even Jehovah's Witnesses would also take advantage of this idea to reshape the church according to their own understanding of Scripture. The old slogan of the Reformation, "Scripture Only," has spawned a cornucopia of denominations like commons in the United States.

People took up the challenge of interpreting the Bible and judging religious authorities. A second important factor in the diversity of American religion is immigration. Each wave of immigration brought with it different national churches. In fact, at the time the Constitution was written, there were so many denominations that it would have been difficult, if not impossible, to found a state church. Among the English settlers were Congregationalists in New England, Quakers in Pennsylvania, Anglicans in New York, Presbyterians in Virginia, and Catholics in Maryland. There were also Dutch, Swiss and German pensioners; Swedish and German Lutherans; French Huguenots; and Sephardic Jews, to name just the most prominent religions. Even within the same church, primarily Roman Catholic and Lutheran, the United States is home to an impressive diversity of ethnic communities that often pose a challenge to church hierarchies trying to maintain institutional unity. This process continued into the 20th century as mainstream denominations such as Presbyterian and Methodist had to give way to Korean and Swahili speaking communities. Additionally, approximately twelve million American Catholics speak Spanish as their first language. Religion gave each group of immigrants an identity in a foreign land, a way to take root in the old culture while adjusting to a confusing new society. Ethnic culture in the United States is inseparable from ethnic religious tradition. However, over the decades these ethnic denominations gradually adapted to the American scene as they struggled to win the loyalty of the third and fourth generations. The transition to English in the service sector is a milestone in the Americanization process. Gradually they became more like neighboring churches than the national churches from which they had sprung. Some denominations, particularly Orthodox Judaism, aggressively resist this process of assimilation while embracing American clustering and marketing techniques. In general, ethnic distinctions in religion are ultimately limited to ethnic festivals associated with denominational activities. In the second half of the 20th century, immigration from Asia and the Caribbean Basin brought the world's religions, including folk religions such as Santeria, to American shores. This dramatic increase in religious diversity will be a major driver of religious life in the United States in the 21st century. The symphony of American religion will no longer consist of variations on the Christian theme. A third distinctive feature of American religion was interchurch cooperation in the midst of competition. Again, an economic analogy could be used, noting America's penchant for big corporations and mergers. Interdenominational, parachurch, and cooperative ministries have brought together believers of diverse backgrounds throughout American history. In times of catastrophe it is not surprising that Catholics, Protestants, Jews, etc.

Muslims work hand in hand. The people they help are motivated by their religious values, cultivated in a particular faith tradition. But by working together, they learn to respect other religions. Sometimes these cooperative efforts have resulted in the formation of new denominations, such as the United Church of Christ, and sometimes in interchurch organizations, such as the National Association of Evangelicals. More generally, such efforts have increased religious tolerance at the local level. Here is the essence of denominationalism: diverse religious traditions and organizations openly competing for adherents while respecting other religious organizations as valid. For example, it is rare for a Presbyterian in the United States to state that Methodists are not really Christians. Furthermore, as the presence of world religions in the United States increases, we see this sense of tolerance expand beyond Christian borders. Of course, as with any movement, the ecumenical trend has led to the rise of new denominations that reject this perspective and insist on doctrinal or ecclesiastical conformity and exclusivity. Sociologists have recognized the force of this ecumenism in American religion and have concluded that we are now in a "post-denominational" era in which religious identity has lost its place in the life of the individual. It is relatively easy for a bishop to join a Lutheran church. Conversion from Catholic to Protestant or vice versa is no longer as important as fifty years ago. There has been a trend toward homogenization of religion as churches learn from each other and adopt successful practices. Most Americans have an eclectic faith, woven from many different strands of tradition and contemporary ideas and attitudes. This manual, however, attests to the continuing power and influence of the denominations. The drive to create national organizations remains strong, and immigrant religions tend to follow the American model of denominational organization. Denominations help create a kind of religious identity in the midst of faith pluralism. They also provide necessary resources for local religious communities, such as B. Facilities to train clergy, publish curriculum resources, and oversee certification processes. As the character of the denominations continues to evolve, there is little evidence that they will disappear. It is noteworthy that whenever denominations come close to merging, splinter groups form, recognizing the usefulness of denominational structures even as they reject the authority of the parent organization. A fourth important factor in American religion at the beginning of the 21st century is the Internet. The potential of the Internet to reach people and promote a particular belief was quickly recognized. Religion is one of the main topics discussed in chat rooms and websites. Internet has

it has even allowed the formation of new denominations that meet primarily in "cyberspace." The factors discussed above play a role in the influence of the Internet on American religion. Denominations use it to compete for adherents, individuals use it as a resource to build their personal belief systems, and immigrant churches use it as a resource to keep scattered members of the flock connected to ethnic tradition. We can expect that as the Internet continues to expand and change, its influence on religious life in the United States will also grow and change. The Handbook of Denominations was written to help people navigate the confusing and troubled waters of American religion. We hope this volume helps readers better understand not only American religion in all its diversity, but also its neighbors who are of different faiths.


ADVENTIST CHURCHES Throughout the history of Christianity there have been churches and individuals who have waited with bated breath for the return of Jesus Christ. New Testament testimonies show that the expectation of the imminent return of the risen Christ was widespread among the first generation of Christians. As the apostolic age passed without the Second Coming, the hope of Christ's immediate return faded and the church adjusted to the delay of the parousia (Christ's return). Instead of the fervent hope of the end of history and the culmination of the messianic mission, the church has placed its faith in the continuing presence of the risen Christ through Scripture, sacraments, and faith. However, when the New Testament canon was sealed, it contained many final journals, the most famous of which is the Book of Revelation, also known as the Apocalypse. The symbolic language of Revelation combined with Paul's speculations in the Thessalonian Epistles, Jesus' apocalyptic statements in the Gospels, and the Old Testament Book of Daniel have left ample room for the imagination of believers for the past two thousand years. years. Years. The hope that Christ would soon return to rule the world in justice and peace was particularly strong in the United States after the American Revolution. Even the phrase "the New World" conjured up images of the long-awaited millennial kingdom. The ordinary peasants and merchants had defeated the world's greatest military power, overthrown the king's rule, and created a new nation. To many, including men like John Adams, it seemed that the Millennium Age was about to dawn and that Christ would soon appear to take His rightful throne. The Second Great Awakening, a series of revivals that swept the western frontier in the first decades of the 19th century, added fuel to this fire as reports of the phenomenal activity of the Holy Spirit in the conversion of lost souls circulated throughout the world. country. The Adventist family in the United States was born into this era of new opportunities and great hope. Adventists, now considered conservative Protestants, were initially viewed as dangerous radicals due to their concern with the issue of the Second Coming or Second Coming (the coming into our world) of Jesus Christ. By 1844, Adventist groups could be recognized as a distinct religious body separate from the mainline Protestant churches. But modern Adventism began as an interchurch movement, whose chief proponent was William Miller (1782–1849) of New York, a veteran of the War of 1812. Miller saw the conversion from skeptical Deism to evangelical Christianity during the Second Great Awakening. . After his conversion in 1816, Miller became an avid student of the Scriptures. Using a Bible containing Archbishop Ussher's famous chronology, Miller focused his attention on end-time prophecy in Daniel and Revelation. Miller accepted the usual interpretation that the symbolic day of Bible prophecy represents a year and concluded that the

The 2,300 days of Daniel 8:14 began simultaneously with the seventy-year weeks of Daniel 9, that is, from 457 B.C. the year of the order to rebuild and restore Jerusalem. He believed that the longer of the two periods would end around 1843 according to Jewish reckoning. Miller thought that the sanctuary mentioned in Daniel 8:14 was the earth (or the church) that would be cleansed by fire at the Second Coming, and that this cleansing would take place sometime between March 21, 1843, and March 21. of 1844. Miller was not the only person fascinated by such an apocalyptic calculation, and his writings struck a chord in popular culture in the 1830s. An imminent time was devoted to the return of Christ and the restoration of Paradise on earth. Miller himself gave lecture tours, using elaborate charts and timelines to aid his reading of end-time prophecy. All of his research supported his central claim that Advent would take place in the spring of 1844. Between 50,000 and 100,000 people in the United States believed Miller's calculations and looked forward to the great day when the world would be cleansed and the righteous they would meet Christ. As March and April passed and this expectation was not met, some devotees left the movement and returned to their old churches. However, Miller's associates, based on their study of Old Testament typology, arrived at a second date, October 22, 1844. This would be the great Day of Atonement anticipated in the Mosaic Law. When October 22 also passed without a Second Coming, many faced what is called the "Great Disappointment." Many have renounced Adventism, some have renounced the Christian faith itself, others have simply given up the desire to set a date for Advent. New Adventist bodies also rose from the ashes of disillusionment. After the disappointment, the remaining Adventists formed several smaller groups. By April 1845, Adventists, who had united during the Millerite movement, were divided over the meaning of that movement's interpretations. The majority group renounced their earlier belief and concluded that the 2,300-year prophecy of Daniel 8 would end at some point in the future. A loose-knit organization arose at a conference in Albany, New York, in 1845. This Albany group generally adhered to Miller's original theology. They emphasized the personal and millennial character of the Second Coming, which means that Christ will return in person, not in spirit, before the millennial kingdom is established. They also taught that the resurrection of the dead occurs in two stages. Believers will be resurrected at the coming of Christ, but the rest of humanity will be resurrected a thousand years later. Furthermore, the earth will be redeemed and restored as the eternal home of believers. First known as the American Millennial Association, a part later became known as the Evangelical Adventist Church. This church has now been reduced to the point of darkness.

Adventism is based on the belief that the return of Christ is the world's only hope. The present age is wicked and irrevocable except by the direct action of God. Adventism holds that human nature fell because of sin and that those who rebel against God's government will ultimately be destroyed, while believers will be saved by God's grace. Following this cataclysmic event, Jesus Christ will reign triumphant during the millennium or millennium period of Revelation 20:1-6. Therefore, Adventists are pessimistic about the present, but full of confidence and hope in God's future. Meanwhile, they teach that God's people are to be just, pious, and disciplined. Whoever wishes to be saved must lead a healthy personal and family life and live in obedience to God. They must also work diligently for the evangelization of the entire world in preparation for the second coming of Christ. In other areas there were differences of opinion among Adventists. Are the dead conscious or unconscious while they await the resurrection? Who will rise: both the righteous and the wicked, or only the righteous? Will there be eternal punishment or final annihilation for the wicked? What is the nature of immortality? Does the cleansing of the sanctuary in Daniel 8 refer to a sanctuary in heaven or on earth? Is Saturday recognized as the first day or the seventh day of the week? The answers to these questions served to divide many Adventist groups.

ADVENT CHRISTIAN CHURCH Founded: 1860 Membership: 25,702 in 302 churches (1999) The Advent Christian Church grew out of the main group of Adventists who reorganized in 1845 after the Great Disappointment (see ADVENT CHURCHES). Although William Miller was not directly involved in the founding of this church, his sermons and teachings on the return of Christ formed the basis of Adventist Christian theological, biblical, and organizational thought. The doctrine of conditional immortality, or life only in Jesus Christ, preached by George Storrs (1796–1879) and Charles F. Hudson (1795–1881) also influenced Adventist Christians. Dissatisfied with the widespread doctrine of the immortality of the human soul, dating back to the Greek philosophers Socrates and Plato, they asserted that only the redeemed receive eternal life. Similar to Seventh-day Adventists, the Adventist Christian Church teaches that the dead are in an unconscious state awaiting resurrection. When Christ returns, everyone will rise up and face the final judgment. The righteous will receive immortality, but the wicked will suffer eternal annihilation instead of eternal torment. After the final judgment and destruction of the wicked, Christ will restore the earth and make it the eternal home of the righteous.

In relation to these teachings, the position of the Christian Adventist Church is very similar to that of the Seventh-day Adventists; but they reject the prophecies of Ellen Harmon White (see Seventh-day Adventists). Instead, they hold the Bible to be the only authoritative source of teaching and place great emphasis on the literal fulfillment of apocalyptic prophecies. The denomination does not have a formal creed, but rather a statement of principles that was adopted by the General Conference in 1900 and revised in 1934, 1964, and 1972. Two sacraments are observed: baptism (adult by immersion) and the Lord's Supper. Worship takes place on the first day of the week, not on Saturday. The first Advent Christian general conference in 1860 was immediately followed by the founding of publishing houses, missionary societies, and Aurora University. In 1964, Advent Christian Church merged with the Life and Advent Union, a three-church, 300-member Adventist group organized by John T. Walsh in 1848. The Church is congregational in nature and is grouped into five regional districts in the United States. United States and Canada, affiliated with the General Adventist Christian Conference of America. The General Conference meets every three years and maintains denominational offices in Charlotte, North Carolina, which oversee work in missions, city ministries, church growth, Christian education, publishing, administration, women's ministries, and public affairs. . The denomination also has representation in Japan, Mexico, India, Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Honduras, the Philippines, and Malaysia.

BRANCH DAVIDIANS Founded: 20th century Membership: Statistics not available Largely unknown prior to 1993, the Branch Davidians became world famous for their fifty-one day confrontation with federal authorities. Relatively unimportant in the current realm of American Christianity, the Branch Davidians remain of historical and social interest. The events of April 19, 1993, which ended in the deaths of more than eighty members, including children, are one of the most tragic and spectacular episodes in American religious history. Members who lived on the mountain. Carmel Center, a complex near Waco, Texas, succeeded its self-proclaimed messiah, David Koresh (1959–1993). Koresh led the opposition against government officials whom he saw as the armies of the Antichrist starting the final apocalyptic battle. It is generally accepted that it was Koresh himself who started the fire that claimed the lives of almost all of the Davidians still living there. This radical sectarian group is a subgroup of an offshoot of the Adventist movement. They trace a lineage back to the 1930s when Victor T. Houteff, a member of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Los Angeles, published his new and, he said, divinely inspired message in a book, The Shepherd's Rod. Houteff discovered that his

The prophecy was not acceptable to the Seventh-day Adventist leadership, and in 1935 he led his followers to central Texas. The group believed that the 144,000 redeemed mentioned in the Biblical book of Revelation would be temporarily reunited while directing the establishment of the Davidic kingdom. Living in Texas under theocratic rule, they awaited the second coming of Christ, who would take over the leadership of the Kingdom of David on earth. Houteff and his group broke completely with Seventh-day Adventists in 1942, and Houteff called his group Davidic Seventh-day Adventists. In the decades that followed, various power struggles and disappointments over failed prophecies led to further divisions among the Davidians. Houteff died in 1955; and eventually the group became known in Waco as the Branch Davidian, apparently due to a leader's statement that members should "come from [the Pastor's] dead branch to a living branch." David Koresh assumed leadership of the Waco Group in 1986 and the community became increasingly isolated and defensive. His sermons and radio broadcasts from him were filled with images of the apocalypse from the book of Revelation. He linked the events of the 20th century with the prophecies of the apocalypse and exhorted his followers to prepare for the coming cataclysm that would destroy and cleanse the earth as part of the Last Judgment. Influenced by the "survival" literature that spread during the Cold War era and fueled militia movements, Koresh and his followers began stockpiling food and weapons as they prepared to fight for the "Lamb of God." (Koresh) to fight. Reports about the acquisition of a large arsenal of weapons and the sexual abuse of children aroused the interest of the United States Attorney General. Four Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms officers were killed and more than twenty injured while attempting a reckless raid on the Branch Davidian compound. After a long siege, during which Koresh proclaimed messianic rule from him, the complex caught fire. Details of the disaster continue to be investigated and debated. The anniversary of the April 19 fire has become an important date for a variety of anti-government extremist groups unrelated to the Davidians. He was involved in the terrorist attack on a government building in Oklahoma City that killed more than two hundred people, including dozens of children at a day care center. There are two other Davidic Adventist groups, one near Exeter, Missouri and the other near Salem, South Carolina. They are also part of Houteff's legacy and his vision of restoring a King David-like theocracy in anticipation of Christ's return. There is no reliable information available about the members of these groups or the remnants who still believe in Koresh's messianic status.


Founded: 1921, with roots in the 1840s Membership: 5,308 in 92 churches (1999) This church is the result of several independent local groups of similar beliefs, some of which existed in the 19th century; others date the beginning of the arrival of British immigrants to that country around 1847. These various groups shared the general Adventist theology popularized by William Miller and others in England and the United States in the early 19th century (see ADVENTIST CHURCHES). Some of these bodies were already organized under the name of Church of Christ in Christ Jesus. Others also carried the name Abrahamic Faith Church of God for many years. In 1888 a national organization was formed in Philadelphia. They met again in 1889; However, due to strong beliefs in the rights and authority of the assembly, the national body ceased to function until 1921, when the current General Conference was established in Waterloo, Iowa. The current name of the company is General Conference of the Church. of God, Morrow, Georgia. Members of the General Conference of the Church of God accept the Bible as the definitive and literal standard of faith. From an Adventist perspective, the church places a strong emphasis on the millennial second coming of Christ. It states that when Christ returns, he will establish a literal kingdom of God on earth, originating in the holy city of Jerusalem, where Christ will reign as the Messianic King. From then on, the kingdom will extend to all the peoples of the earth. Unlike most Christian churches, the Church of God is Aryan in orientation and teaches the absolute unity of God. Arianism teaches that Christ is the Son of God, who did not exist before the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem; Rather than being a person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit is God's power and influence on earth until Christ returns. The church also promotes the belief in the restoration of Israel as a kingdom at the time of restoration. Like many other Adventist groups, the General Conference of the Church of God denies the immortality of the soul. The dead sleep until the resurrection, when all people will be judged. The righteous will then receive their reward on earth, but the wicked will be completely destroyed in a second death. Membership is conditioned on acceptance of the doctrinal faith, repentance of sins, and baptism (for the remission of sins) by immersion. Due to the congregational nature of Church government, General Conference exists primarily as a vehicle for mutual collaboration and the development of annual projects and efforts. Delegates from each church meet annually to establish denominational plans and policies and to elect officers to serve on a board of directors. The work of the General Conference is carried out under the direction of the Board of Directors, which meets as needed throughout the year. The General Conference supports Atlanta Bible College to train pastors, a publishing department to produce literature and curriculum for the church; and a church development and outreach department that promotes youth ministry, Sunday school activities, mission, and evangelism in preparation for Christ's return to earth. The magazine of the Church El Heraldo de la Restitución is published

bimonthly. Mission stations are located in India, Mexico, the Philippines, Great Britain, and Peru.

CHURCH OF GOD (Seventh Day) Founded: 1863 Membership: approximately 11,000 in 185 churches (1999) The Church of God (Seventh Day) grew out of the Adventist movement that developed in the first half of the 19th century (see ADVENTIST CHURCHES). As the largest Seventh-day Adventist church, the founders of the Church of God believed that Christians should keep the Sabbath as defined in the Ten Commandments; however, this body rejected the idea that Ellen Harmon White's visions were divinely inspired (see Seventh-day Adventists). In 1858, under the leadership of Gilbert Cranmer of Michigan, he parted ways with other Sabbathkeeping Adventists who supported White's views. A similar group of anti-white Sabbatarians, organized in Iowa in 1860, joined the Michigan branch in 1863; The movement later spread to Missouri and Nebraska. Various denominational designations were used in its early history, including the Church of Christ and the Church of Jesus Christ. The current name was chosen in 1884, and the words "Seventh Day" were added in 1923. In 1888, the united body of the Church of God established its headquarters in Stanberry, Missouri. In 1933, partly due to differing views on politics and administration, the church split into two groups. One kept its headquarters at Stanberry; the other headquarters in Salem, West Virginia. A merger attempt in 1949 led to a realignment of membership and the move of Stanberry's headquarters to Denver, Colorado the following year. The Salem organization has retained its administrative offices and uses "7th Day" instead of "Seventh Day" in its name. The Salem body claims to have more than 1,000 members in seven churches and views the Stanberry-Denver group's move to form a new body as inappropriate. Like Adventist groups in general, the Church of God promotes the imminent, personal, and visible return of Jesus Christ, who will establish the kingdom of God on earth. The dead await the general resurrection in a state of unconsciousness (asleep in death). When Christ returns, the dead will rise to be judged; the righteous will be given life and will dwell in a restored earthly paradise while the wicked will be extinguished in fire. Two ordinances (or sacraments) are observed, adult baptism by immersion and the Lord's Supper with foot washing. Membership requires a profession of faith in Christ, belief in the teachings of the church, consent to communion and baptism.

The beliefs of the Salem and Stanberry-Denver groups vary slightly. The Salem body embraces an idea of ​​apostolic succession and emphasizes "biblical organization," meaning that the numbers 7, 12, and 70 have special significance in church organization. They also teach that the physical church of God (7th day) is the "true church". The Denver corporation disagrees with similar positions. Doctrine in the Denver body is discussed and established by councils of ministers; Policy is determined by the general membership in the session. In 1987 an attempted merger with the General Council of Churches of God (Seventh Day) in Meridian, Idaho failed. The Denver corporation claims membership in a wide area between Michigan and Texas and on the Pacific coast. Worldwide membership is estimated at over 60,000. The Denver-based national organization supports Spring Vale Academy, a boarding school in Michigan, and Summit School of Theology in Denver.

Seventh-day Adventist Founded: 1845; 1,863 members: 861,860 in 4,421 congregations (1999) The largest Adventist church today is the Seventh-day Adventist Church. It arose after the Great Disappointment, the failure of the Millerite prediction that Christ would return on October 22, 1844 ( see ADVENTIST CHURCHES). The Seventh Day group came from one of the smaller Adventist groups that advocated a radical reinterpretation of William Miller's prophecies. They concluded that a significant event did take place in October 1844, but not exactly in the way Miller had predicted. It was not an earthly event that took place on that prophesied day, but an event in heaven itself. Christ's ministry in heaven moved from the holy place to the most holy place. As these Adventists explored the meaning of this transfer to the Holy of Holies, which they understood to be the third angel's message (Revelation 14), the group focused on the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus, trying to show the interrelationship of the Law. of the Old Testament and the Gospel of the New Testament. Believers, they taught, must keep the Ten Commandments literally and faithfully, including the fourth commandment to honor the seventh day as a Sabbath. As early as 1844, a small group of Adventists near Washington, New Hampshire, began keeping the Seventh-day Sabbath. A pamphlet written by Joseph Bates in 1846 gave the subject wide publicity and aroused great interest. A short time later, Bates, along with James White, Ellen Harmon (later Mrs. James White), Hiram Edson, Frederick Wheeler, and S.W. Rhodes, through periodicals, began to advocate the Seventh-day Sabbath, along with the upcoming Sabbath season of Advent. Keeping the Sabbath should be a way of anticipating the coming of the Lord; hence the name Seventh-day Adventist. Or

The growth of the group around these leaders was slow at first, due to the general ridicule Adventists were held in after the Great Disappointment. However, by 1855, this group was prosperous and strong enough in numbers to establish its headquarters in Battle Creek, Michigan, with a publisher, the Seventh-day Adventist Publication Association. In 1860 the name Seventh-day Adventist was officially adopted. Day, and in 1903 the headquarters moved to its present location in Washington, D.C. relocated Ellen Harmon White (1827–1915) was a key figure in this Adventist revival. When she was a teenager, she began to see visions and receive messages from heaven. It was her visions that doctrinally and structurally shaped the new Seventh-day Adventist Church. White's followers believed that she had gained an understanding of the workings of heaven, where the apocalyptic battle was fought before it took place on earth, and that he comprehended the secret teachings of typology, according to which heavenly events are reflected in the affairs of the heavenly earth. She and her husband were also instrumental in connecting the doctrine of the Second Advent with the new health theories promoted by figures such as vegetarian John Harvey Kellogg (1852–1943). They see the human body as the temple of the Holy Spirit; Therefore, they strictly refrain from the consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco and drugs. They uphold sound principles of healthy living through diet, exercise, and a philanthropic perspective. Medically, they generally adhere to homeopathic and osteopathic principles and avoid the use of drugs in therapy. Doctrinally, Seventh-day Adventists are now considered evangelical conservatives who uphold the authoritative nature of God's revelation through the inspired writings of the entire Bible. The Church believes that the great principles of God's law are embodied in the Ten Commandments and exemplified in the life of Jesus Christ. They proclaim belief in the transcendent, personal, and communicative God revealed in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, each equally and uniquely divine, personal, and eternal. The gift of prophecy illustrated by Ellen G. White continues in the church. Seventh-day Adventists also believe in creation by divine decree and acknowledge the fall of humanity through Adam's sin. Unlike most Christian churches, however, they teach that humans are mortal by nature but can achieve immortality through divine grace and redemption effected through the atoning work of Jesus Christ. According to Adventist teaching, the dead await resurrection in an unconscious state until the entire person (body, spirit, and soul) is resurrected on Judgment Day, when Christ will personally return. The righteous will then receive immortality while the wicked will be destroyed by fire. The visible return of Christ will take place at an unknown time, but it is imminent. When Christ returns, a new earth will be created from the ruins of the old, and this will be the final resting place of the redeemed. In addition to the observance of the Sabbath as a day of rest and worship, characteristic practices include the baptism of

Adults through immersion and the practice of foot washing in preparation for Holy Communion. Seventh-day Adventists are particularly notable for their long tradition of promoting religious liberty and the complete separation of church and state, which has sometimes led to conflicts of conscience, such as conscription or saluting the American flag. . Its evangelization, promotion, education and health activities have been very successful. They see themselves as a movement established to fulfill Bible prophecy, prepare humanity for the Second Coming, and revitalize and restore the forgotten teachings of the Reformation and Apostolic Church. Seventh-day Adventists operate more than fifty publishing houses around the world, four of them in the United States and Canada. The Church's message is carried around the world in more than 680 languages ​​and dialects, with publications in almost 200 languages. Inherent in this message of salvation and preparation for Christ's return is a message of physical health and personal responsibility that has reached far beyond the confines of the Church. The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is known for its work with victims of natural and man-made disasters. The Church maintains approximately 600 medical facilities, 900 colleges and high schools, and 4,500 elementary schools in the United States and abroad. There are approximately 1,500 weekly radio and television programs reaching almost every country, and approximately 900,000 students are enrolled in distance Bible schools. All support of the church service consists of tithing. In addition to their tithe, Seventh-day Adventists give generously for missions, local church expenses, and other church efforts. One of the few Protestant churches that is a worldwide communion, the overall governing body of the church is the General Conference Executive Committee, elected by delegates from various church groups at five-year meetings. Smaller government units operate under this General Conference. The North American Department is one of eleven departments that administer the affairs of the church on different continents. It is made up of nine Conference Unions, which form the divisional organizations, which in turn comprise fifty-eight local conferences or missions, the smallest administrative unit. Each entity has a high degree of autonomy under a highly representative form of government. Local churches elect lay elders, deacons, and other officers; The local conference office oversees all local pastoral and evangelistic work and pays all pastors and other staff in their area from a central fund. Because Seventh-day Adventists practice adult (age of responsibility) baptism, not a single infant or child is registered among their worldwide membership, which now exceeds nine million people in more than 42,000 congregations.

BAHÁ'I Founded: 1863 (arrived in US in 1912) Membership: 142,245 registered in 1,150 congregations (2000) Bahá'i is one of the few religions to have emerged in modern times. However, like many other religious communities, it has its roots in the ancient traditions of Western monotheism, dating back to the Biblical patriarch Abraham. Commonly known as a sect of Islam, Baha'is insist that their religion is a religion in its own right, embracing the truths of all the world's major religions, both Eastern and Western. According to Bahá'í teachings, the reason for much of the violence around the world is that each revelation of the Divine was regarded as the only revelation of the Divine. People take the universal revelation of the Creator as a special message for themselves and then force other people to abandon their religious beliefs. For Bahá'ís, the major religions are all manifestations of the Divine, pointing to a greater revelation to come. According to Bahá'í teachings there were nine Great Prophets (9 is a sacred number for Bahá'ís): Abraham, Krishna, Moses, Zoroaster, Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, the Báb and Bahá'u'llah. They were all prophets of the one God, and their insights helped bring mankind closer to God. It was the messengers of God who educated humanity in progressive revelation. Each one was divine because they perfectly represented the will of God, but each one was also human and mortal. However, as can be seen from the list, the Bahá'í has ​​a Middle Eastern perspective, actually an Iranian/Persian perspective. With the exception of Krishna and Buddha, all of the listed prophets or their followers were active in Iran, the last two in the 19th century. The Bahá'í Faith arose with the teachings of Mirza Ali Muhammad (1819-1850), called "the Bab" (Arabic for "gate" or "door"), who suffered persecution and was martyred in 1850. The Bab emphasized a messianic theme in Islamic thought; that the Madhi (or "Messiah") would soon appear, reform Islam, and restore the Islamic Empire to the former glory it enjoyed in the days of the Caliphs. It was a message of hope to thousands of Iran's underprivileged, but Bab's sermons threatened the Persian authorities, who feared that the prophecies about the madhi could spark a revolution. Thus, the Báb was arrested, tortured, and executed. Up to 20,000 of his followers, known as the Babi, were also killed during this persecution. As so often in the history of religious persecution, the Prophet's death did not interrupt his message. One of the Báb's followers was a nobleman, Mirza Husayn-'Ali (1817–1892), long admired for his philanthropy and selflessness. While he was imprisoned in Tehran in 1852, he gradually received revelations. When he was released, he preached and wrote about his visions. Exiled from Persia, he traveled to Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

Rich. Exiled from there, he went to Palestine. His followers called him Bahá'u'lláh, which means "the glory of God." In 1863, Bahá'u'lláh publicly proclaimed that he was the one of whom the Báb had prophesied, the Messenger sent from God with a new revelation for the age to come. His words were intended to prepare a new world order. Beginning in September 1867, Bahá'u'lláh began to appeal to world leaders such as Queen Victoria, Napoleon III, Pope Pius IX. and Alexander II of Russia to inform them about the upcoming new world order and urge them to help them in their next stage of human development. He demanded that the nations of the world disarm. Instead of seeking war, they should seek justice for all the people of the world. Largely ignored during his lifetime, Bahá'u'lláh's writings were preserved by his followers. They point out that when he received divine revelations, his writing style in Arabic differed dramatically from when he wrote normally. The revealed Scriptures are revered by his followers, the Bahá'ís, just as Muslims revere the Qur'an of Muhammad. When Bahá'u'lláh died in 1892, his remains were interred in a garden room adjacent to the mansion in Haifa, where he lived under house arrest for two and a half decades. Known as the Bahji, this site is now a place of pilgrimage for Baha'is. Bahá'u'lláh's message was carried throughout the world by his eldest son, Abbas Effendi (1844-1921), later known as Abdul-Bahá, who spent some forty years in captivity before being released in 1908. at the time of the Young Turk. revolution he toured Egypt, Europe and the United States. In 1912, in Wilmette, Illinois, he laid the cornerstone for the first Bahá'í house of worship in the West. The headquarters of the National Spiritual Assembly, the governing body of the United States, is nearby. The Wilmette Temple is a unique structure that emphasizes the number 9, the Bahá'í symbol of unity: nine concrete pillars, nine piers and nine arches; it is located in a park with nine sides, nine avenues, nine portals and nine fountains. In 1953 the building was dedicated to the unity of God, the unity of the prophets and the unity of humanity. Worship services are held regularly and are not limited to weekly programs. In 1958 a Bahá'í retirement home was built in Wilmette. The main purpose of the Bahá'í Faith is to unite the world in a single religion and a single social order; Therefore, the fundamental principle of it is the unity and wholeness of humanity. Among other dominant principles are the independent search for truth, the essential harmony of science and religion, recognition of the divine foundation of all religions, universal compulsory education, equality for all men and women, a spiritual solution to the economic problems for a universal auxiliary language, universal peace based on a world federation of nations, eliminating all prejudice and recognizing the essential unity of humanity. Unlike many new religious movements, the Bahá'ís emphasize the importance of secular education and equality between women and men. the oppression of

Women throughout the world, Bahá'u'lláh explained, are the cause of much of the world's suffering and he made the education of women a fundamental doctrine. In fact, Bahá'ís hold that if a family can afford to send only one child to school, that child should be a daughter, since without education the daughter will have fewer opportunities. However, when it comes to family life, Baha'is are quite traditional and conservative. Women are supposed to be the primary caregivers, but men are supposed to help raise their families. Sex should only take place within the confines of marriage, and divorce is discouraged. Bahá'ís are also instructed to obey the government, avoid alcohol and narcotics except for medical purposes, and use prayer and fasting as a means of building up the soul. Bahá'ís condemn idleness, exalt all work done in a spirit of service, and prohibit slavery and other forms of oppression. Interestingly, Bahá'ís also condemn religious practices common to other religious groups, such as asceticism and monasticism. Every man and woman is expected to live in a happy and productive family and strive for peace and harmony. Bahá'ís have no clergy or prescribed rituals, believing that any seeker can act in accordance with truth and Spirit without the help of the Church. Teachers and unpaid pioneers support students. Wedding and funeral services are easy and flexible. Gatherings range from devotional and prayer services to public lectures, study classes and discussion groups for quizzers to gatherings for the Bahá'í community, conventions and summer and winter schools and institutes. The permanent schools are in Maine, California, and Michigan, and the permanent institutes are in Arizona and South Carolina. Events within the communities are scheduled by a special calendar of nineteen months of nineteen days each, with the New Year on the vernal equinox. The Bahá'í day begins and ends at sunset. The culmination of Bahá'í community life is the Nineteen Day Festival, which is open to adults and children and serves to unite the local community. The festival takes place every nineteen days; It works like a Saturday and contains three central elements: spiritual devotion, administrative consultation and communion. Other than that, the party details include local cultural norms for food and celebration. However, food is not the central aspect of the festival; rather, they are the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. The community can also read and study other scriptures. The coordination and direction of international activities is now entrusted to the Bahá'í Universal House of Justice, a nine-member body elected for five-year terms, based at the World Center in Haifa, Israel. In addition to administrative and judicial functions, this body legislates on matters not expressly disclosed in the Bahá'í Scriptures. Another institution, the Centro Internacional de Ensino, works through advisory councils attached to each continent. Local groups are organized as Spiritual Assemblies overseen by a nine-member National Spiritual Assembly. It is not surprising that the Bahá'ís considered the establishment of the United Nations as an important step in the establishment of universal peace and justice.

Although prohibited from aggressively seeking converts, Bahá'ís enthusiastically teach their religion to others as part of efforts to create a universal society. Since 1963, the number of followers of the religion has increased significantly throughout the world. Although still a small movement in the United States, the Bahá'í Movement numbers five million believers worldwide living in approximately 230 countries, making it one of the most geographically diverse religions in history. There are about 20,000 local assemblies and 165 national assemblies. Within this global community are people of all races, nationalities, and creeds, including ex-Muslims, Hindus, Christians, and Jews. In addition to the one in Illinois, there are central Bahá'í temples in Frankfurt; Sydney; Kampala, Uganda; City of Panama; Delhi; and Apia, Western Samoa. The Bahá'i Faith's writings have been translated into more than 800 languages.

ANAPTISTS Baptists make up one of the largest and most diverse groups of Christians in the United States. Technically, there are no Baptist denominations because Baptists are very denominational in politics: each local church is independent of the others. However, Baptist churches often group into larger associations for fellowship purposes. National conventions were established to carry out educational and missionary work and to administer pension plans. For the purposes of this manual, these national conventions are considered denominations. Most state and regional conventions meet annually with delegates from all Baptist churches in a given area. These conventions receive reports, make recommendations, and help increase budgets for national missions; but they have no authority to enforce their decisions. Baptists have insisted on freedom of thought and expression in the pulpit and in the pews. They also insisted on the absolute autonomy of the local church; Each church organizes its own service and tests and baptizes its own members. There is no age requirement for membership, but the candidate is usually old enough to understand and accept the teachings of Christ. Candidates are admitted by local churches and ordained on the recommendation of a group of sister churches. teaching and politics. Despite their emphasis on independence and individualism, Baptists are bound by an incredibly strong "sandrope" in allegiance to certain tenets and doctrines, usually based on each individual's competence in matters of faith. Although they differ on some minor details, Baptists generally agree on the following beliefs: the inspiration and reliability of the Bible as the only rule of life; the lordship of Jesus Christ; the inherent freedom of man to approach God by himself; salvation by faith through grace and contact with the Holy Spirit; two ordinances (rather than sacraments), the Lord's Supper, and believers' baptism by immersion; the independence of the local church; the church as a group of born again believers who are baptized by a creed; infant baptism as unbiblical and impracticable; total separation of church and state; Life after death; the unity of humanity; the royal law of God; the need for redemption from sin; and the final triumph of the kingdom of God. These general teachings were never written into an official Baptist creed for all churches, but were incorporated into two main creeds. Baptist congregations in London drew up a Philadelphia Confession in 1689, which was expanded in 1742 by the Philadelphia Conference. The New Hampshire State Baptist Convention drew up another confession in 1832. The Philadelphia Confession is strongly Calvinistic, the New Hampshire Confession, Hampshire, only moderately. .

Baptists in the United States. The Baptist movement in the United States grew out of English Puritanism in the early 17th century. Convinced that Puritanism needed further reform, the separatists began to teach that only self-proclaimed believers were eligible for church membership. That is, the church is actually made up entirely of born-again people. Fleeing persecution under James I, some of the English separatists settled in Holland, where they met Mennonites (see MENONITE CHURCHES). Many Mennonite tenets were consistent with their own beliefs, including the belief that the Scriptures are the sole authority for belief and practice, that church and state must be completely and forever separated, and that church discipline must be done strictly comply. and personal matters. It was not long before the church of John Smyth (c. 1570-1612) accepted another fundamental Mennonite principle and adopted the practice of "believer's baptism," that is, the baptism of only adults who make professions of faith. Smyth changed his name and his followers' names in 1609. However, when he tried to convert his people to Mennonites, he was rejected by his own community. They would be Baptists but not Mennonites because that was a threat to their British heritage. Smyth's people eventually returned across the Channel and established a Baptist church in London. The first churches were General Baptist Churches, which means they believed in a general atonement for all people. Over time, a Particular Baptist Church arose that adhered to the doctrine of predestination associated with the teachings of John Calvin (1509-64). Britain's first Private Baptist Church dates from 1638. Roger Williams (ca. 1603–1683) came to the United States in 1631 and was soon the first major advocate of freedom of belief and conscience in North America. Williams was not a Baptist but a Separatist minister when he arrived. Williams preached dangerous new views against the authority of Puritan magistrates and organized a Baptist church in Providence, Rhode Island. John Clarke (1609–1676) founded another Baptist church in Newport at about the same time. Many scholars date the Providence Church to 1639 and the Newport Church to 1641. The Baptist movement grew rapidly during the First Great Awakening (a revival of religious interest) in the 1740s, but a dispute soon arose among Baptists over the question of emotion. The Old Lights or Regulars were suspicious of revivals, while the New Lights insisted on a rebirth experience as a condition of membership in their churches. Despite internal disagreements, Baptists continued to fight for religious freedom in the new country and played a significant role in the adoption of the First Amendment. Many Baptists believe that the Baptist church has been around since the days of John the Baptist. Of particular interest in this context are the Landmark Baptists. The name originated with the writings of James Madison Pendleton (1811-1891) and James Robinson Graves (1820-1893) in Kentucky and Tennessee in the second half of the 19th century. The four characteristic principles of

The milestones are as follows: (1) The Church is always local and visible. Although members of Protestant churches can be saved, they are not members of true churches. (2) The commission was given to the Church; Consequently, all matters dealt with in it must be administered under the authority of the Church. Ministers of other denominations are not accepted in Landmark Baptist pulpits. (3) Baptism, to be valid, must be performed by the authority of a New Testament (Baptist) church. Baptisms performed by another authority will not be accepted. (4) There is a direct historical lineage of Baptist churches from New Testament times. Baptist churches have existed in practice, if not in name, for centuries. These principles are embraced primarily by the churches of the American Baptist Association, although approximately one and a half million members of various Baptist churches espouse Landmark's position and doctrine, with the greatest concentration in the South and Southwest. More than fifteen Bible Institutes and Seminaries are supported by these churches. Baptist ministers were particularly effective in converting African Americans to pre-emancipation Christianity. The vast majority of blacks in the days before the Civil War were Baptists or Methodists. In 1793 there were 73,471 Baptists in the United States, a quarter of whom were black. When the Battle of Bull Run was fought in 1861, there were 200,000 black members of the Southern Methodist Episcopal Church and 150,000 black Baptists. The slaves used to sit in the white galleries of the churches and identified themselves with the faith of their masters. White preachers, sometimes assisted by black helpers, went from one plantation to another, holding services with more or less regularity. Occasionally a black minister would be dismissed to devote himself fully to religious work among blacks, and these ministers wielded great influence. The first black Baptist church was planted in 1773 at Silver Bluff, across the Savannah River near Augusta, Georgia. Other congregations followed in 1776 at Petersburg, Virginia; Richmond, Virginia, 1780; Williamsburg, Virginia, 1785; Savannah, Georgia, 1785; and Lexington, Kentucky, 1790. The 1831 slave rebellion led by Nat Turner (ca. 1800-1831) appears to have been fueled by Christian rhetoric of liberty and divine justice. Whites were so scared that laws were passed in some parts of the South forbidding blacks from converting to Christianity or building chapels. In almost all places, the owners supervised the meetings of the slaves to prevent riots. However, the slaves continued to hold their own meetings, hidden from the eyes and sounds of the masters in the "invisible institution." After the Civil War, numerous black Baptist congregations sprang up and organized their own conventions. With the support of the Freedman's Aid Society and various Baptist organizations, almost a million black Baptists worshiped in their own churches by 1880. Baptists were strongly evangelical in their theology and were involved in foreign missions from the beginning. English Baptist William Carey (1761–1834) went to India in 1793 and became a pioneer of the modern mission. In 1814, Baptists in the United States organized their own General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States of America for foreign missions. This meeting, representing a national Baptist congregation, marked the first true

Awareness. Eventually, other organizations that closely linked them followed: a general Baptist convention; a general trading company later called the American Baptist Publication Society; various missionary societies at home and abroad; an educational society; and the Baptist Youth Union. These organizations were of national importance. Their unit was disrupted first by a feeling that local mission agencies within the corps had failed to evangelize the Southern Territory, and then by disputes over slavery. The great divide occurred in 1845 when southerners formed their own Southern Baptist Convention. From this time there were conventions from both the north and the south. The Baptist Joint Committee on Public Affairs, which is supported by American Baptist Churches in the United States, chapters of the Southern Baptist Convention, and a number of other bodies, is headquartered in Washington, D.C. This body serves primarily to spread Baptist beliefs on public morality and to uphold the principle of the separation of church and state. Founded in 1905, the Baptist World Federation now has more than 40 million Baptists in 170 member organizations. The alliance meets every five years to discuss common issues and problems and is purely a consultative body. The headquarters are in McLean, Virginia.

ALLIANCE OF BAPTIST CHURCHES Established: 1987 Membership: approximately 64,000 in 130 churches (1999) The Alliance of Baptists is a confederation of Baptist churches, primarily in the South, that broke away from the Southern Baptist Convention during the Conservative-Moderate conflict in the 1990s has. 1980 Alliance churches emphasize historic Baptist principles of individual and congregational autonomy, particularly with regard to biblical interpretation and mission. Alliance churches encourage the use of modern methods of Bible study, theological education, and free inquiry into the history of Christianity. Most importantly, the alliance is committed to social and economic justice and equity. Women are encouraged to seek ordination and take leadership roles in the Alliance and communities. The Alliance's leadership consists of three elected officers, serving no more than two years, and a forty-member board of directors. The alliance's annual meeting takes place each spring and reviews all decisions of the council. There are nine standing committees that oversee areas such as women in ministry and interfaith dialogue.

AMERICAN BAPTIST ASSOCIATION Founded: 1905 Members: Approximately 275,000 in 1,760 congregations (1998)

The group was organized as the General Baptist Conference in 1905 and took its present name in 1924. Members believe that the commission from Christ (Matthew 28:18-20) was given solely to a local church, and they believe that the local church is the only entity authorized to administer ordinances (baptism and communion) and that the church is an independent and autonomous church. body responsible only before Christ. Because of their belief that no universal church or ecclesiastical authority is superior to a local congregation, members of the American Baptist Association maintain that convention-organized Baptists are not faithful to biblical missionary methods. By claiming that their own way is the true New Testament way, they are keeping themselves apart from all other religious groups. They strongly protest against the tendency of many Baptist groups to identify with Protestantism, believing that their faith existed before the Protestant Reformation and that, in fact, it has ongoing discipleship from Christ and the apostles (see BAPTIST CHURCHES). The doctrine of association is strictly fundamentalist and embraces the verbal inspiration of the Bible, the triune God, the virgin birth and deity of Christ, the suffering and death of Christ as Vicar, and the bodily resurrection of Christ and all humanity. saints of him The Second Coming of Jesus, physical and personal, will be the culminating event of the Gospel Age and will precede the millennium. There is eternal punishment for the wicked; Salvation is by grace alone, through faith, not by law or works. There must be absolute separation of church and state and absolute freedom of religion. Members condemn abortion on demand, homosexuality and premarital sex as contrary to Biblical teachings. Local church leadership and the annual conference meeting are ecclesiastical in character. Missionary work takes place at the city, state, interstate, and international levels, with the program originating in the local church; and the missionaries are supported by partner churches. The educational work is carried on through Sunday schools, five seminaries, three colleges, and twenty-seven Bible institutes. The greatest strength of this group is in the south, southeast, southwest, and west, but much new work has been started in the east and north in recent years. An extensive publishing program includes fourteen monthly and biweekly magazines, Sunday school literature designed to cover the entire Bible over a ten-year period, and youth literature and vacation Bible schools. Annual federal and state youth camps as well as pastors and missionaries conferences are held at the regional and national levels.

AMERICAN BAPTIST CHURCHES in the USA Founded: 1814 or 1845 Membership: 1,454,388 in 5,775 congregations (1999)

This corporation has undergone several name changes over the decades. It has its origins in May 1814 when representatives of various Baptist conferences and churches met in Philadelphia to organize the General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States of America for Foreign Missions. This body quickly became known as the Triennial Convention and was the first national Baptist organization in the United States. The American Baptist Publication Society and the American Baptist Home Mission Society were founded in 1824 and 1832, respectively. By 1841, sectional and theological differences over the issue of slavery began to undermine the unity of the Board of Foreign Missions. In 1845, a year after the last meeting of the Triennial Convention, the northern and southern groups met and reorganized separately as two foreign missionary societies. Women from Northern churches started their own native and foreign missionary societies in the 1870s. Separate requests for funds in support of these competing societies created confusion and discontent, eventually leading to the formation of the Northern Baptist Convention. in 1907. This convention was actually a corporation with limited powers to do religious work, receive and spend money, and affiliate with other corporations. The convention was reorganized in 1950 and changed its name to the American Baptist Convention. In 1955, the two women's missionary societies were administratively merged with their counterparts, the older foreign and domestic missionary societies. In 1950 he was elected the first Secretary General. In 1972, the convention took its third and current name and was reorganized to strengthen representation and more fully integrate the national program bodies into the larger organization. A larger general body (200 members) made up of constituency representatives and general representatives forms the decision-making body. A general council of executive directors and staff from national program committees, regional executive directors, and other American Baptist organizations serves to coordinate the corporate affairs of the denomination under the direction of the general secretary. The denomination operates twenty children's homes and special ministries, seventy-seven nursing homes and parishes, twenty-seven hospitals and nursing homes, nine theological seminaries, and sixteen colleges and universities. Judson Press is its publishing arm. The Board of National Ministries has staff in 36 states. This council supports the Bacone College for Native Americans in Oklahoma and does extensive work among African Americans, Native Americans, and Asians in the United States. The Council for International Ministries currently supports missionaries in six countries in Asia (Hong Kong, India, Japan, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand), two countries in Africa (South Africa and Zaire), and seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bolivia). . , Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Haiti, Mexico and Nicaragua).

In matters of faith, American Baptist churches adhere to the typical Baptist teachings outlined above. In the past, they have taken positions on controversial issues such as abolition, temperance, racial and social justice, and women's ordination. They are traditionally a denomination with diversity of race, ethnicity, culture, class and theology. The ordinances of baptism and the sacrament are considered supplements rather than necessities for salvation. In general, Baptists represented in American Baptist churches in the United States are less conservative in thought and theology than those in the Southern Baptist Convention. American Baptists are represented in the US National Council of Churches of Christ and the World Council of Churches; Southern Baptists are not represented in either. American Baptists indicated unity with General Baptists, Southern Baptists, National Baptist Convention, Seventh-day Baptists, Disciples of Christ, Church of the Brethren, and Alliance Baptists, and welcomed Baptists free to full communion.

GENERAL BAPTIST CONFERENCE Charter: 1852 Membership: 142,871 in 880 churches (1999) The history of the General Baptist Conference began in 1852 on Rock Island, Illinois. Gustaf Palmquist, a middle-aged teacher and lay preacher, had arrived from Sweden the previous year to become the spiritual leader of a group of Swedish immigrants influenced by the pietist movement within the Swedish (Lutheran) state church. In Galesburg, Illinois, he came into contact with Baptists and was baptized and ordained as a Baptist minister early in 1852. Visiting the Swedes on Rock Island, Palmquist won his first converts to the Baptist faith, baptizing three in the Mississippi River. on August 18, 1852. There were 65 churches when the national conference of the Swedish Baptist General Conference of America was organized. in 1879. For several decades, the American Baptist Home Mission Society and the American Baptist Publication Society of the American (then Northern) Baptist Convention supported new work among the Swedish immigrants, but gradually the church became self-supporting. In 1871 a theological seminary was founded in Chicago, and the first denominational newspaper was published that same year. From 1888 to 1944, foreign missionary activities were directed by the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. The Swedish Conference established its own Board of Foreign Missions in 1944 and today has more than 135 regular and 55 short-term missionaries in India, Japan, the Philippines, Ethiopia, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, and France. After World War I, with its nationalist conflicts intensifying, the transition from Swedish-speaking to English-speaking cults accelerated enormously and

it was virtually completed in three decades. In 1945, Swedish was dropped from the conference name. With the removal of the language barrier, the growth of the conference was rapid and far-reaching. While their greatest strength is in the North, Central, and Pacific Northwest regions of the United States, local missionaries work in all of the northern and some southern states. Less than half of the pastors are of Swedish descent and a large number of churches have very few members of that descent. The association owns and controls Bethel College and Seminary in St. Paul, Minnesota, a four-year college and three-year theological school with 2,300 students; The seminary also has a campus in San Diego, California. Also affiliated with the conference are three children's homes, seven homes for the aged, and The Standard, the official denominational body issued by the Board of Supervisors. Harvest Publications offers Bibles, books, and materials for Sunday School. Basically, the Church's doctrine is theologically conservative, with full acceptance of God's Word, and adheres to standard Baptist dogma. It is a strong fellowship of churches that insists on the core beliefs of conservative Christianity but respects individual differences in small matters.

COMUNHÃO BATISTA COOPERATIVA Founded: 1991 Members: Statistics not available; 1,800 Churches (2000) Like many Baptist groups, Cooperativa Batista Fellowship (CBF) cannot be called a denomination. It is a vibrant and newly formed community of Baptist churches, primarily in the South. The CBF was formed during years of struggle within the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) between conservatives and moderates (see SOUTHERN BAPTIST CONVENTION). Some of the moderates disapproved of the conservatives' tactics, believing that the convention itself was in danger of violating historic Baptist claims to individual liberty. In 1991 the new CBF was formed as an alternative body to the SBC, although the municipalities are free to merge. Cooperative Baptist Fellowship's mission focuses on service rather than theology, as reflected in its mission statement adopted in July 2000: “We are a community of Baptist Christians and churches who share a passion for and are committed to missionary commission of Jesus Christ, Baptist Principles of faith and practice. Our mission is to minister to Baptists and churches as they discover and fulfill their God-given mission.” With an annual budget of almost $17 million, the CBF focuses its work on global missions for ethnolinguistic groups around the world, serving little or nothing. no contact at all with the Christian Embassy, ​​and with ministries among the urban poor and other marginalized groups.

people in the inner cities of the United States. It also promotes the preservation of historic Baptist values ​​such as the autonomy of the local church, the priesthood of all believers, and freedom of religion. CBF works with a dozen theological schools and seminaries and has helped start new theological schools at historic Baptist universities in the South.

GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF GENERAL BAPTIST CHURCHES Founded: 1870 Membership: 67,314 in 719 churches (1998) The General Association of General Baptist Churches claims its name and origin from John Smyth (c. 1570-1612) and Thomas Helwys (c. 1550-c. 1616) and the group of Baptists organized in England and Holland in 1611 (see ANAPTIST CHURCHES). Roger Williams (c. 1603-1683) is considered the first minister of the American colonies. General Baptists in the colonies along the Atlantic coast were initially suppressed by the influence of Calvinism (General Baptists had always been Arminian), but their work was reopened in 1823 by Benoni Stinson (c. 1798–c. 1870). with the founding of Liberty. Baptist Church in what is now Evansville, Indiana. They spread to Illinois and Kentucky, and in 1870 a general association was formed. Since then, the group has grown steadily; Today it is strong throughout the Midwest. The creed of the General Baptists is similar to that of the Free Will Baptists: Christ died for all; The failure of salvation lies entirely with the individual; humanity is corrupted and fallen and unable to save itself; Regeneration is necessary for salvation; Salvation comes by repentance and faith in Christ; Christians who persevere to the end will be saved; the wicked are eternally punished; and the dead, both the just and the unjust, will be raised in judgment. The Lord's Supper and believers' baptism by immersion are the only authorized ordinances and are to be open to all believers. Some General Baptist churches practice foot washing. The church's policies are similar to those found in most Baptist groups. Community area churches are organized into local conferences, which in turn are organized into a general conference. Both local and general associations are empowered representative and consultative bodies. A distinctive feature of the General Baptist Church is the use of a chancel in which ordained members of local conferences are grouped; examine candidates for office and diaconate. Pastors and deacons are accountable to this presbytery, which exists only at the local level. The Church maintains a liberal arts college with a theology department in the city of Oakland, Indiana. A publisher, Stinson Press, operates in Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and publishes the monthly General Baptist Messenger.

along with Sunday school literature. Overseas missions are supported in Guam, Saipan, Jamaica, Honduras, and the Philippines, and several states have active domestic missions.

GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF REGULAR BAPTIST CHURCHES Established: 1932 Membership: 92,129 in 1,398 churches Twenty-two Baptist churches of the American Baptist Convention left this organization in May 1932 to form the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches. They protested against what they saw as the modernist tendencies and teachings of the convention, the denial of the historic Baptist principle of independence and autonomy of the local church, unequal representation at convention meetings, and control of missionary work through the convention evaluation. and home. Every Baptist congregation that attends General Conference is required to withdraw any fellowship and collaboration from any convention or group that accepts modernists or modernists into its ranks. Double communion or association is not allowed. Participation in evangelical union campaigns or Thanksgiving services, or membership in local spiritual organizations in which modernists are involved or present is considered unbiblical. Mission work is carried out by six recognized Baptist organizations that are completely independent of the convention and consider themselves to be Orthodox. Only nine schools are approved; these are also protected against any deviation from accepted practice or teaching. The association is fundamentally fundamentalist in orientation and subscribes to the New Hampshire Creed (1832) with a millennial interpretation of the last article of that creed. It defends the infallibility of the Bible, the Trinity, the personality of Satan as the author of all evil, humanity as God's creation and humanity born in sin. The teachings deal with the virgin birth, the deity of Jesus, and faith in Christ as the way of salvation by grace. The saved are in eternal happiness; the lost are doomed to endless punishment. Civil government is by divine appointment. There are only two recognized ordinances: baptism by immersion and the sacrament. Church leadership is strictly congregational. Member churches have the privilege of sending six voting messengers to an annual meeting. A board of eighteen members is elected, nine each year, for two-year terms. The Council makes recommendations to the Association for the development of its work and implements all the actions and policies of the Association. The powers of the council depend entirely on the will and direction of the association. Regular Baptist Press publishes The Baptist Bulletin, a monthly magazine.

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FREE WILL BATISTAS Established: 1935, with roots in colonial times. Membership: 216,711 in 2,476 churches (1999). The Southern Lineage, or Palmer Movement, began in 1727 when Paul Palmer organized a church in Chowan, North Carolina. The Northern Line or Randall Movement began with a church founded in 1780 by Benjamin Randall in New Durham, New Hampshire. Both groups taught the doctrines of free grace, free salvation, and free will. There were gestures to unite the northern and southern groups until the outbreak of the Civil War. The Northern body expanded more rapidly to the West and Southwest, and in 1910 this lineage of Free Will Baptists merged with the Northern Baptist denomination, taking with it 857 of its 1,100 churches, all its denominations, and various colleges. In 1916, representatives of the remnant churches of the Randall movement organized the General Cooperative Association of Free Will Baptists. By 1921, the southern churches had organized into new conferences and conferences and finally into a general conference. The split lasted until November 5, 1935, when the two groups combined to form the National Association of Free Baptists in Nashville, Tennessee. The Church doctrinally maintains that Christ gave himself as a ransom for all, not just for the elect; that God is calling all people to repentance; and whoever wants to can be saved. Baptism is by immersion. As one of the few Baptist groups to practice open communion, Free Will Baptists also practice foot washing. The government is strictly congregational. There are two Bible colleges and two liberal arts colleges. The largest fortress of the church is in the south.

NATIONAL BAPTIST CONVENTION OF AMERICA, INC. Founded: 1895 Membership: Approximately 3,500,000 in 2,500 congregations (1987) "National Baptist" has been the name for some aspects of organized black Baptist life since at least 1886. By 1876, every southern state except Florida had a congregation state missionary, but smaller bodies had existed in the Midwest since the 1830s; organized missionary efforts date from the same period in the north. The first black Baptist group, the Providence Baptist Association of Ohio, was formed in 1836, and the first attempt at national organization occurred in 1880.

with the founding of the Baptist Foreign Missions Convention in Montgomery, Alabama. In 1886 the American National Baptist Convention was organized in St. Louis, and in 1893 the National Baptist Educational Convention was organized in the District of Columbia. The three conventions merged in Atlanta in 1895 to form the National Baptist Convention of America. For the next twenty years, a single national Baptist organization functioned through a variety of activities, the publication of Sunday School materials being an important one. Sponsored foreign missionary enterprises, particularly in African and Caribbean countries; and he founded some colleges and supported others, some of which were the result of devotion to the education of the emancipated on the part of Northern Baptists (see ANAPAPIST CHURCHES) and other churches. In 1915 there was a division over the acceptance of a letter and the ownership of a publishing house. The group that rejected the letter continued to function as the National Baptist Convention of America. The group that accepted the charter became known as National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc. The former is often referred to as "the unincorporated" (although it was founded in 1988) and the latter as "the incorporated," but both have their beginnings in the Baptist Convention of Foreign Missions. The National Baptist Convention of America, Inc. has its greatest strength in Mississippi, Texas, and Louisiana, with large numbers of members also in Florida and California. It holds an annual meeting and directors are elected each year. There is no central national headquarters, but Nashville, Tennessee, is the home of the publisher. Publishing remains a high priority for the Church.

NATIONAL BAPTIST CONVENTION, USA, INC. Founded: 1895 Membership: Statistics not available The largest group of black Baptists in the United States shared a common history with the Denomination of America during the early years of the two groups (see NATIONAL BAPTIST CONVENTION OF AMERICA, Inc.). Its formal origins date back to 1895, with many roots and antecedents stretching back to the 1840s. Until the denomination's publication control disagreements in 1915, a single national Baptist organization existed. With the creation of the "America" ​​Convention, the Board of Foreign Missions became the "USA." Body Surgery Center. The organization of the United States of America is widespread. In 1990 it opened its world headquarters in Nashville, Tennessee, where part of the publishing industry has been established since the 1890s and where the Sunday School Board is still located. Nashville is also home to a seminary that has functioned (along with Southern Baptists) since 1924. This convention meets annually, and its

Officers are elected annually. These officers and a fifteen-member board conduct the business of the convention. If editorial control was the most obvious fact in the body of "America," then presidential influence was "US." most visible feature of the body. This was especially true during the tenure of Joseph H. Jackson (1953-1982). A powerful and effective leader, Jackson promoted the theory and practice of racial glorification in the tradition of Booker T. Washington (1856-1915). "From protest to production" was Jackson's motto. He led the body to avoid large-scale political and social entanglements. These policies primarily placed this group outside of the 1954-1972 civil rights movement, in which many black Baptist ministers and lay leaders worked for racial justice. As a result, another national Baptist schism arose, resulting in the National Progressive Baptist Convention in 1961 (see NATIONAL PROGRESSIVE BAPTIST CONVENTION, INC.). However, since then, this previously less publicly involved body has changed its practice and is actively involved in civil rights issues and voter registration drives. This denomination was also active in missionary, educational, and publishing ministries. It has recently established a ministerial pension plan. He has shown a particularly high level of commitment in supporting colleges and seminaries, including the Morehouse School of Religion in Atlanta, Georgia and Virginia Seminary in Lynchburg. Educational institutions are generally maintained by Baptist churches and individuals rather than being formally affiliated with the convention. The Corps supports mission stations in the Bahamas, Jamaica, Panama, and Africa.

NATIONAL BAPTIST MISSIONARY CONVENTION OF AMERICA Established: 1988 Membership: est. 2,500,000 (1992) The recent origin of this body of black Baptists (which came into existence in 1988) accurately points to the extent of the historical heritage it shares with the two oldest national Baptist organizations. Once again, the issue of control over denominational publishers created a rift. This new fellowship opposed private ownership and the convention leadership of the Sunday School Press and Convention. He sought an organizational plan whereby the convention itself would control congressional and editorial activities. The Convention meets annually in September and the Boards hold two additional meetings. The National Baptist Missionary Convention is headquartered in Los Angeles, California, and its greatest strength lies in the people of the Pacific Rim states.

BATIST NATIONAL PRIMITIVE CONVENTION, USA Established: 1907 Membership: Approximately 1,000,000 in 1,530 churches (1995) Blacks in the South generally worshiped alongside whites in their various churches during the years of slavery and the Civil War. This was the case with the forerunners of this group, formerly the Colored Early Baptist Church. Members attended early white Baptist churches until the time of Emancipation, when white worship partners helped them start their own churches, grant fellowship and character charters, ordain deacons and ministers, and assist in other ways. The doctrine and politics are similar to those of the early Baptists (see EARLY BAPTISTS), although the early members were opposed to all forms of church organization. There are local clubs and a national congress organized in 1907. Each congregation is independent and receives and controls its members. Unlike the early Baptists, this group has founded auxiliary societies, conventions, and Sunday schools since the 20th century, despite opposition from some older, more traditional members.

NORTH AMERICAN BAPTIST CONFERENCE Founded: 1865 Membership: 45,738 in 271 congregations (1999) This Baptist Conference originated among German Baptist congregations in North America in the 19th century. German Baptists first settled in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, where Quakers offered the religious freedom they sought. The scattered churches later became the North American Baptist Conference, which organized the first local churches in the 1840s. The idea of ​​the local conference expanded as the number of churches increased and German immigration spread toward West. In 1865, delegates from the Eastern and Western Conferences met at a General Conference in Wilmot, Ontario. A triennial conference is now the main administrative unit. Twenty associations meet annually to elect their own officers and committees and to direct their own work. The triennial conference is made up of clergy and lay representatives from all churches and oversees the work of publishing, education, international missions, and church planting. A General Council acts for the Intersessional Conference. Only a few congregations continue to use the German language in worship.

German Baptists were part of what is now Colgate-Rochester Divinity School in Rochester, New York. In 1935 they formed their own seminary, the North American Baptist Seminary, which moved from Rochester to Sioux Falls, South Dakota in 1949. The conference supports ten nursing homes and church planting efforts in Japan, Brazil, Nigeria, Cameroon, West Africa, Russia, the Philippines, and Mexico. Theologically there is little deviation from the basic Baptist position. In general, North American Baptists adhere to the New Hampshire Confession (1832) and emphasize the authority of Scripture, God's revelation in Christ, regeneration, immersion, separation of church and state, and the government of church.

EARLY BAPTISTS Founded: 1827 Membership: Approximately 72,000 in 1,000 churches (1995) Early Baptists have the reputation of being the most strict and exclusive of all Baptist churches. They certainly upheld the Baptist belief in local autonomy to an unusual extent. In fact, they have never organized as a denomination and have no governing body of any kind other than the local church. The movement grew out of a 19th century protest against cash-based missions and charitable societies introduced in the early 19th century. Of particular interest was the evaluation of churches in support of missions, missionaries, and Sunday schools. Early Baptists held that in the days of the apostles there were no missionary societies and none were governed by the Scriptures; so there shouldn't be any now. Leading this protest against further action, the Kehukee Association of North Carolina in 1827 condemned all money-based and centralized societies as contrary to the teachings of Christ. Within a decade, several other Baptist organizations across the country made similar statements and withdrew from other Baptist churches. The various societies adopted the practice of reprinting their articles of faith, bylaws, and rules of procedure in their annual reports. These declarations were examined by the other federations, and once approved, there was fraternization and exchange of messengers and letters. Any unauthorized membership has been revoked from the fellowship. Calvinism runs strongly through Early Baptist doctrine. Members generally believe that with the fall of Adam all mankind became sinful; Human nature is utterly depraved, and men cannot recover God's favor by their own strength; God chose God's own people in Christ over the world

began, and none of these saints will be lost forever; Christ will come a second time to raise the dead, to judge all peoples, to punish the wicked forever, and to reward the just forever; and the Old and New Testaments are literally and inerrantly inspired. The two ordinances authorized by the Bible are the Lord's Supper and believers' baptism by immersion. All church societies are human inventions and fellowship is denied to them. Pastors must be called by God, submit to the laying on of hands, and be in fellowship with the local church to which they belong in order to administer both ordinances. Theological training of pastors is not required. While there is no opposition to such training, the position is that the Lord may call a learned person, but a lack of training should not deter a person from ministry. Some, but not all, early Baptists still practice foot washing. Despite their opposition to money-based missionary societies, they are strongly evangelical and their ministers travel extensively and minister for free unless listeners wish to lend a hand in supporting them. The movement is concentrated in the south.

NATIONAL PROGRESSIVE BAPTIST CONVENTION, INC. Founded: 1961 Membership: Approximately 2,500,000 in 2,000 churches (1995) This group of Baptists was formed in 1961 after several years of tension and controversy over the break with the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. That year, Martin Luther King Jr. (1929–68) appointed Gardner C. Taylor to chair the convention against former President Joseph Jackson, who had opposed King's protest movement. The National Baptist Convention, USA, pursued a policy of disengagement from the civil rights movement and other struggles for social justice during the revolutionary years that followed the 1954 Supreme Court decision to desegregate public facilities . Following the defeat of Taylor, who called for unity within the National Baptist Convention, USA, the Rev. L. Venchael Booth, Chairman of the Volunteer Committee to Form a New National Baptist Convention, called a meeting at the his church at Cincinnati, Ohio, a. One of the central goals of the new convention was to support “freedom fighters” in the civil rights movement. The first president was Dr. T. M. Chambers, who served until 1967, when Gardner Taylor was elected to that position. After the convention was formed, it became a focal point of the civil rights movement, and many leaders of that movement held important positions in the new convention. In addition to King and Gardner, these included the famous preachers Ralph David Abernathy (1926–90) and Benjamin Mays (1895–1984). Since its inception, the Progressive Corps has taken a very active role in civil rights, social justice, and political causes. He also spoke out strongly against apartheid in South Africa.

The National Progressive Baptists, headquartered in Washington, D.C. They are organized into four national regions. Eight divisions include Women, Laity, Young Adults, Young Adults, Receptionists, Youth, Facilitators, and Christian Education. From the beginning the Congress had an ecumenical spirit and sought to work in harmony with other Christian denominations.

REFORMED or SOVEREIGN GRACE BAPTISTS Established: 1954 Membership: Statistics not available This collection of Baptists represents a theological movement rather than a denominational structure; Therefore, it is impossible to provide accurate statistics about members. However, it is estimated that there are between 300 and 400 churches in the United States and Canada that adhere strictly to "five-point Calvinism", as exemplified by the London Confession of 1689 and the Philadelphia Confession of 1742. Faith in the principles of the total depravity of man, the unconditional election, the final and limited atonement, the irresistible (or invincible) call, and the tenacity of all true saints. "Reformed" in his name refers to the teachings of the Reformation, specifically Calvinism. They largely agree with the teachings of the Synod of Dort (1618-19), along with the Anabaptist teaching of a supposed church. They were heavily influenced by the popular 19th century theologian and preacher Charles Spurgeon (1834-1892). A series of special meetings led by Rolfe P. Barnard (1904–1969) led to the first Sovereign Grace Bible Conference, held in Ashland, Kentucky, in 1954. The conference produced this communion of churches. These Baptists differ from most other Baptists in their emphasis on revival theology, but they also differ from other Calvinistic Baptists who may deny the need to preach to all or maintain a church-centered concept (see ANABAPTIST CHURCHES). The churches involved are completely autonomous and independently support an unspecified number of missionaries and the publication of Church literature. Membership is concentrated primarily in the Northeastern and Southern states.

SEPARATE BAPTISTS IN CHRIST (General Conference) Established: Approximately 1,700 Members: Approximately 10,000 in 101 congregations (2001) The first Separate Baptists came to the United States from England in 1695. They were particularly active during the preaching of George Whitefield (1714-1770) in the early 18th century and in the conflict between Old Light and Old Light.

the sects of the New Light. In 1787, the Virginia Regular and Separate Baptist Churches merged to form the Virginia United Baptist Churches of Christ. There were more mergers and gestures of unity in New England and other states, but some separate Baptist churches maintained their independence. Independent Baptists do not claim to be Protestants: "We never protest against what we believe to be the faith once passed down to the saints." All creeds and creeds are rejected by Separate Baptists; however, there is an annual statement of faith from the various associations and the General Conference. These include statements of belief in the inerrancy of the Scriptures and the Trinity; regeneration, justification, and sanctification by faith in Christ; and the appearance of Christ on Judgment Day to deal with the just and the unjust. The choice, rejection and condemnation of Calvinism are rejected. Unlike most other Baptists, these churches observe three ordinances (sacraments): believers' baptism by immersion only, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing. The General Association of Separate Baptists has a missions program called Separate Baptist Missions, Inc. This program supports various mission areas and efforts both in the United States and abroad.

SEVENTH-DAY BAPTIST GENERAL CONFERENCE Founded: 1802, roots 1671 Members: about 4,800 in 80 churches (1995) Distinguished from other Baptist groups in their observance of the seventh day (Saturday) as Saturday, Seventh-day Baptists first emerged as a separate religious body in North America in the colonial era. Stephen and Ann Mumford came from England in 1664 and made a covenant with those leaving the John Clarke Baptist Church (1609–1676) to keep the Sabbath. In 1671 they officially founded a community. Other churches were planted in Philadelphia and New Jersey. From these three centers, Seventh-day Baptists continued their westward migration. Like other Baptists, Seventh-day Baptists believe in salvation through faith in Christ; believer's baptism by immersion; insistence on intellectual and civil liberties; and the right of every person to interpret the Bible under God. They only keep baptism and the Lord's Supper as ordinances and practice the open Lord's Supper. Local churches enjoy complete independence, although all support the united goodwill of the denominational budget. For fellowship and service, churches are organized into eight regional associations that generally serve

Local Church Councils on the ordination of deacons and candidates for office. The highest governing body is the General Conference, which meets annually and delegates provisional responsibilities to its President, Executive Secretary and General Council. The conference encourages denominational giving channeled through missions, publications, and educational agencies. He also accredits ministers who have been certified to him by ordination committees and local churches. The denomination participates in the ecumenical movement at the local, regional, national and global levels. Seventh-day Baptist conferences are held in Australia, Brazil, England, Germany, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Malawi, Mexico, Myanmar, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, the Philippines, Poland, and South Africa and the United States. and Canada.

SOUTHERN BAPTIST CONVENTION Established: 1845 Membership: 15,851,756 in 41,099 churches (1999) The largest non-Catholic denomination in the United States is the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), whose membership, as its name suggests, is largest in the South . In recent years, however, the SBC has expanded to all regions of the country. The annual convention is increasingly being held in cities outside of the southern homeland, in part because many members live in those areas and are entitled to geographic access to national convention meetings. The name "Southern" thus became a misnomer. The SBC was formed in the years before the Civil War, and in many ways the split between Northern and Southern Baptists was just a harbinger of American tragedy. While there was significant disagreement between Baptists in the two regions on the issue of centralized organization (the South preferred one organization to control the various cooperative ministries), it was the issue of slavery that led directly to the formation of a Convention. Separate Southern Baptist. Specifically, the question was whether slave owners could be accepted as foreign missionaries. The Boston-based missionary corps refused to send slaves to the fields, and in May 1845 the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) was organized to establish missionary corps abroad and at home. Three hundred congregations in eight southern and border states joined the new organization; a harsh struggle for existence was imminent. Along with the rest of the South, the Southern Baptist Churches suffered heavy casualties during the war. Homes, schools, churches, the livelihoods of citizens, in fact the entire fabric of southern society were destroyed, with devastating effects on religious institutions. An anti-missionary movement continued to decimate the ranks of the Baptists. belonging

It declined further when former slaves withdrew to start their own societies and conventions. However, the recovery of the Southern Baptist Convention was impressive. In 1845 there were 351,951 members, 130,000 of whom were black; In 1890 there were 1,235,908 mostly white members. In the late 20th century, African Americans began to return to the Southern Baptist fold. Southern Baptists generally adhere to a more conservative theology than their northern counterparts, but the basic tenets of the faith are the same. The Southern Baptist heritage is definitely Calvinistic; One of the ironies of Baptist history is that the Southern Baptist Convention adheres more firmly to the New Hampshire Creed than American Baptist churches (see AMERICAN BAPTIST CHURCHES). Church politics and government are comparable in the two conventions. Membership and service were generally exchanged in harmony and understanding. In 1997 the convention was reorganized. Twelve denominational agencies work with thirty-nine state conventions and two fellowships in domestic and foreign missions, Sunday schools, educational institutions, and spiritual retreats. The North American Mission Board operates in the United States and its territories, with nearly 5,000 missionaries serving in the field. Works with black Baptist churches; works with immigrants in the South, Native Americans in the West and Southwest, 98 language groups, and the Deaf; and gives loans for the construction of churches. In 1998, SBC churches reported 407,264 baptisms in the United States and an additional 333,034 worldwide. Nearly 1,500 churches were planted in 1998 alone. The International Mission Board supports more than 4,500 missionaries in 127 countries and in 1998 operated 43 hospitals and 295 clinics with 38 doctors, 72 nurses, 9 dentists and 45 other employees. . . Half of the Convention's Cooperative Program allocation goes to missions abroad. The Council has also been active in disaster relief in the Balkans and Central America. More than $10,000,000 was spent on 423 hunger relief projects in 57 countries. LifeWay Christian Resources (formerly the Sunday School Board) is the world's largest publisher of religious materials. It supplies literature to approximately 37,000 SBC communities. SBC maintains six theological seminaries with more than 12,600 students. The rapid growth and expansion beyond the southern region is just one of the major stories of the Southern Baptist Convention in recent years. Another is bias within the body. Since 1978, the President-elect, who has significant appointment powers, has been chosen by the most conservative section of the Convention. Conservatives are now a clear majority and have exercised control of the seminars, agencies and councils that make up the entire Convention. Conservatives characterize his position as a commitment to biblical teaching.

Infallibility. Others in the Convention take a position on what might be called the inerrancy of biblical authority and a commitment to the principle of independence. In the broader realm of contemporary American Christianity, both groups sit on the conservative side on most issues. In the late 1990s, a controversy arose over the issue of women's ordination. At the SBC annual conference in June 2000, delegates voted to restrict pastoral/leadership roles to men. Modifying the Baptist Faith and Message, first formulated in the 1920s, the convention declared that "while men and women are gifted and called to the ministry, the office of pastor is restricted to men who are qualified by the Scriptures." The 2000 meeting also reiterated Congress's position on the inerrancy of Scripture, noting that Congress favored the death penalty for murder and treason, and refused to allow outside critics to influence efforts to evangelism. In the early 2000s, a group of Southern Baptists opposed to the "fundamentalist supremacy" of state Baptist churches and conventions met in Atlanta, Georgia, and formed the mainstream Baptist Network. More than 100 representatives from 15 states adopted the "mainstream" label to express their allegiance to what they called traditional Baptist beliefs and practices. Although they avoided any attempt to develop an alternative organization, those present vowed to work to prevent further conservative advances, both theological and political, within the SBC. Another significant development within the Southern Baptist Convention in the 1990s was the passing of a resolution on June 20, 1995 to abandon its racist origins and apologize for the pro-slavery stance of its founders. In its apology to African Americans, the resolution stated that church members should "strongly denounce racism in all its forms as a deplorable sin" and "repent of the racism of which we are guilty, knowingly or not." In 2000, more than 1,900 SBC congregations were predominantly African American.

BROTHERS AND PIETIST CHURCHES An international religious renaissance began in Germany in the late 16th century with the writings of Jakob Philip Spener (1635–1705). Spener condemned the sterile intellectualism, theological partisanship, and general ineffectiveness of the Protestant churches of his day. He called for a new type of reform that would fulfill Luther's reform promise. Luther had reformed the church doctrinally and liturgically; Spener wanted to reform him morally and intellectually. He challenged pastors to find ways to bring the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers to work in the hearts and souls of the people. To do this, he suggested that pastors form small groups of believers to come together to study, pray, and encourage each other. From this idea grew the foundations of modern church life, such as Sunday school, youth fellowship, and women's circle meetings. In addition, Spener urged pastors to put polemics aside and focus on uplifting sermons that can transform people from sinners into workers for God. This "heart religion" spread throughout Protestant Germany and had a lasting influence on the early Methodist movement of John Wesley (1703-1791). When Pietism, as it was called in Germany, came to the United States in the 1740s, it helped fuel the first great awakening. In the 1750s, Philip Otterbein (1726–1813), a German Reformed minister with pietistic leanings, began his career as an evangelist in Pennsylvania and Maryland. His activities led to the founding of the Church of the United Brethren, later called the United Evangelical Brethren (EUB). This body was one of the groups that eventually formed the United Methodist Church in 1968. Although there are a few relatively small denominations in the United States that grew out of German Pietism, Christianity in all its varieties has been influenced by this spiritual movement. Many pietistic bodies use the name "brothers" in various ways. For them, the church is above all a community of brothers and sisters in Christ, united by the Holy Spirit for mutual edification. The inner spiritual life, piety, is cultivated in prayer and the study of the Holy Scriptures and through fellowship with other believers. For most brothers, the local church is central, but they are often linked in tight-knit national communities. In claiming its primary allegiance, the Church understands itself more as a community of people who love God and love one another than as part of a doctrine-formulating organization or body. The Brethren do not emphasize rigid doctrinal norms; rather, the Spirit of God in each person, uniting them in love, takes precedence over them. They usually live a simple and unadorned life. In their first decades in Europe and the United States, most of the Brethren were separatists from the established and popular churches. Although not critical, they were committed to a moral purity that distinguished them both from other Christians and from society at large.

Many Pietist groups took the New Testament literally and strove to put its teachings into practice, even in the smallest details of their daily lives. The center of their religious ritual was the feast of love or agape, the communion service preceded by a foot-washing ceremony. They greeted each other with a kiss of peace, wore simple clothes, covered the heads of women in adoration, anointed their sick with oil to heal and consecrate them, abstained from worldly pleasures, and refused to swear oaths to go to war or join the army. participate in legal proceedings. Those Pietist groups that were not brothers tended to be more inclusive of the secular world. Many of the Brethren's communities stem from the work of Alexander Mack, Sr. (1679–1735) at Schwarzenau, near Wittgenstein, Germany. After his conversion experience, Mack became convinced that those who were born again needed to form separate communities modeled on the early Church's practice of sharing common goods. Exiled from the Palatinate for preaching separatism, Mack gathered a group of fellow refugees and in 1708 took the bold and then illegal step of renaming adult believers. Persecution in Germany eventually led these German Baptists to immigrate to the United States. For years they were known simply as the German Baptist Brothers, but that title has largely disappeared except for the former German Baptist Brothers, also known as "Dunker". The terms "brothers" and "dunker" have caused much confusion. Dunker is a direct derivation of the German tunken, "to plunge or dip", and is identified with the particular method of immersion used by this group of churches, in which the new believer plunges face first three times in the name of the Father. , Son and Holy Spirit.

CHURCH OF THE BRETHERS (Ashland) Established: 1882 Membership: 13,227 in 118 congregations (1999) In 1882, the Church of the Brethren (see CHURCH OF THE BRETHERS) voted to expel a member from Sunday school, missions, paid clergy, church politics and more freedom in dress and worship. Proponents of such changes withdrew and formed the Tunker Church Progressive Convention in Ashland, Ohio. The following year it was officially organized as the Church of the Brethren. Most of the Brethren's churches are still in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Indiana. The Church College and Seminary in Ashland, Ohio, has historically been the center of his ministry. Theologically, the Church of the Brethren tries to strike a balance between the Calvinist and Arminian perspectives of salvation; For General Authorities, however, lifestyle is more important than doctrine. The believing community of faith leads believers on the path suggested in the Sermon on the Mount. still the church

it suffered a split during the fundamentalist-modernist controversy that gripped American Christianity in the 1920s and 1930s. More conservative clergymen founded the Fellowship of Grace Brethren Church (see FELLOWSHIP OF GRACE BRETHREN CHURCHES). The church has three nursing homes, a publishing house, and a missions committee. She cooperates with the Church of the Brethren in relief efforts around the world. He also works with the Mennonites (see MENNITIC CHURCHES) in the field of evangelization.

BRETHERS IN CHRIST CHURCH Constitution: 1778 Membership: 20,010 in 252 congregations (1999) The church arose as a result of a spiritual awakening that took place in Lancaster, Pennsylvania in the 1760s, inspired by the preaching of Philip Otterbein (1726- 1813) ). ; see BROTHERS and PIETIST CHURCHES) and Martin Böhm (1725–1812). The group that met along the Susquehanna River was simply called the River Brothers until the Civil War. The Hermanos del Río, who are primarily of Mennonite descent (see MENONITE CHURCHES), split from the Mennonites over the issue of triple baptismal immersion. The River Brothers were pacifists, and with the outbreak of the Civil War and the introduction of national conscription, it became necessary for the Brothers to gain legal recognition as a religious organization established to protect opponents. A council in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, adopted the name Brethren in Christ Church in 1863, but the group was not legally incorporated until 1904. The Brethren in Christ Church pledges allegiance to the following doctrines: the inspiration of the Scriptures; the self-existent triune God; the divinity and virgin birth of Christ; Christ's death in atonement for our sins and his resurrection from the dead; the Holy Spirit who convicts the sinner, revives the penitent, and empowers the believer; justification as forgiveness of sins committed and sanctification as purification of the heart and empowerment of the Holy Spirit; observance of the ordinances of the house of God; moderation and modesty in dress as taught in the Scriptures; the personal, visible and imminent return of Christ; the resurrection of the dead, with punishment for the unbeliever and reward for the believer; and world evangelism as the highest duty of the church. Although the governance of this Church is largely in the hands of local congregations, there are eight regional conferences and one general conference, which is the final authoritative body. A board has oversight

the General Conference and the general property and financial affairs of the Church. The Church has offices in Grantham, Pennsylvania; its publishing arm, Evangel Publishing House, is based in Nappanee, Indiana. The Church has two educational institutions: Messiah College in Grantham, Pennsylvania and Niagara Christian College in Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada. Missionaries work in Africa, India, Japan, London, Colombia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Cuba and participate in the work of Mennonite Central Committee throughout the world.

CHURCH OF GOD (Anderson, Indiana) Charter: 1881 Membership: 234,311 in 2,353 churches (1998) Although the Anderson, Indiana-based Church of God is not directly associated with the Pietist movement and the Brethren churches, it is strongly influenced by Wesleyan and practitioner of pietistic theology. There are several other organizations called Church of God, most of which are Pentecostal groups, but the Church of God in Anderson, Indiana has a different history and perspective than these groups. Daniel S. Warner (1842–1925) and various associates rejected denominational hierarchies and formal creeds. They preferred to rely solely on the Holy Spirit and the Bible as a means to restore the unity and holiness of church life. His goal was not to found another denomination, but to overcome denominational loyalties through allegiance to Christ. Commonly accepted Church of God doctrines include the divine inspiration of the Scriptures; the forgiveness of sins through the atonement of Christ and the believer's repentance; the experience of holiness; the personal (millennial) return of Christ; the kingdom of God established on earth; resurrection of the dead; and a final judgment in which the just will be rewarded and the wicked punished. Baptism by immersion is seen as a testimony of the believer's new birth into Christ and his acceptance into the family of God. The Lord's Supper reminds the participants of the grace experienced in the life of the believer. As in many Pietist groups, foot washing is practiced in recognition and acceptance of Christians' service to one another and to the world. None of these practices, called ordinances, are considered mandatory conditions of Christian experience or fellowship. The church has a municipal government, with each local church being autonomous. Ministers meet in voluntary state and regional congresses, which are mainly consultative in nature. The General Assembly meets in conjunction with the annual international convention in Anderson. In 1996 and 1997, the Assembly began to reorganize the work of the Church in the United States. The result was the formation of Church of God Ministries, Inc. Church ministries emphasize

outreach, ministry in the church, and ministry to pastors and others. Warner Press serves as the publisher of the Church's curriculum and other materials. There is no formal membership in the Church of God (Anderson), but individuals are considered members by conversion and holiness of life. The largest concentrations of members are in the Midwestern states, the Pacific Rim states, and western Pennsylvania. It supports Anderson University and Divinity School, two other liberal arts colleges, and a Bible school. It carries out works in 84 countries, involving some 446,000 believers.

CHURCH OF THE BROTHERS Foundation: 1708 Members: 138,304 in 1,095 churches (1999) The Church of the Brethren was founded in 1708 in Schwarzenau, Germany (see BROTHERS and PIETIST CHURCHES). Its founders were five men and three women, most of them under thirty, who met at home to study the Bible and pray. The early Brethren were influenced by both Anabaptists and Pietism, and they vowed to be a people shaped by personal faith in Christ, prayer, and study of the Scriptures. They emphasized daily discipleship and service to others. Severe persecution and economic conditions prompted virtually the entire movement to emigrate to North America between 1719 and 1729. Among them was its leader and prime minister, Alexander Mack, Sr. (1679–1735). Commonly known as the German Baptist Brethren, or even Dunkers or Dunkards, the group adopted "Church of the Brethren" as its official name in its bicentennial year of 1908. "Brethren" came to be seen as a New Testament term meaning expresses the kinship and warmth of the first followers of Jesus. Although the Church of the Brethren was not initially a creed, it has strongly upheld the basic tenets of the Free Church or Church of the Faithful tradition. Among the most characteristic practices of the brothers are the baptism of professing believers by three immersions and the anointing of the sick for spiritual and physical health. The Last Supper is celebrated with a washing of feet that symbolizes slavery, a fellowship meal that symbolizes family, and the commemorative Eucharist that symbolizes the condition of the Savior. As one of three historic peace churches, the Brethren, along with Friends (see FRIENDS) and Mennonites (see MENONITE CHURCHES), have long maintained an official witness to peace, often expressed in conscientious objection to military service. During World War II, civilian public health camps were maintained for dissidents doing work in the national interest. During and after the war, many of the programs under continuous

Alternative service policies of Selective Service and Overseas Volunteer Service, a precursor to the Peace Corps, were introduced. Concern for peace also gave rise to a worldwide relief, reconstruction, and welfare program, implemented by the Brethren Service Commission and later by the World Ministries Commission, as loving service to those suffering from war, natural disaster, or social disadvantages. . Since 1948, the Brothers' Voluntary Service has recruited about 5,000 men and women for one- or two-year social services at home and abroad. Working with migrant workers, inner-city dwellers, prisoners, refugees and victims of abuse exemplify the type of activities undertaken. Increasingly, older volunteers are signing up for the program, often after reaching retirement age. Numerous projects initiated by the group have grown into large-scale ecumenical enterprises. These include Heifer Project International, Christian Youth Exchange, Christian Rural Overseas Program (CROP), Sales Exchange for Refugee Rehabilitation Vocation (SERRV; selling crafts to third world farmers), and international volunteering. Other pioneering efforts included agricultural exchanges begun with Poland in the 1950s and China in the 1980s, and ecumenical exchanges with the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1960s. In politics, the brothers combine Congregational and Presbyterian practices, thus the final authority of an annual conference rests with the elected delegates. The General Council of elected and ex officio members is the administrative arm of the Church. Parishes are organized into 23 districts in 36 states, usually with one or more full-time meetings in each district. The largest concentrations of churches are in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. The brothers are affiliated with six accredited liberal arts colleges: Bridgewater College, Virginia; Elizabethtown and Juniata Universities in Pennsylvania; LaVerne University in California; University of Manchester in Indiana; and McPherson College in Kansas. The Church sponsors a graduate school, Bethany Theological Seminary, in Richmond, Indiana. Headquarters are in Elgin, Illinois, home of Brethren Press, which produces the monthly Messenger and various books and educational materials.

CHURCH OF UNITED BRETHERS IN CHRIST Founded: 1800, roots 1767 Members: 24,603 in 253 congregations (2000) This group had its origins in the Pennsylvania Awakening under the leadership of Philip Otterbein (1726-1813) and Martin Boehm (1725-1812) . 1760. Minister in 1800

The brothers officially took the name United Brethren in Christ and elected Otterbein and Boehm as the first bishops. In 1815 they adopted a creed based on a creed written by Otterbein in 1789. Thus they did not spread south, but made the western United States a mission area. In 1841 a constitution was adopted. When the constitution was amended in 1889, some members found the amendments unconstitutional and separate from the main body. The main body of the United Brethren eventually merged with the United Methodists (see METHODS CHURCHES), leaving the name "United Brethren" for the smaller group. The United Brethren believe in the Trinity and the deity, humanity, and atonement of Christ. Adherence to the "biblical life" of all members is required, the consumption of alcoholic beverages and participation in secret societies are prohibited. Baptism and the Lord's Supper are observed as ordinances. Local, annual, and general conferences are held. The highest governing body, the General Conference, meets every four years. It is made up of some seventy delegates from around the world, including ministers, district superintendents (presiding elders), general church officers, bishops, and lay delegates. The church's headquarters are in Huntington, Indiana; Most of the local churches are in Pennsylvania, Ohio, northern Indiana, and Michigan. Both men and women are eligible for the ministry and are ordained only once as elders. Missionary Societies administer evangelism and church outreach in the US and Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Macao, Mexico, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone, and Thailand. Membership numbers over 36,000 worldwide. The church works in harmony with evangelical groups from other denominations. The Church of the United Brethren maintains a college and graduate school of Christian ministry in Huntington, Indiana, with high schools in Sierra Leone.

EVANGELICAL FEDERAL CHURCH Founded: 1885 Members: 96,526 in 636 congregations (1999) The Evangelical Alliance Church is not a congregation of Brethren, but arose out of Pietism in Sweden. Its roots go back to the Protestant Reformation through the biblical instruction of the Lutheran state church in Sweden to the great spiritual awakening of the 19th century. Founded by Swedish immigrants in the Midwest, the Church of the Covenant holds fast to the Reformation claims of Scripture as the Word of God and the only perfect rule of belief, doctrine, and conduct. Traditionally valued historical heritage

Confessions of the Christian Church, especially the Apostles' Creed, but emphasizes the sovereignty of the Word over all interpretations of the Creed. The federal church's evangelical emphasis includes the need for regeneration, the work of the Holy Spirit, and the reality of freedom in Christ. She appreciates the New Testament emphasis on personal faith in Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord and on the church as a community of believers that acknowledges but transcends theological differences. Baptism and Holy Communion are considered divinely ordained sacraments. Although the denomination has traditionally practiced infant baptism, it also recognizes the practice of believer's baptism. The local church is administered by a council chosen by the members; their denominational ordained ministers are called, usually with the assistance and direction of the denominational service department and the conference superintendent. Each of the nine area conferences elects its own superintendent. Ultimate authority rests with an annual meeting made up of clergy and laity elected by the constituent churches. A board of directors elected by the annual meeting implements its resolutions. Covenant Church sponsors churches in the Czech Republic, Colombia, Congo, Ecuador, France, Germany, Japan, Laos, Mexico, Russia, Spain, Taiwan, and Thailand. Educational institutions include North Park University and North Park Theological Seminary in Chicago, Illinois. The Church maintains fourteen nursing communities and nursing homes for more than 4,000 residents in seven states, two hospitals, and fifteen campgrounds and conference centers throughout North America.

EVANGELICAL FREE CHURCH OF AMERICA Founded: 1950 Membership: approximately 260,000 in 1,250 congregations (2000) The beginnings of the Evangelical Free Church are found in a merger of a group of independent congregations and various churches from the former Swedish Ansgarii Synod and the Missionary Synod in Boone , Iowa Year 1884. They formed a community of "free" parishes, which became known as the Swedish Evangelical Free Mission (later changed to the Swedish Evangelical Free Church). In the same year, two Danish-Norwegian groups began to fraternize, one on the east coast and one on the west coast. In 1912 they merged to form the Norwegian-Danish Union of Evangelical Free Churches. In 1950, the Swedish denomination merged with the other Scandinavian entities to form the Evangelical Free Church of today. By mutual agreement, the Brotherhood of 1884 was going to be an organism of autonomous communities. The churches were to elect delegates to an annual conference that would advise the churches but enact national and international legislation.

Ministries of the own denomination. In 1894 a Society of Ministers and Missionaries was formed. Initially, the only requirement for membership in the local church was proof of conversion and commitment to the Christian life. The Evangelical Free Church has a vision of biblical inerrancy, the need for evangelism, and community politics. The local churches are autonomous. In 1950, the merged denominations adopted a twelve-point doctrinal statement that has now been incorporated into the constitutions of most local churches. The Constitution emphasizes loyalty to evangelical beliefs and avoids contention over petty issues. The Church affirms the rational and relational dimensions of the Christian faith and believes that sound Christian doctrine must be combined with a dynamic Christian experience to enable a ministry of love and reconciliation. The Evangelical Free Church maintains administrative offices in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The president works with various boards and leadership teams to direct the various ministries of the faith community. Nearly five hundred missionaries serve stations in more than forty countries around the world. The Church sponsors Trinity International University, which includes Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, whose main campus is in Deerfield, Illinois; other campuses are in Chicago, Illinois; Miami Florida; and Santa Ana, Calif. Trinity Western University in Langley, British Columbia is also affiliated with the Church.

GNACE COMMUNION OF BRETH CHURCHES Established: 1939 Membership: 30,371 in 260 congregations (1997) This congregation was part of the Church of the Brethren (Ashland) which split from the main church of the Brethren in the early 1880s (see CHURCH OF THE BROTHERS [ ASHLAND ] ]). Partly as a result of the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy of the 1920s and 1930s, this church became even more divided. In 1939, the Ashland group and the Grace group parted ways. The Grace group takes a more Calvinist stance on theology; the Ashland group, closer to an Arminian position. In 1969, the Grace group adopted its own creed, which articulated the fundamental beliefs of the church: the primacy of the Bible; the Trinitarian God; the Incarnation of the Divine Son of God, the Lord Jesus Christ; the work of the Holy Spirit; the sinfulness of men; salvation through Christ; the church as composed of believers; the Christian life as a path of justice; the ordinances of baptism and triple communion (including the washing of the feet and the feast of love); the reality of Satan; The second coming; and the future life. The group formed separately in 1987 as the Fellowship of Grace Brethren.

churches The charter, adopted in 1997, reaffirms the fellowship's commitment to the Scriptures as the sole guide and authority in all matters of faith, doctrine, and practice. Grace Brethren churches are geographically grouped into districts that hold annual conferences. The entire Church holds an annual conference, which is usually held in Winona Lake, Indiana, where the group's headquarters are located. This conference, made up of delegates from the fellowship churches, elects a board known as the fellowship council and the general officers of the church. The Church supports American and international missionary and relief efforts and maintains Grace College and Seminary in Winona Lake.

MORAVIAN CHURCH (Unitas Fratrum) Founded: 1457 (arrived in the US in 1735) Membership: 47,134 in 153 congregations (1999) The Moravian Church is one of the few pre-Reformation Protestant churches (the Waldensians are another ). Its roots go back to Johannes Hus (ca. 1372-1415), a Czech reformer who was burned at the stake in 1415 at the Council of Constance. Hus's followers founded two churches, the more conservative Utraquists and the apocalyptic Taborites; The latter were destroyed in battle in 1453. In 1457, a leader named Brother Gregory, dissatisfied with the lifestyle and cult of the Utraquists, organized a small group of like-minded people into a community dedicated to the Sermon on the Mount. ...and to the example of the early church. They called their pacifist community Jednota Bratrska, "the unity of brothers"; sometimes they used the Latin form Unitas Fratrum, which remains the official name of the church. In 1467 the group established an independent episcopate and clergy. Persecution under the Habsburgs after the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) nearly wiped out the church. In 1722, groups of Protestants led by a carpenter, Christian David, began to flee Moravia. At the invitation of Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-60), one of the leading figures of German Pietism, the refugees settled on his property in Saxony. There they built the city of Herrnhut, a highly structured religious community that would become a model for similar communities in the United States. The Count allowed the Moravians to revive the ecclesiastical discipline of their ancestors. Under Zinzendorf's direction, the Moravians undertook an extensive missionary enterprise, beginning with work among the slaves on St. Thomas, an island in the Virgin Islands. Moravian evangelist David Zeisberger (1721–1808) had great success among Native American tribes in the northern United States, but these efforts came to fruition with the massacre of Moravian Indians at Gnaddenhutten, Ohio, in 1777 by an American militia during the Revolutionary War Overturned. .

The Moravians attempted to establish a settlement in Georgia in the 1730s, but the only lasting result of their labor was the conversion of John Wesley (1703-1791) to the "religion of the heart." Permanent work was established in Pennsylvania, particularly in the Lehigh Valley (Bethlehem and Nazareth) and the Piedmont area of ​​North Carolina (Salem). In the 19th century, the Church supported work among German and Scandinavian immigrants in the Upper Midwest. Recent growth in the United States is due in large part to immigration from Central America and the Caribbean, where the Moravians have long had a strong presence. It is sometimes said that the Moravians never developed a unified system of teaching. This may be an exaggeration, but it is certainly true that they do not have a doctrine of their own; The church is largely evangelical and insists on the principle of "essential unity, not essential liberty, and charity in all things." The Scriptures are considered the inspired Word of God and proper guides for faith and practice. The main accents of the teaching are probably the love of God, which is manifested in the redemptive life and death of Jesus, the interior witness of the Holy Spirit, and Christian behavior in everyday affairs. In addition to infant baptism and Holy Communion, the Moravians practice the Feast of Love, a simple community meal. There is only one Moravian Church in the world, but it is divided into twenty government units called provinces. There are three provinces in North America: North (including Canada), South, and Alaska. The supreme administrative body is the state synod. Composed of clergy and laity, it meets every three to four years to direct missionary, educational, and editorial work, and to elect a provincial conference of elders to operate between synodical assemblies. Bishops, elected by provincial and general synods, are the spiritual, not administrative, leaders of the church. Missionary work has always been a priority. Around 800,000 Moravians live throughout the world, more than half of them in Tanzania and South Africa. In addition to nursing homes, religious camps, a publishing house and mission enterprises, the Church also sponsors a mission for Tibetan refugees in northern India and a rehabilitation center for people with disabilities in Ramallah, on the west bank of the Jordan. Always committed to education, the Church established Moravian College and Theological Seminary in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Salem College in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

OLD ORDER OF GERMAN BAPTIST BROTHERS (Old Order Dunkers) Founded: 1881 Membership: 6,050 in 55 congregations (1999)

While the Church of the Brethren abandoned the Church of the Brethren because the latter seemed too conservative in the early 1880s, the Old Order German Baptist Brethren (Old Order Dunkers) left the Church of the Brethren because they did not support the Church of the Brethren. Brothers Church. conservative enough. The dissidents defended the old order and traditions. The crux of his opposition lies in his mistrust of Sunday schools, paid clergy, missions, higher education, and religious societies. The basic objections still apply, but with some modifications. Children are not enrolled in Sunday schools, but are encouraged to attend regular church services and join the Church through baptism at puberty; however, the decision is entirely up to the person. Many congregations have a majority of members between the ages of fifteen and forty. The Church today is not even totally opposed to higher education; Some of the youth attend high school and receive education at colleges or vocational schools. The Church adheres to a literal interpretation of Scripture regarding the Lord's Supper and practices a closed Communion, excluding all but its own members. While he advocates compliance with ordinary state requirements, he rejects cooperation in war. Every member who enters military service falls under the judgment of the Church. In political and secret societies non-cooperation is required; Dress is simple and all distractions that are considered mundane are frowned upon. The group has no employed ministers and enforces total abstinence from alcoholic beverages; Members refuse to take an oath or participate in court proceedings, the sick are anointed with oil, the heads of women in worship are veiled, and no marriage ceremonies are performed for previously divorced persons. There are no missions or educational work. Every year at Pentecost there is an annual conference that resolves matters on which the scriptures are silent. Most of the communities are in Ohio, Indiana, and Pennsylvania.

UNITY OF BROTHERS Founded: 1903, roots in the 1850s Members: 3,218 in 27 congregations (1998) Czech immigrants in Texas began establishing Protestant congregations in the 1850s, which united in 1903 to form the Evangelical Unity of the Bohemian-Moravian Brethren in North America. In reference to the ancestors of Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia, in 1959 the brothers adopted the name "Unit of Brothers" (Latin Unitas Fratrum; Czech Jednota Bratrska), dating from 1457. Conservative in theology and lifestyle, the church shares some characteristics with other bodies of brothers, but it has its own history. A synod meets every two years.

CATHOLIC CHURCHES Christians in many different churches profess, in the words of the Apostles' Creed, "the one holy Catholic Church." "Catholic" in this sense does not necessarily refer to any particular religious institution, but to the idea of ​​the universality of the Church. The Catholic Church is the Church that exists throughout the world and at all times. Obviously, however, religious institutions will have different interpretations of the institutional expression of this catholicity. Included in this section are those agencies that have the strongest adherence to a vision of the church that is universal in time and space. They are churches that have been seen as the institutional expression of the Christian faith in uninterrupted continuity since the time of the apostles. They differ markedly from, for example, restorationist groups (see CHRISTIAN CHURCHES), which see most of Western history as the decline and disappearance of the Church, and therefore attempted to restore the New Testament Church without the use of rituals, creeds and structures. they had developed over time. Most of the bodies discussed in this volume represent variations on Protestantism, but it is important to remember that the majority of the world's Christians remain in the Catholic Church. For most Catholic churches, throughout historical development, the Holy Spirit has continued to work to bring the faith to its richest and fullest expression. In particular, the writings of the Church Fathers (for example, Jerome [c. 345-c. 420] and Augustine [354-430]) teach believers how to understand Scripture and how to live a Christian life. Much of Catholic doctrine, politics, and devotion were established during the Patristic Era (the era of the Church Fathers, late 1st to late 8th century). The millennial history of the Catholic Church is the history of Christianity. There is not space in this volume to present this story in its entirety, but it should be noted that during the first five centuries of Christianity there were numerous arguments about the nature of Christian doctrine and ecclesiastical authority. Gradually, lines of orthodoxy were established through the authority of the creeds, particularly the Nicene Creed and the episcopate (bishops, archbishops, and patriarchs). During this process of development there was no real separation between Eastern and Western Christianity. East and West developed some different liturgical and administrative practices, partly due to the greater sophistication of Byzantine (Eastern) culture. More importantly, Eastern bishops and theologians tended to define the Church in terms of orthodox beliefs and practices, while in the West institutional loyalty came first, especially during the increasing social chaos of the early Middle Ages. The Church in the West gained secular authority and power when it emerged as the only body strong enough to rule after the barbarian attack that began with the sack of Rome in AD 410. Devastated first by Goths, Vandals and Franks, then by Saxons, Danes, Germans and Lombards.

Burgundy, Western Europe, found its only steady hand in the institutional church, which kept the flame of faith burning in its various parishes and the candle of wisdom alive in its monastic schools. Therefore, in the West, the word Catholic was increasingly applied to those loyal to the Bishop of Rome as head of the universal Church. The first mention of the term "catholic" ("universal") comes from Ignatius of Antioch around AD 110-15, but it was Augustine who provided the theological and philosophical framework that gave the papacy its justification and defense. Although there were disputes over the authority of the papacy throughout the Middle Ages, Western Christianity agreed that there should be a single ecclesiastical institution with a single head to serve as Christ's representative in the church. Until at least 1054, the Bishop of Rome and the Bishop of Constantinople served as heads of the Western and Eastern Churches, respectively, with neither claiming absolute authority over the other. When the Fourth Crusade conquered Constantinople instead of Jerusalem in 1204, the break between East and West was complete. However, the Roman Catholic Church was the most important force in Western society for most of the Middle Ages. He preserved and spread Christianity in the days of the barbarian invasion; preservation and dissemination of classical education through monasteries, convents, cathedral schools and universities; stabilized feudal society; sponsored architectural and artistic achievements; and laid the foundation for the Western legal system. Schisms, heresies and divisions began to emerge in the late Middle Ages, but it was the Protestant Reformation initiated by Martin Luther (1483-1546) that divided Western Christianity. Roman Catholic scholars acknowledge that corrupt individuals existed within the Church and that reform was needed. In fact, the Reformation was already underway before the Reformation; Luther was a reformer within the church before it split. Erasmus (1469-1536) and Savonarola (1452-1498) wrote and preached against the corruption and worldliness of certain Roman Catholic and lay leaders, but remained within the Church. Roman Catholic historians and theologians acknowledge that these reformers were right, but the Church maintains that while priests and bishops can err or be corrupt, the true Church cannot err. Thus Luther erred in rebellion; but he did it rebelliously, and the Roman Catholic Church suffered its most fatal schism. In a sense, the Reformation encouraged the Roman Catholic Church to reform and reorganize. In fact, some historians, both Catholic and Protestant, would date the founding of the Roman Catholic Church as a secure and distinct religious body to the great Council of Trent (1545-63), when many Catholic doctrines were first formally defined. and where the current ecclesiastical structure was codified. The Tridentine (or post-conciliar) Church was in many ways a stronger and more effective institution than the

renaissance church. The newly founded Society of Jesus (Jesuits) led the way in reconquering territories lost to Protestantism and, together with the Franciscans, courageously brought Christianity to the newly discovered countries of Eastern and Western Europe. Having reformed the papacy from many of the abuses that had fueled the Reformation, the Church of Trent came to increasingly regard the papacy as the guarantor of Catholic unity and continuity. As the Enlightenment swept Europe in the 18th century and revolutions shook European kingdoms in the 19th century, Catholic bishops and theologians held up the Roman Pope as a symbol of stability, authority, and order in church and society. This led to the declaration of papal infallibility by the First Vatican Council in 1870, a move that inspired several Catholics, calling themselves Old Catholics, to secede from the Roman Catholic Church. Also in the second half of the 19th century, Anglicans in the Oxford Movement, a group based in Oxford in the 1830s and 1840s that sought to restore to the Church of England 17th-century High Church ideals, to emphasize Anglican continuity. with the Church of England. Catholic tradition giving rise to a variety of Anglo-Catholic bodies (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES). The most significant event of the 20th century was the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). Pope John XXIII summoned all the bishops of the Church to the twenty-first ecumenical council, and after John's death, Pope Paul VI. the advice again. The Council approved the use of colloquial language at Mass, allowed for modern methods of Bible study and interpretation, encouraged active participation of the laity in community life, and allowed Catholics to engage in ecumenical and interreligious dialogue. Before Vatican II, Catholics were prohibited from attending World Council of Churches meetings; Catholic observers now attend council meetings, and the church's bishops have begun a theological dialogue with several major Protestant denominations. Since then, the Church has built bridges to the Orthodox Churches (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES) and has even cleared Martin Luther of heresy. In 1968, Pope Paul VI affirmed the official position of the Church against any form of artificial birth control. On the other hand, many theologians, priests and laity who spoke out against the encyclical Humanae Vitae protested; the hierarchies of countries such as France, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, and West Germany interpreted the papal position in light of individual freedom of conscience. The current Pope, John Paul II of Poland, is the first non-Italian Pope since the 1520s, a true internationalist in his itinerary and language skills, he is a staunch traditionalist in doctrine and practice, particularly on issues of family and gender. . When it comes to social and political issues, he qualifies as

progressive. The mix of "liberal" and "conservative" seems to reflect many of the tensions in this global Christian community.

AMERICAN CATHOLIC CHURCH Founded: 1989 Membership: approximately 25,000 in 100 parishes (2000) In response to the conservative response after the Second Vatican Council and papal decisions on birth control, ordination, and theological debate, the American Catholic Church was founded as an “alternative progressive” in 1989. It is a federation of independent churches ministered by duly ordained priests. Church members are committed to the Catholic faith and sacramental theology, and the church emphasizes the importance of prayer, spirituality, community, and love of neighbor and self. The Church affirms that authority resides in the sensus fidelium (the mind of the believer) and that communion is open to all. The rite is modern but is in the tradition of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.

EASTERN RITE/UNITED CATHOLIC CHURCHES Founded: various dates Affiliation: est. 500,000 (2000) Eastern rite churches hold a special place within the Roman Catholic Church. Historically and liturgically, they are closely related to the Eastern Orthodox Churches (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN CHURCHES), but each has chosen to come under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church and preserve its own language, rites, and canon law. Most of these churches, for example, may have married clergy, and have always served the bread and wine of the Eucharist to the laity. There are five main families of United Churches: Alexandrian (Coptic and Ethiopian), Antiochian (Maronite, Syriac, Malankara), Armenian, Chaldean (Chaldean and Malabar), and Byzantine (Hungarian, Yugoslav, Melkite, Ukrainian). The largest Eastern Rite Church is the Ukrainian Catholic Church, founded when Ukrainian subjects of the King of Poland joined Rome in 1596. This church was banned by the Soviet Union after World War II, but has resumed open activities since the collapse of the Ukrainian Church in the USSR. The Maronites in Lebanon established ties with Rome during the Crusades. Each of the Eastern Rite Churches is headed by its own patriarch, who has jurisdiction over bishops, clergy, and members of that rite. All

the Patriarchs are members of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, which governs the Vatican's relations with the Churches of the Eastern Rite.

LIBERAL CATHOLIC CHURCH Founded: 1916 Members: approximately 6,500 in 27 churches (2000) This church originated in Great Britain in 1916 as an offshoot of the Old Catholic Church movement (see OLD CATHOLIC CHURCHES) that began in Holland in the 18th century. Its founding bishops included members of the Theosophical Society (see SPIRITUALIST and THEOSOPHICAL BODIES). The group adopted the name "Liberal Catholic Church" in 1918. The Liberal Catholic Church, which traces its religious orders to an apostolic succession that traces back to the Roman Catholic Church under the rule of Pope Urban VIII (1568-1644), was strives to combine traditional forms of Catholic worship with as much awareness and freedom as possible. of thought She claims to be neither Roman nor Protestant, but Catholic in the broadest sense of the word. In the 1940s and 1950s, a dispute between church authorities in London and some American bishops led to a split between the Liberal Catholic Church International (LCCI) and the Liberal Catholic Church of the United States Province (LCC). The Nicene Creed is generally used in liberal Catholic worship, but there is no obligation to submit to any creed, scripture, or tradition. Members do not seek a common creed, but rather service to humanity through common worship in a common ritual. While the LCC places more emphasis on the regulations of the Theosophical Society, theosophy ("divine wisdom") is emphasized in both bodies, and the worship incorporates many fundamental principles of Eastern mysticism. Fundamental to the thought is a central inspiration of faith in the living Christ based on the promises of Matt. 18:20 and 28:20. These promises are meant to "certify all Christian worship," but the specific channels of Christ's power are found in the seven sacraments of the church: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Absolution, Holy Anointing, Holy Matrimony, and Ordination. As with the old Catholic churches, liberal Catholic priests and bishops are allowed to marry and do not charge fees for administering the sacraments; LCC priests are employed in secular jobs, but LCC churches can offer their priests a salary if they can afford it. Liberal Catholics allow divorced people to remarry and are open to gays and lesbians. However, none of the churches ordain women. The presiding bishop of the LCC churches is based in New York City. LCCI congregations maintain St. Alban's in San Diego, California; the publishing house St. Alban Press is also located in San Diego.


Founded: 1906 (joined US in 1972) Membership: Statistics not available The Mariavites are a unique form of the early Catholic Church (see OLD CATHOLIC CHURCHES). They derive their name from the Latin Mariae vitae imitantur, which means "to imitate the life of Mary, the mother of Christ." This ideal originated in Poland, a strongly Roman Catholic country, in the late 19th century. The Mariavite Order of Fathers and Sisters was founded on August 2, 1893 by Maria Felicia Kozlowska (1862–1921), a Franciscan Third Order, and Jan Kowalski (1871–1942), a diocesan priest. Kozlowska had already started a community of sisters in response to visionary experiences; and Kowalski took over the movement some five years later, adding a community of secular priests. The motto of the order was: "Everything for the greater glory of God and the glory of the Blessed Virgin Mary." From the beginning its members committed themselves to practicing an ascetic-mystical religious life, in accordance with the ancient Rule of Saint Paul. Francis of Assisi. Their goal was to maintain a deep interior spiritual life among themselves and their faithful by being pastors and ministers, not through monastic or contemplative communities. The requirements for candidacy were strict and self-sacrificing, with an ascetic bent. Civil and ecclesiastical opposition shaped the first decades of the Mariavites in Poland. The Roman Catholic Church (see ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH) was skeptical of his mystical claims and rejected his application for recognition as a religious order. In 1906 the group founded an independent church in Rome and in 1909 it became part of the Old Catholic Church in Utrecht, the Netherlands. This church had been independent of Rome since 1871. At the time of Kozlowska's death in 1921, the Mariavite movement had some 50,000 followers. However, the group declined; and the Old Catholics broke communion with the Mariavites in 1924. The latter were perceived as increasingly fanatical, as evidenced by Kowalski's ordination of women to the priesthood. Kowalski was eventually arrested by the Nazis and died in a concentration camp. The Mariavites first arrived in the United States around 1930. During World War II, the churches found it impossible to maintain close contacts with Europe, and by 1972 the church in the United States had become autonomous and self-supporting. Archbishop Robert Zaborowski has led the church since 1974; The headquarters are in Wyandotte, Michigan. On its own, this church has grown rapidly since 1972; Some reports claim that there are as many as 300,000 members. However, it is difficult to obtain information from church officials, and actual membership is uncertain. The faith of the Church is based on the ancient Catholic principles of faith and morals found in the canonical books of Holy Scripture in the Old and New Testaments, and on the first traditions of the universal Church dogmatically defined in the first seven councils. ecumenical. . The seven traditional sacraments and the three creeds (Apostles, Nicaea and Athanasius) are recognized. In the United States, worship is conducted according to the 1570 Tridentine Rite in Latin, English, and Polish.

The Church, which has come to be known as a work of great mercy, is "the propagation of devotion to the Blessed Sacrament and the invocation of the Perpetual Help of Mary as a means of final salvation for a world that is perishing in its sins."

OLD CATHOLIC CHURCHES Founded: 1871 (arrived in the United States in 1914) Member: Statistics not available The Old Catholic Churches in the United States are an outgrowth of the Old Catholic movement centered in the Bishopric of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Conflicts between Dutch Catholics and the papacy date back to the 18th-century Jansenist controversy over grace and determinism, which led to a schism in the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The Dutch schismatic body continued its existence and attracted new adherents in the next century, when Pope Pius IX. (1846-1878) confirmed the declaration of papal infallibility of the First Vatican Council in 1870 (see CATHOLIC CHURCHES). A significant number of Roman Catholic priests from Switzerland, Germany, and Austria also refused to accept the doctrine of papal infallibility and were excommunicated in 1871. Ignatz von Döllinger (1799–1890) chaired several conferences attended by Old Catholics, i.e. , Catholics who attended, unable to accept the new dogma of papal authority, and representatives of the Anglican and Lutheran churches in the mid-1870s. Former Catholic bishops he was ordained by the bishops of Utrecht and eventually entered into communion with the Church Anglican and various Orthodox bodies. In 1889 the Declaration of Utrecht was issued as a doctrinal statement for the Old Catholics. The declaration reaffirms the main lines of Catholic tradition up to about the year 1000. Of particular importance to ancient Catholics are the first seven ecumenical councils (before the East-West split) and most of the medieval liturgy. However, the statement rejected the most recent teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, particularly papal infallibility, the Immaculate Conception of Mary and the mandatory celibacy of the priesthood. The Church holds the view that the five patriarchal sees of the ancient Church remain equal ecclesiastical leaders. The Slavic branch of the Old Catholic Church has its own history (see POLISH NATIONAL CATHOLIC CHURCH OF AMERICA). The Old Catholic movement in the United States first arose with the work of Père Joseph René Vilatte (1854–1929) in Wisconsin, near Green Bay, where several parishes were organized. A former Roman Catholic monk, Augustine de Angelis (William Harding), who founded a community of men devoted to the religious rule of Saint Benedict in Waukegan, Illinois, around the turn of the century, also brought together a group of English-speaking Old Catholics. . century of

Century. The former Catholic episcopate in the United States was established in 1914 when English Archbishop Arnold Harris Matthew (1852–1919) consecrated Bishop de Landas Berghes et de Rache (1873–1920) Prince of the House of Lorraine-Brapan. He was succeeded by Father Carmel Henry Carfora (1878–1958), an Italian Franciscan friar who led the church until his death in 1958. At this time, American Old Catholics divided into various church bodies, not all of which were recognized by the Catholic Church. old catholics. in Europe. Perhaps seventeen bodies in the United States have claimed to be Old Catholic, but the most important bodies to emerge from the Utrecht Movement are the Old Catholic Church of America, the Old Roman Catholic Church of North America, the Old Catholic Church of America, the Old Roman Catholic Church of North America (Archdiocese of New York) and Old Roman Catholic Church (English Rite). Most of the old Catholic churches have fewer than ten parishes in the United States. In the United States, Old Catholics generally represent a more conservative form of Catholicism, despite their initial identification as "liberal". The profound liturgical and devotional changes of the Second Vatican Council prompted some conservative priests to join the Old Catholics to preserve ancient traditions such as praying for the dead. Some conservative churches in the Anglican tradition (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES) may also be assigned to Old Catholic Churches. Most of these bodies use the 1928 edition of the Book of Common Prayer, reject the ordination of women, and emphasize Catholic ritual in worship. Most of these bodies would agree with the statement of intent of the Holy Catholic Church (Anglican Rite): "to continue the faith, order, worship and witness of Western Catholicism as established in the Church of England from about the year AD 200 of the Great Schism, founded by the 'ancient Catholic bishops and physicians', and particularly as defined by the Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church”.

POLISH NATIONAL CATHOLIC CHURCH OF AMERICA Founded: 1897 Membership: Approximately 150,000 in 125 parishes (2000) The Polish National Catholic Church, along with some smaller Slavic national churches in the US that immigrants from Eastern Europe wanted parishes to consider their mother tongue. The Polish Corps was formally organized in Scranton, Pennsylvania on March 14, 1897, in protest of the lack of a Polish bishop and a desire for more control over community affairs. Some Poles, priests and parishioners alike, felt that the policies of Cardinal James Gibbons (1834-1921) gave the Roman Catholic hierarchy too much power over parishioners and allowed "unlawful interference with their right to privacy."

property and paved the way for the political and social exploitation of the Polish people." After the construction of a new church, the congregation of Scranton's Sacred Heart Parish wanted to retain ownership of the property, but their bishop ordered that the deed was turned over to the diocese. Some 250 families began work on a new church, St. Stanislaus, and called a native of Poland, Francis Hodur (1866–1953), to be their priest. The Scranton parish approved a constitution to the new church in 1897, which claimed the right to control all churches built and maintained by Poles and to administer these properties through a committee elected by each parish.This action was not accepted by the authorities in Rome and Hodur was later excommunicated Other Polish congregations followed Scranton's lead and began referring to themselves as "national churches." Together they held their first synod in Scranton in 1904, with 146 clergy and lay delegates representing parishes in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. . Hodur was elected bishop; it was consecrated in 1907 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, by three bishops of the Old Catholic Church. After the first synod, the colloquial language, first Polish and then English, gradually replaced Latin as the liturgical language, although Hodur had certainly begun using a Polish mass as early as 1901. A second synod in Scranton in 1909 officially assumed the name current church. The Polish National Catholic Church accepted the "Confession of Faith" written by Bishop Hodur at a general synod in Chicago in 1914. The creed includes belief in the Trinity; the Holy Spirit as ruler of the world and source of grace; the need for spiritual unity among all Christians; the only body of Christ, the church, apostolic and universal, as teacher, administrator of grace and light for salvation; the equal right of all to life, happiness and perfect growth; equal responsibility of all peoples and nations before God; Immortality; and the future justice and judgment of God. The Church recognizes the same sacraments as the Old Catholic, Orthodox (see ORTHODOX and EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES), and Roman Catholic (see ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH). Two forms of confession are in common use: a private confession for children and youth, and a general confession for adults only. A general synod is the highest legislative authority. It meets every four years, except in special sessions as required, and is composed of active bishops, clergy, and lay delegates from all parishes. The administration and destiny of this church, according to its constitution, falls to the First Bishop. A Supreme Council meets annually or by convocation and is composed of all active bishops plus six clergy and fourteen lay delegates approved by the General Synod. Likewise, the authority of the diocese rests with a diocesan bishop and a synod, which meets every four years. There are five dioceses: Buffalo-Pittsburgh, Canadian, Central, Eastern, and Western. Each parish is governed by an elected Board of Directors. Polish and English are used in the educational programs for religious services and parochial schools, run mainly by

pastors Clerics have been allowed to marry since 1921, but only with the knowledge and permission of the bishops. The Polish National Union, a fraternity and insurance organization founded by Bishop Hodur in 1908, is established as a supplement to community life. There is a theological seminary in Scranton, Pennsylvania and a retirement home, Spojnia Manor, in Waymart, Pennsylvania. Missionary work began in Poland in 1919 and ended in the 1950s with the formation of a separate denomination in Poland, the Polish Catholic Church. The Polish National Church maintains relations with the Old Catholics in Europe and has entered into a dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church. Sacramental intercommunion with the Episcopal Church was formalized in 1946 but ended in 1978 over the issue of women's ordination in the Protestant Church.

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH Founded: about AD 60 (arrived in the US in the 16th century) Membership: 62,391,484 in 19,627 congregations (2000) History in the United States. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest single religious body in the United States and has the longest continuous institutional existence. It is difficult to give an exact date of the origin of this church, since there is disagreement about the specificity of the church. There is evidence that Christianity arrived in the city of Rome as early as AD 50, but the structure of papal supremacy that characterized the Roman Catholic Church took centuries to develop. Officially, the Roman Catholic Church traces its beginnings to the time when Christ chose the Apostle Peter to be the keeper of the keys of heaven and earth and the head of the apostles (Matthew 16:18-19). According to Catholic teaching, Peter, who was martyred under Nero in Rome, was the first Bishop of Rome and thus the first Pope. During the second, third, and fourth centuries, his claim to the theological primacy of Rome was reinforced by practical developments in the Church and Western society. Although the United States has been dominated by Protestants for most of its cultural and political history, it is important to remember that Roman Catholicism arrived in the New World with Christopher Columbus. Missionaries reached the southern and western regions of what would later become the United States with Coronado and other early Spanish explorers. The first permanent parish was in St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565, half a century before the first Protestant baptism in America. Living in American folklore, intrepid French explorers, travelers, and settlers like Cartier, Jolliet, and Marquette were Roman Catholics. They were usually accompanied by missionaries or were missionaries themselves. New France became an apostolic vicariate in 1658 with Bishop Laval at its head.

The see of Quebec (1675) had ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the vast French provinces of North America that stretched down the Mississippi Valley to Louisiana. Roman Catholics from England founded Maryland in 1634 in part as a refuge for Catholics during the turmoil of the English Civil War and the Puritan Commonwealth. Catholic activity in the English colonies was restricted by law, including in Maryland, until after the American Revolution. In 1763 there were fewer than 25,000 Catholics out of a colonial population of 2.2 million and they were under the jurisdiction of the Vicar Apostolic of London. However, among the signatures to the Articles of Confederation, the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution are those of three Catholics: Thomas Fitzsimmons (1741-1811), Charles Carroll (1737-1832) and Daniel Carroll (1730-1796). . ). With the approval of the Constitution in 1787, religious equality became law. The status of the Roman Catholic Church in the new nation was not clear until the appointment of the Reverend John Carroll (1735–1815) of Baltimore, Daniel Carroll's older brother, Superior or Perfect Apostolic of the Church in the new United States. By 1800 he was the leader of some 150,000 Catholics. By 1890 this number had risen to 6,231,417, largely due to mass emigration from the Catholic countries of Europe. Catholics faced a number of problems unique to the United States. There is only one Roman Catholic Church in the world with a single head, unlike most Protestant churches which have separate national organizations. For example, while there is a worldwide Anglican communion, it is made up of largely independent Anglican churches in the various former British colonies. Bishops in the US (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES) are not under the direct authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury, any more than Roman Catholic bishops are under the authority of the Pope. So there was tension in the Roman Catholic Church over the question of Americanization: how much independence could American bishops exercise while remaining obedient to Rome? This was a particularly thorny issue after the First Vatican Council (1869-1870), when European leaders rejected a number of ideas, such as democratic government, that were central to American values. James Gibbons (1834-1921), Archbishop of Baltimore and Primate of the Catholic Church in America, guided the Church through these difficult issues and obtained permission for Catholics in the US to participate fully in political and social life American while remaining faithful to the Roman Church. . Eventually, the Second Vatican Council (1962-65) approved many proposals long advocated by the US bishops. Another problem in the United States was the impact of Protestant movements on Catholicism. For example, Pentecostalism began to permeate Catholic communities in the 1970s, and there are now a growing number of "Spirit-filled" Catholics, that is, those who believe in and claim charismatic gifts, such as:

Tongues, healing, interpretation and prophecy: there are more than 300,000. Many more were exposed to what is commonly known as charismatic Catholicism. Differences of opinion are a common feature of contemporary church life. Some of the most problematic issues have to do with clerical celibacy, birth control, abortion, the role of women in the church, and official church positions on political and economic issues. beliefs and practices. The faith and teaching of the Roman Catholic Church is based on what Vatican I called: "this deposit of faith given to her by Christ and through his apostles, sustained by the Bible and tradition." Therefore, like other Catholic and Orthodox bodies, the Church accepts the decisions of the first seven ecumenical councils; For Catholics, however, later Western church councils, such as the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), are also relevant. These councils, up to the Second Vatican Council, clarified and enriched the "foundation of the faith" without altering it and became part of the apostolic tradition. The Church also accepts the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the Pius IV Creed, also called the Council of Trent Creed. These creeds expound many doctrines common to most Christian communities, such as the Trinity (Father, Son, and Spirit are integral and fully divine without losing their distinctiveness) and the full humanity and divinity of Christ. Creeds also define a set of beliefs and practices that are more explicitly Catholic. Like the Orthodox, Catholics place more emphasis on the sacraments than most Protestants; The sacraments are a visible means of receiving God's grace and are therefore sacred. There are seven sacraments for Catholics: (1) Baptism, which is required for church membership, is administered to children and adults by immersion or immersion; The anointing with the holy chrism in the form of a cross follows baptism. (2) Confirmation is by laying on of hands, usually by a bishop; but today the priests can also confirm if necessary. (3) The Eucharist or Holy Communion is the central act of Catholic piety. The laity can receive the Eucharist in the form of bread and wine. This is not just a sign or a ritual for believers. The body and blood of Christ must actually be present in the Eucharistic elements in order for the worshiper to be able to communicate spiritually and physically with the Redeemer. (4) Through the sacrament of reconciliation (formerly known as penance) the sins of the night are forgiven. (5) The Anointing of the Sick is for the seriously ill, injured or elderly. (6) The sacraments of Holy Orders are for the ordination of deacons, elders, and bishops. (7) Marriage is a sacrament that "cannot be dissolved by any human force"; this prevents remarriage after divorce. However, invalid marriages can be annulled. Members are required to attend Mass on Sundays and holidays, to fast and abstain on certain specified days, to go to confession at least once a year, to receive the Holy Eucharist during the Easter season, to engage in charitable works.

of the Church, and strictly observe the marriage policy of the Church. The liturgical calendar of the Roman Catholic Church is more elaborate than that of the Protestant churches, with days on which hundreds of heroes of the faith known as saints are remembered and venerated. Of particular importance in Roman Catholic worship in the United States and throughout the world is Mary, the Mother of Christ, who serves as the Advocate for believers. The central service is the Mass; its two main parts are the Liturgy of the Word and the celebration of the Eucharist. Until 1963, Latin was the only proper liturgical language. Now the entire Mass is recited by priests and people in the vernacular. Many Catholics also participate in devotions such as the Benediction, the Rosary (a prayer cycle usually counted with a string of pearls), the Stations of the Cross (prayers prompted by re-enactments of Christ's journey from Pilate's house to the tomb). ) and novenas (a nine-day period of public or private devotion). Policy. The government of the Roman Catholic Church is hierarchical, but the lay members of the parishes have a lot of responsibility. The trend since Vatican II has been toward greater participation by the laity. At the top of the structure is the Pope, who is also Bishop of Rome and "Vicar of Christ on earth and visible head of the Church." His authority is supreme in all matters of faith and discipline. Then comes the College of Cardinals. Although laymen were made cardinals, since 1918 the position has been restricted to priests. Many cardinals live in Rome and serve as advisers to the Pope, or as leaders or members of various congregations or councils that oversee the administration of the church. When a pope dies, the cardinals choose his successor and retain authority in the meantime. The Roman Curia is the official administrative body through which the Pope governs the Church. It is made up of Roman communities, tribunals and pontifical councils and acts with the authority delegated by the Pope. In the United States there are 11 active cardinals, 45 archbishops (7 of whom are cardinals), 336 bishops, and more than 46,000 priests; There are 34 archdioceses and 151 dioceses. An archbishop is responsible for an archdiocese and has precedence in that province. Bishops, usually appointed by Rome at the suggestion of the US hierarchy, are the governing authorities in dioceses, but their decisions can be appealed to the Apostolic Delegate in Washington, D.C. and even appealed to Rome. The pastor, reporting to the bishop, is appointed by the bishop or archbishop and has the power to celebrate Mass and administer the sacraments with the assistance of other priests as required by the parish. Priests are trained in theological seminaries, usually attached to Roman Catholic colleges and universities. The standard course lasts eight years: four years of philosophy and four years of theology. Religious (see below) also spend a year or two in the novitiate.

The clergy of the church also includes deacons. Since the restoration of the Permanent Diaconate in 1967, more than 11,000 men have completed the formation course and been ordained deacons. Most of these men are married and over thirty-five years of age. They have authority to preach, baptize, administer Holy Communion, and officiate at marriages. Most deacons earn a living in secular jobs, serving on weekends and at night. Three ecclesiastical councils form an important part of the Roman Catholic system: (1) the general or ecumenical council, called by or with the consent of the pope; it is made up of all the bishops, and its actions in matters of doctrine and discipline must be approved by the Pope. (2) The Plenary or National Council is made up of the bishops of a given country; their files must also be presented to the Holy See. (3) The provincial and diocesan councils also promulgate and apply the decrees approved by the other councils and approved by the Pope. With the most centralized government in Christendom, the Holy See in Rome has representatives in many countries around the world. Roman Catholic churches have been established in more than 230 countries with a total membership of more than 1 billion. Most Italians, Spanish, Irish, Austrians, Poles, Latin Americans, Belgians, Hungarians, South Germans, Portuguese, French, and Filipinos are baptized Roman Catholics. The Society for the Propagation of the Faith is the general representative missionary body. The United States sent some 5,800 missionaries to more than 130 countries in 1998-1999. Almost all dioceses publish a weekly newspaper; more than 400 Catholic newspapers and magazines are published in the United States and Canada. Some of the largest and most influential periodicals are The National Catholic Reporter, Commonweal, America, Columbia, USA Catholic, St. Anthony Messenger, Catholic Digest, Catholic World, Ligorian, Catholic Twin Circle, and The National Catholic Register. religious orders. Religious orders have been an integral part of Catholicism since at least the fourth century. The 2000 Official Catholic Directory lists a total of 137 religious orders for men and 441 for women. These orders vary greatly in your work. Some are "contemplatives," members residing in cloistered monasteries or convents. Those who belong to active or mixed religious orders are engaged in teaching, nursing, missionary work, writing, or social work. Brothers and sisters must take vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, but they are not ordained; They are mainly engaged in educational and philanthropic work. Originally, monks or nuns were people who adopted an ascetic lifestyle of poverty and celibacy to share the testimony of martyrs who died for the faith. Voluntary asceticism was seen as a way to "take up the cross" and follow Christ. Over time, more organization and discipline were provided to those who chose to serve Christ fully rather than family or personal ambitions.

In the 6th century, Benedict of Nursia built a monastery on his Monte Cassino estate. His dominance over men became the basis for all Western monasticism, male and female. Key features of his reign included the vow of obedience to the abbot (head of the monastery), as well as poverty and chastity, restraint in ascetic excesses, and participation in physical labor along with prayer. Over the centuries, other religious orders were established, some in an attempt to reform perceived abuses in a previous order, others to respond to unmet needs in the church and society. Among the most important of these orders were the Cistercians and the Carthusians, founded in the 12th century as a protest against the luxury and laxity of many Benedictine households. With the rapid urbanization of Europe in the late Middle Ages, mendicant orders were established to keep up with secular society. The Franciscans adopted a radical devotion to poverty and initially lived by begging. The Dominicans also emphasized poverty, but concentrated their efforts on preaching, especially in areas where heresy was rampant. Known more as monks than monks, members of these orders quickly established a strong presence in the flourishing universities of the Middle Ages. Today there are 235 Roman Catholic colleges and universities in the United States, including Notre Dame, Fordham, Georgetown, Boston College, St. Louis University, Marquette, Loyola, and Villanova, most of which are closely associated with various religious orders. Numerous religious orders were founded during the Reformation to reform the Roman Catholic Church internally and to respond externally to the Protestant challenge. The most important of these was the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Today, many priests are also members of a religious order. Parishes in the US are generally under the command of a particular order, such as B. the Franciscan. Religious orders have been a major focus of ministry to women in the Roman Catholic Church for more than 1,800 years. Some of the male orders have branches for women, but generally the women have established their own institutions within Catholicism. There are the Carmelites who produced the great mystic Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582); the Ursulines, who gave themselves to the mission of educating young women; and the Sisters of Mercy, founded by Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910-1997). In the United States, nuns were the backbone of the extensive Roman Catholic parochial school system. In the 1990s there were around 7,000 parochial and private schools in Germany with around two million students, including more than 1,300 Roman Catholic secondary schools. The nuns were also instrumental in staffing Catholic hospitals and founding numerous charities. It is significant to the work of Roman Catholic women that the first American woman to be officially proclaimed a saint of the church was Elizabeth Seton (1774–1821), known for her victimization in alleviating social misery. The National Conference of Catholic Charities helps coordinate charity and welfare work at the state and national levels. work is too much

They are carried out by various religious orders whose members devote themselves full time to helping the poor in homes or institutions, and many dioceses have charitable offices. The Society of Saint Vincent de Paul is perhaps the largest and most effective charity, but many others, particularly women's religious orders, such as the Little Sisters of the Poor, the Sisters of Charity, the Society's Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul and the Sisters of Mercy - reach out to the poor in Catholic hospitals, orphanages and nursing homes. The Church operates 1,414 nursing homes and 149 orphanages. More than 77 million patients are treated annually in 593 general and specialty hospitals and 557 health centers. One in three beds in the country's private hospitals is provided by the Catholic hospital system. In addition to religious orders and congregations, Catholics may join secular institutions whose members also practice poverty, chastity, and obedience, but do not wear special clothing or live in community. Before these groups are recognized as secular institutes with apostolic work, they may operate as recognized "divine unions." ethnic communities. One of the main problems facing the Roman Catholic Church in the United States was immigration. The Catholics of Europe were united in their obedience to Rome, but they were organized on a national level. The Spanish had Spanish priests, Spanish bishops, and revered Spanish saints. Likewise, the Catholic Churches in Ireland, Germany, France, Poland and elsewhere had their own national character. There was strong pressure for these ethnic identities to determine the structure of the Catholic Church in America. In other words, there were those who wanted to recreate the old national churches on American soil with separate hierarchies for each major ethnic group. There must have been many Catholic churches; They were all loyal to Rome but separated from each other in the United States. Cardinal Gibbons redrew the path leading to a parish system in which local parishes could be organized along ethnic lines, but the national church would be a single American church. Diversity and unity were preserved in this way. There is much that Catholics have in common; However, it is important to note the rich diversity of traditions within Catholicism in the United States, even within a single metropolitan area. When immigrants come to this country, they tend to congregate in the neighborhoods of major cities, recreating some familiar Old World characteristics. Although the basic elements of the Mass are the same in all Roman Catholic communities and the same feast days are observed, many liturgical variations exist locally and in popular devotion. A sampling of some of the major Catholic ethnic groups in the US are: Irish. It is estimated that more than four million people fled Ireland to the United States in the 19th century, with at least 100,000 others joining them.

it came before the American Revolution. Irish emigration was linked to the submission of Ireland to the British Crown. With Protestantism firmly established in England, Catholicism became a hallmark of national resistance for the native Irish, who stubbornly clung to their faith. In the New World, Catholicism remained a link between immigrants and the homeland. Many Irish charities and charities were formed in the United States, often with close ties to the Church. Saint Patrick's Day has become a major holiday and an expression of Irish pride in many northern cities. The Irish played an important role within the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. From the time of the first American bishop, John Carroll, to the present day, most dioceses and archdioceses have had more prelates of Irish origin or descent than any other nationality. In many ways, the Irish largely defined American Catholicism, and it was a bishop of Irish descent, James Gibbons, who set the standard for Catholicism in America. Italian. In 1908, more than two and a half million people immigrated to the United States from Italy, settling mainly in the large cities of the Northeast, particularly New York City and the upper Midwest. Franciscans provided most of the pastoral direction for Italian immigrants, including Father Pamfilo da Magliano, founder of St. Bonaventure's College, Allegany, New York (1858), and Father Leo Paccillio, pastor of the first Italian congregation in York, St. Anthony. The Franciscans were followed by the Jesuits, the Scalabrians, the Salesians, the Passionists and the Augustinians. In some cases, priests of other nationalities learned Italian to meet the needs of Italians in areas where an Italian priest was not available. Italian Catholics continued to honor the patron saints of their Italian hometowns, named charitable societies after them, and held parish festivals on Holy Days. Santo Antônio and São José were particularly important. Spanish. Catholicism reached the New World primarily via Spain, whose monarchs were staunch supporters of the Counter-Reformation. The first universities in the Americas were founded in the Spanish colonies, and indigenous cultures mixed with the religious practices of the Spanish conquistadors to create a variety of subcultures of vibrant beliefs. Missionaries in the southwestern United States made some headway in converting native peoples, and by the 19th century, beautiful adobe missions were spreading west. For most of the history of the United States, Mexicans have been the dominant Hispanic group and in some cities it is common to see devotion to the Virgin of Guadalupe and the spectacular festival of the Day of the Dead that is celebrated at the time of Halloween. Since World War II, immigration from other Latin American countries has increased, making the Hispanic population the fastest growing segment of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. Mainly because of the shortage of priests and economic difficulties, the tendency to found parishes on the national model was not as great as in the 19th century. Some parishes use mainly Spanish, and many parochial schools teach in

Spanish; but in general there was a mix of immigrants from different Latin American countries and cultures. rods Poland gradually disappeared as a political entity during the 18th century when Russia, Prussia and Austria divided the territory among themselves. However, the partition did not destroy Polish identity or patriotism. Particularly in western Poland, German efforts to assimilate Poles into German Protestant culture helped increase devotion to the Roman Catholic Church. There were Poles in the United States during the colonial period, and some played prominent roles in the American Revolution; but the immigration of the Polish masses began in the 1850s: in 1851 Father Leopold Moczygemba (1824-1891), a Franciscan friar, came to the United States and soon after brought almost a hundred families from Upper Silesia to Panna Maria. , Texas. where they built the first Polish church in the United States in 1855. Immigration, particularly from Polish Prussia, increased rapidly, mainly to Illinois, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. In 1890 there were about 130 Polish churches attended by 126 priests. Most of the more than 120 schools were run by the Felician Sisters and the School Sisters of Notre Dame. The election of the first Polish Pope, John Paul II, in 1978 was a boon to Polish Catholics in the United States.

CHRISTIAN CHURCHES (The Stone Campbell Movement) Protestantism, with its emphasis on the Bible alone as the basis of faith, has always sought to remain faithful to the New Testament church of the apostles. Most Protestants are willing to accept some historical development of the church and its doctrine in the post-biblical period, for example by accepting the Apostles' Creed. However, there were others who saw much of the history of Christianity as the story of a decline in New Testament purity. These Christians attempted to "restore" the original or "primitive" Christianity by purging the church of all non-biblical elements, including creeds and creeds. During the second great awakening (which began in the late 18th century and continued through the first two decades of the 19th century), this drive for restoration became particularly strong. In politics, the United States had "restored" Greek democracy; Many thought that the Americans could also restore the structure and doctrine of the original church in the new land. By returning only to the New Testament, without resorting to creeds or rituals, the Restorationists also hoped to end brotherly conflicts between the churches. Thomas Campbell (1763–1854) was a Scottish Presbyterian who left his church in Ireland in 1807 for western Pennsylvania. Campbell was convinced that the church's historic creeds and confessions were a source of Christian division rather than unity, and he preached that all Christians should partake of the Lord's Supper together. When his views were criticized by Presbyterians in 1809 (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES), he founded the Christian Association of Washington County, Pennsylvania, and published the Declaration and Address that would become the Magna Carta of the Restoration movement. In that document, he argued that "persistent divisions or schisms" in the church were "anti-Christian, unbiblical and unnatural" and "produce confusion and all evil work." The church and church members must rely solely on the beliefs and practices of New Testament Christianity, he asserted; the articles of faith and salvation "expressly revealed in the Word of God" were sufficient without adding human opinions or fabrications of faith. The Bible, Campbell argued, was a reasonable book that any reasonable person could read and understand; therefore, there is no need for creeds or other human interpretations. God has spoken clearly, and the Bible lays down the rules for the practice of the church. “We will speak when the Scriptures speak, and we will be silent when they are silent.” With this phrase, Campbell abolished many traditional church practices, such as fast days and the use of musical instruments in worship. Campbell's son, Alexander (1788–1866), was less erudite than his father, but more dynamic and consistent in applying his father's principles. He convinced Thomas that infant baptism was not Christian, and in 1812 all the Campbells were immersed by a local Baptist minister. However, also the

Baptists weren't biblical enough for the Campbells. Father and son continued their evangelical work independently, and Alexander fought many public battles against atheism, Mormonism, Unitarianism, credalism, sectarianism, sentimentalism, and even slavery; but he was singularly incapable of bringing about the unity of the church. His faith church became one of the first independent denominations to be born in the United States. The other major branch of the 19th century restoration movement originated in the beliefs of James O'Kelly (1757-1826), a Methodist minister; Abner Jones (1772–1841), Baptist; and Barton Stone (1772–1844), a Presbyterian. In 1792 O'Kelly resigned from the Methodist Church (see METHODS CHURCHES) in protest against the newly formed episcopate. He was particularly opposed to the power of bishops to appoint ministers to their offices. O'Kelly and his followers organized under the name of Methodist Republicans; The new church insisted that the Bible was considered the only rule and discipline and that Christian character was the only requirement for church membership. Abner Jones, convinced that "sectarian names and human creeds must be abandoned," left Vermont Baptists (see BAPTIST CHURCHES) in 1801 to found the First Christian Church in Lyndon, Vermont. This was done out of a desire to ensure greater freedom of religious thought and community. Like O'Kelly, Jones insisted that piety and character were the only test of Christian fellowship. When the Second Great Awakening swept through Tennessee and Kentucky in the early 19th century, preaching focused on the need for conversion rather than denominational or doctrinal differences. Barton Stone was instrumental in the famous Cane Ridge, Kentucky revival which began on August 7, 1801. Between 10,000 and 25,000 people attended during the week-long revival, which was attended by ministers from various churches. Participants described the event as a new Pentecost that drew thousands of converts, often with dramatic emotional displays. The revival experience convinced Stone that salvation has little to do with church membership and that "works are more important than creeds." The equality promise of the American Revolution was felt in Cane Ridge and other Western "camp" revivals, but controversy over it created a schism in the Presbyterian Church. The groups led by O'Kelly, Jones, and Stone participated in a long series of conferences that resulted in agreement on six basic Christian principles: (1) Christ, the only Head of the Church; (2) the Bible, the sufficient rule of belief and practice; (3) Christian character, the measure of membership; (4) a correct and individual interpretation of the Scriptures as a way of life; (5) "Christ," the worthy name of Christ's followers; (6) Unity, Christians work together to save the world.

In 1832 the "Stoneites" and the "Campbellites" met in Lexington, Kentucky. Stone used the word Christian to refer to his group, believing that all of God's children should be known as such. Alexander Campbell used the term "disciples of Christ." After 1832, some of the Christians and disciples of Christ merged; both names are still used, but commonly and officially the body is now known as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Early in the movement, Walter Scott (1796–1861) popularized the term restoration, which means the reinstatement of New Testament patterns and practices. Like Stone, Scott was wary of the values ​​of today's revivalism; He linked faith to reason rather than emotions. He stressed the importance of faith along with repentance from sin and baptism by immersion. However, disagreements soon arose between restorers and different associations emerged over time. Several of these groups, which in different ways have embraced the Restoration ideal, remain influential.

CHRISTADELPHIANS Founded: 1844 Members: approximately 15,000 in 170 congregations (2000) The Christadelphians are less clearly associated with the original restorationist movement than the other bodies discussed under that heading, having grown out of the Disciples of Christ. When John Thomas (1805–1871) came to the United States from England in 1832, he soon joined the disciples. Things were not going well for him in this body; He believed that the disciples were neglecting many important Biblical teachings. So in 1844 he left the Disciples to found several societies that preached the need for a return to primitive Christianity. These various loosely organized societies were nameless until the outbreak of the Civil War, when the doctrine of nonresistance forced them to adopt a name to avoid conscription. They chose the term Christadelphians or Brothers of Christ. Christadelphians are Unitarian and Adventist in theology. They reject belief in the devil and claim that the Scriptures teach that Christ is not God the Son but the Son of God. They believe that Christ was not pre-existent but was born of Mary by the work of the Holy Spirit, that is, by the power of God. Mankind is mortal by nature, and Christ is the only salvation. Eternal life comes only to the righteous. As strong millennialists, they believe that Christ will come soon to reward those who are worthy with immortality. In the United States, some Christadelphians called the Unamended believe that Christ will only raise those who have died in the faith; all other people will simply remain dead, without conscience. Other Christadelphians, known as Alters, believe that Christ will resurrect all those responsible, reward the just, and destroy the wicked. Both groups believe that believers and the world will reunite

be ruled from Jerusalem for a thousand years. They hold that the Bible is the inspired Word of God, inerrant in its original text. The Church is Congregational in politics; Local organizations are not known as churches but as preachers. Membership is by profession of faith, baptism by immersion. There are no paid or ordained ministers in the usual sense; Each ekklesia elects minister brothers, including executive brothers, president brothers, and reader brothers. Women do not participate in public speeches or prayers, although they all vote equally on Ekklesia matters. Christadelphians do not vote in elections, do not participate in wars, and refuse to hold public office. There are no associations or conventions, but fraternal meetings of spiritual inspiration. Many meetings are held in rented halls, schools, or private homes, although several clergy have their own buildings. Home missionary work is carried out locally, usually in the form of talks and instruction in Christadelphia doctrine and righteous living. There are foreign missions and churches in 60 countries. Summer Bible Schools are held in various states. This loosely organized movement, present in more than 40 states from coast to coast, has larger numbers in the UK, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and Germany. Most of the 700 or so ministers outside the US hold the changed position on the resurrection.

CHRISTIAN CHURCH (Disciples of Christ) Founded: 1832 or 1812 Membership: 834,037 in 3,792 congregations (2000) Of the twelve largest religious groups in the United States, the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) may be considered the most American. It arose in the 19th century on the American frontier out of a deep concern for Christian unity. Alexander Campbell (see CHRISTIAN CHURCHES) expanded the concept that each church should be autonomous and completely independent, that creeds, ecclesiastical titles, authority and privilege have no justification in Scripture; that Communion should be served at all Sunday services; and that baptism for adult believers (persons old enough to understand the meaning of the ordinance) must be by immersion. He eloquently championed Christian unity and individual freedom of belief, and welcomed into his independent church in Brush Run, Pennsylvania, all who came with faith in Christ as the Son of God and Messiah. Facing the same kind of opposition as his father Thomas, he joined a Baptist association with his congregation (see BAPTIST CHURCHES), only to break from that association in 1830. In 1832, he and many of his followers joined the Christian movement of Barton Stone (see CHRISTIAN CHURCHES).

The first national assembly of the Disciples of Christ and the first missionary society (American Christian Missionary Society) were organized in 1849; State conventions and societies began meeting in 1839. The group grew rapidly during and after the Civil War era, particularly in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, and Missouri, despite internal conflicts over church organization. . The differences between conservatives and progressives sharpened on issues such as the organization of missionary societies and instrumental music in churches; the churches of Christ (see CHURCHES OF CHRIST) parted company with the disciples during this debate. Conservative and progressive attitudes have been and continue to be important in matters of faith, and the Church allows diversity of opinion and freedom of interpretation, based on the belief that there is no other creed than that of Christ and no saving teaching except the of the New Testament. You could say that the disciples are God-centered, Christ-centered, and Bible-centered; Furthermore, belief is a matter of personal belief, but there are areas of general agreement and acceptance. The disciples are firm in their belief in immortality, but do not accept the doctrine of original sin; they believe that all men are of a sinful nature until redeemed by the sacrifice of Christ; they do not engage in speculation about the Trinity and the nature of a Triune God. They have no established catechism or orders of worship. Faith in Christ as Lord is the only requirement. For more than a century, the disciples of Christ had been strictly congregational in politics, but there was a growing sense that such an arrangement, with overlapping boards and agencies and no representative voice, needed to be restructured for the sake of efficiency and economy. In 1968, after seven years of study and discussion led by a committee of 130, an entirely new plan was adopted in Kansas City for the Church organization to operate under a representative government known as the "Three Manifestations": local, regional and overall. . The local church remains the basic unit, with each congregation managing its own affairs, having its own bylaws and by-laws, owning and controlling its property, appointing its ministers, setting its own budgets and financial policies, and having voting representatives. at the regional and national level. national levels Level. meetings The parishes are grouped into 35 regions organized to provide help, advice and pastoral care to members, ministers and congregations. Each region organizes its own councils, departments and committees. Regions certify the position of ministers and provide guidance on matters such as ordination, licensing, the search and installation of ministers, and the establishment or dissolution of pastoral relationships. The General Assembly of the Church meets every two years; This assembly includes 8,000 to 10,000 people, laity and clergy, from across the Church. The Board of Directors, a 160-member voting body, meets annually for long-term planning and definition.

general guidelines for the whole church. Finally, the board of directors, with 44 voting members, meets twice a year. The communications office is located in Indianapolis, Indiana; The Church's publisher, the Christian Publication Board, is headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri. Membership continues to be highest along a crescent from Pittsburgh to San Antonio. The disciples of Christ placed great emphasis on education and were instrumental in establishing schools on the frontier. There are now 21 colleges and seminaries in partnership with the Disciples, the largest of which is Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas. The Church's National Charitable Association operates 83 facilities and programs in 22 states and serves more than 30,000 people annually in residential facilities and community programs. Still committed to the cause of Christian unity, the disciples have long been involved in the ecumenical movement, including the Consultation on Church Unity.

CHRISTIAN CHURCHES AND CHURCHES OF CHRIST Established: 1830s; 1920 Membership: 1,071,616 in 5,579 churches (1988) Even more than most Baptist groups (see ANAPTIST CHURCHES), these independent churches reject the denomination. In fact, they have no other formal organization than the local assembly. There are various parachurch organizations that have been formed to meet specific needs, such as: B. Homes for the elderly and underprivileged children or specific missions. In part it was the problem of increasing centralized organization that caused the Christian churches to separate from the disciples of Christ; However, there is evidence that the union between the Campbellites (disciples of Christ) and the Stoneites (Christian churches and churches of Christ) was strained throughout the 19th century (see CHRISTIAN CHURCH [DISCIPLES OF CHRIST]). In the 1920s, during the height of the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy in the United States, many Christian and Church of Christ churches split from the Disciples in what they saw as Disciples Liberalism. Christian churches and churches of Christ emphasize the deity of Christ, the authority of the Bible, the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the believer, future reward or punishment, and God as a loving deity who answers prayer. They baptize by immersion and celebrate communion every Sunday in open communion. Many Christian churches and Churches of Christ still maintain the widespread 19th-century revival practice known as "camp meetings." In recent years, some congregations of the Christian Church have experienced enormous growth and have reached 20,000 listeners. The group sponsors more than twenty universities, most of which are ministerial schools.

isolated from liberal influences. Standard Publishing in Cincinnati, Ohio also identifies with this group. The North American Christian Convention, an annual preaching and teaching convention, draws up to 20,000 participants each July for an annual meeting without delegates. These churches, which are active in foreign missions, with a missions presence in about a dozen other countries, as well as a national missions presence, sponsor a National Missionary Assembly that meets each fall with an attendance of between 3,000 and 5,000.

CHRISTIAN CHURCH, INC. Founded: 1887 Members: 118,209 in 1,438 congregations (1999) The philosophy and work of the Indiana Christian congregation, organized in 1887, revolves around the “new commandment” of John 13:34-35. The group's origins go back to Barton Stone, but in 1887 several clergymen wanted greater coordination of activities and formally organized a church. The charter was revised in 1898 and again in 1970. The group is a fellowship of clergy and laity seeking a non-religious, non-sectarian basis for association. Unlike many other descendants of the restoration movement, the Christian congregation is pacifist and rejects all wars and sectarian conflicts. Drawing inspiration from the sermon by John Chapman and John L. Puckett, the Church insists that "the family of faith is not based on doctrinal agreements, creeds, ecclesiastical claims, names, or rites," but solely on the individual's relationship to God. . . The basis of Christian communion is love; The actual relationship of Christians to one another transcends any individual belief or personal opinion. Because of its doctrine of the sanctity of life, the Church condemns abortion, the death penalty, and all wars. Independent Bible study is encouraged. They believe that the ethical requirements of the Scriptures must transcend all national and racial barriers and unite all people in peace activism. Although there are churches and pastorates in nearly every state in the Union, the Church remains strongest in the areas where Barton Stone preached and where the original Christian congregational groups were located: Kentucky, Carolinas, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee and Texas. . Most of the group's work takes place in rural and mountainous areas. Politics is community. A General Superintendent heads a Board of Trustees; Relations between the Superintendent, the Board and the Town are purely advisory.


Founded: 1906, with roots in the 1820s Membership: Approximately 1,500,000 in more than 10,000 churches (2000) The largest group in the American Restoration movement, the Churches of Christ span the country but are concentrated in the South and the southwest. As with the Christian Church (see CHRISTIAN CHURCHES AND CHURCHES OF CHRIST), the Churches of Christ reject the idea of ​​denominationalism and have no headquarters; therefore, it is impossible to obtain accurate statistics. This group does not have governing bodies but volunteers to participate in international radio programs sponsored by each community. The Churches of Christ are non-denominational and seek a Christian union based solely on the Bible. They claim that the Bible is "the starting point" in and through which godly people can achieve spiritual unity. All Christians are to "speak where the Bible is silent, and be silent where the Bible is silent" in all matters of faith and morality. Accordingly, members do not recognize any other creed or written creed. In all religious matters there must be "thus saith the Lord." The leaders of the churches of Christ in the 19th century were more conservative than their fellow disciples of Christ. They stressed strict adherence to the New Testament pattern of worship and church organization and refused to join an inter-congregational organization such as a missionary society. The worship was simple and they rejected the addition of instrumental music on the grounds that the New Testament did not authorize it and that the early church did not use it. Around the turn of the 20th century, the differences between the conservative and more liberal wings of the Restoration movements became apparent, and the 1906 census recorded the Churches of Christ separately for the first time. Today, one of the outstanding characteristics of the churches of Christ is the acceptance of the Bible as true and perfectly appropriate revelation. This basic concept has led to practices such as the weekly celebration of the Lord's Supper, baptism by immersion, a cappella singing, a vigorous prayer life, supporting the needs of the church through voluntary donations, and a program Biblical preaching and teaching. This concept also explains the autonomy of local churches, which are led by elders and deacons appointed under New Testament qualifications; worthy cults; enthusiastic missionary campaigns; and widespread goodwill, all funded by local churches. Among the most important principles of the churches of Christ is the belief in the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit as members of a single deity; in the incarnation, virgin birth, and bodily resurrection of Christ; and in the universality of sin after the Age of Responsibility, its only remedy is the vicarious atonement of the Lord Jesus Christ. There is also a strong emphasis on the church as the body and bride of Christ. Regarding the book by , a figurative rather than a literal view prevails.

Epiphany. Church membership depends on the individual's faith in Jesus Christ as the only begotten Son of God, repentance, profession of faith, and baptism by immersion for the remission of sins. Going to church is very important. The churches of Christ hold that the final judgment of all religious groups belongs to the Lord. However, this view still allows for a vigorous evangelicalism that finds "doctrines, practices, names, titles, and creeds grafted onto the original practice of Christianity" unacceptable. Ministers are ordained rather than licensed, and they clothe their pulpits in accord with the elders of the churches in which they preach. Ministerial authority is essentially moral; the real leadership of the Church rests with its elders. A vigorous missionary program is underway in 92 countries outside the United States, and a strong movement to expand the influence of the Church in the northeastern states of the United States has developed in recent years. With native workers abroad and missionary activities within the US, more than 1,000 missionaries or evangelists are supported by groups other than those they preach. The generally patriotic Churches of Christ maintain a quota of chaplains in the US military. Churches of Christ supports 24 Bible colleges, liberal arts colleges and universities, and 27 elementary and/or secondary schools in the United States. The Church publishes more than 100 magazines, newspapers, and periodicals. The oldest publication, The Gospel Advocate, has been published continuously since the 1850s, except when it was discontinued during the Civil War due to poor mail delivery. Churches also participate in an active ministry through the Internet. Since the status of these institutions is unofficial and none of them is authorized to speak for the entire Church, their consensus of ideas and teachings is all the more remarkable. CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST (Christian Science) Founded: 1879 Members: Approximately 2,200 churches (1998) The Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science) is a form of Christianity that originated on American soil and has no direct connection to any other Christian group . Often referred to as “religious doctrine and practice based on the words and works of Christ Jesus,” Christian Science was defined by its founder, Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910), as “the scientific system of divine healing,” the “law ”, contemplates the law of God's good, interprets and demonstrates the divine principle and the rule of universal harmony”. She believed that God is "the beginning of all harmonious mental actions." Eddy contained most of these definitions

and descriptions in Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875, 1883). This volume and the Bible are the two textbooks of Christian Science. Christian Science grew out of Eddy's personal experience. After suffering most of his life from a form of palsy in Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1866, Eddy recovered almost immediately after reading the account of Christ's healing of a man with a form of palsy (Matthew 9:18 ). Already fascinated by the idea of ​​spiritual causation in Swedenborgianism (see CHURCH OF SWEDEN BORGIA) and deeply immersed in the Bible, Eddy was convinced that God was the source of her healing. She began to see God as the divine spirit that is infinite love. Christian Science arose from these roots. Under her direction, the Church of Christ, Scientist, was founded in Lynn in 1879; shortly thereafter, she moved the Church and its headquarters to Boston. In 1892 she formed the current world organization; The Boston church became the mother church of Christian Science. Applied not only to curing disease, but also to the problems of life in general, the principles and teachings of Christian Science often confuse outsiders and require careful explanation. They start with the belief that God is the only power or "Spirit"; God is “all in all”, the “divine principle of all that is real”, “the omniscient, all-seeing, omnipresent, omniscient, omniscient and eternal; Principle; Spirit; Soul; Spirit; Life; TRUE; Love; any substance; intelligence." The inspired Word of the Bible is accepted as "sufficient guide for eternal life Divine Spirit or Comforter and man in the image and likeness of God." Jesus is known to Christian Scientists as man's teacher or guide to God through Christ Jesus, the forerunner," and is believed to have been "endowed with...the spirit of God without measure" through the prophet Galileo to heal the sick and defeat sin and death". exalt faith to comprehend eternal life, including all soul, spirit, and nothingness of matter." The "allness" of spirit and the "nothingness of matter" comprise the fundamental Christian Science teaching about reality As Science and Health explains, "All reality is in God and His creation, harmonious and eternal. What He creates is good and does everything that is done. Therefore, the only reality of sin, disease or death it is the terrible fact that unrealities appear real to erroneous human beliefs until God throws off their disguise. They are not true because they are not of God."

Christian Science believes that God forgives sin by destroying it with "the spiritual understanding that dismisses evil as unreal." However, the penalty for sin lasts as long as the sin is believed. Followers of Christian Science are not ignorant of what they consider "unreal"; rather, they seek to abandon and overcome error and evil through Christian discipleship, prayer, and progressive spiritual realization of the "wholeness" and goodness of God; they strive to see the spiritual "body," made in the image of God, as the only real body. The error is "an assumption that pleasure and pain, that intelligence, substance, life exist in matter." Christian Scientists generally trust completely in God's power to heal and not in medical treatment. The healing is not seen as a miracle, but as divinely natural; Illness is primarily understood as a mental concept that can be eliminated through active Christian discipleship, spiritual renewal, and application of the truths testified to by Jesus. For Christian Scientists, heaven is not a place but “harmony; the realm of the spirit; government by divine principle; Spirituality; Bliss, the atmosphere of the soul.” Hell is “mortal belief; Mistake; Desire; regrets; Hate; Revenge; Sin; Disease; Death; suffering and self-destruction; self-imposed agony; effects of sin; one who ‘practices abominations or lies’.” Mortal mind is "flesh opposed to spirit, human mind and evil opposed to divine mind." Prayer is "an absolute belief that all things are possible with God: a spiritual understanding of Him, selfless love." ". The local churches of Christ Scientist enjoy their own forms of democratic government within the general framework of the statutes established by Eddy in the Handbook of the Mother Church, which is also intended for university organizations of Christian Science. All churches maintain reading rooms open to the general public.The affairs of The Mother Church are administered by the Christian Science Board, which elects a president, a first and second reader, a secretary, and a treasurer.The Board is a self-supporting body which annually elects all other church officers except Lectors, who are elected by the Board for a three-year term Important in the Christian Science movement are lectors, teachers, and practitioners In each branch church there are two lectors, usually a man and a woman, who are chosen by the members of the church.At each Sunday and Thanksgiving service, they take turns reading from the Bible and Science and Health. Sermons for Sunday worship are prepared by a committee and published quarterly by the Christian Science Publishing Society. This system is followed by all Christian Science churches throughout the world. in the middle of the week

The meeting conducted by First Reader only features testimonials of healing from sin and sickness. Practitioners dedicate all their time to healing and are listed in a directory in the monthly Christian Science Journal. A board of education consists of three members: a president, a vice president, and a Christian Science teacher. Normal classes are held every three years under the supervision of this council. Teachers are duly authorized to form classes through certificates issued by the administration. Each teacher teaches a class of no more than thirty students annually. A Reading Committee consists of about sixty members who are appointed annually by the Board of Directors. At the invitation of the branch churches, these members from around the world give free public talks. A publications committee serves as an ecumenical and information office and represents the denomination to the press and the public. The Christian Science Publishing Society conducts outreach and publishes several publications, including: Christian Science Sentinel, The Christian Science Journal, Christian Science Quarterly—Bible Lessons, Herald of Christian Science, and The Christian Science Monitor. Several nursing homes for members who rely entirely on spiritual means for healing are independently maintained throughout the world. At a time when his members frequently cited the denomination's rapid growth, Eddy decided that membership statistics should not be made available for publication, believing that membership numbers did not indicate true spiritual growth. CHURCH OF GOD AND HOLY CHRIST Foundation: 1896 Affiliation: est. 40,000 in approximately 200 Congregations (1999) The Church of God and Saints is a Christian body that seeks to live by a literal understanding of Old Testament law. As such, they are sometimes referred to as "Christian Israelites"; however, they have no direct relation to historical Judaism. The Church was founded by William Saunders Crowdy (1847–1908), who was born to slave parents in Maryland. After serving in the Union Army, Crowdy purchased a farm near Guthrie, Oklahoma. Crowdy was an active member of the Baptist church and began having disturbing visions and hearing voices in 1893. He dreamed of dirty tables, each bearing the name of a denomination. He then he saw a clean table coming down from heaven; on it was the name "Church of God and of the Saints of Christ." He later received guidelines for the new church from him, known as the "Seven Keys."

Crowdy began preaching on the streets of Midwestern cities and towns, drawing crowds in most places where he spoke. He baptized many into the faith and officially organized the Church of God and Christ Saints in Lawrence, Kansas, in November 1896. After that, Crowdy took his message to Chicago and found success there. Imprisoned many times for his ministry, he too was converted while in prison. The Seven Keys formed the core of the teachings: repentance from sin; baptism in water according to the creed; unleavened bread and water for the body and blood of Christ; foot washing by the elders; obedience to the commandments; the holy kiss; and the Our Father. Crowdy eventually traveled to New York and opened a church there in 1899; and later that year he moved to Philadelphia, holding meetings and preaching on street corners along the way. In Philadelphia he founded a church and various businesses; The Church of God and Christ Saints continues to emphasize the importance of individual entrepreneurship and business acumen as hallmarks of religious life. Crowdy taught that his followers should celebrate various Jewish holidays and festivals. Of particular importance are the observance of the seventh-day Sabbath, Passover, the Day of Atonement, and the Jewish New Year. Members believe that his church is built on the patriarchs and prophets of Jewish tradition and that "Jesus the Anointed" is its most important cornerstone. They distinguish between prophetic Judaism "which seeks to follow the living perception of the spiritual idea in its highest implication" and "legalistic" Judaism. They accept the Decalogue as a norm of conduct for all humanity. Men and women are instructed to wear specific clothing on the Sabbath according to the season, and men are expected to wear kippahs and tallith. An Executive Bishop heads the Church and the Council of Bishops; The Church maintains its headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio. The biweekly newsletter (Church of God and Saints of Christ) serves to inform members through sermons, lectures, and announcements. An a cappella choir made up of church members has released recordings of gospel music to critical acclaim. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF COMMUNITY CHURCHES Established: 1950 Membership: est. 200,000 in approximately 500 churches (1999) The International Council of Community Churches is not a denomination in the traditional sense, but serves several hundred independently organized and operated community churches in the United States and around the world. Community churches date back to the mid-18th century, but were first organized nationally in 1933. Community Churches are the result of a desire to eliminate surplus churches in some communities and to solve economic and social problems.

personnel issues; Replace the restriction and division of denominationalism with self-determination and Christian unity; redirect the primary loyalty of organizations away from a community to the community itself; and address specific needs within a community to make religion more relevant. Because each church is tailored to the needs of a different community, there are vast differences in the styles and methods of worship, service, and witness among community churches. There are several general categories. The Federated and United Churches arose from mergers of congregations that previously belonged to particular denominations. Some remained associated with two or more denominations; others became completely independent. Some individual congregations also cut denominational ties; others associated with the Community Church movement while maintaining ties to one or more denominations. However, most community churches have never had a denominational affiliation. The stated goals of the Council are (1) to be an answer to Christ's prayer: "That they may all be one" (John 17:21 NRSV); (2) affirm the worth and dignity of each person; (3) respond to human needs and suffering around the world; (4) seek and share the truth; (5) work for a new world of peace. The current organization was formed in 1950 from the merger of two other councils: one made up of predominantly black congregations and the other of predominantly white affiliated churches. The Board holds an annual conference to which each member church may send two voting members, at least one of whom must be lay. This conference elects a president, executive secretary, board of directors, and other officers to conduct the business of the board between conferences. The Executive Director and a small staff oversee Board projects on a daily basis; The head office is located in Frankfurt, Illinois. Council services include church support, staffing, continuing education, direct and mediated counseling for help in various areas, and support networks for clergy and their spouses and children. Publications include The Christian Community, a monthly newspaper; The Pastor's Journal, quarterly for professionals; and materials from Community Church Press. It should be noted that many of the member churches of the Council do not use the word communion in their names. Additionally, many churches that include this term in their names are affiliated with a denomination, members of a national organization outside of the landmark movement, or independent congregations.

CONFERENCE CHURCHES The proper form of church leadership or authority structure has been an issue in Christianity since New Testament times. The dominant Catholic-Orthodox tradition resolved this problem in favor of the episcopate, or rule by bishops. As the Protestant Reformation unfolded in the 16th century, politics became a key issue. The Reformed tradition, associated with John Calvin (1509-1564) and John Knox (c. 1513-1572), rejected the episcopate in favor of a presbyteral system in which a council of clergy had authority. In England, dissent took a common form in the Puritan movement, whose most radical wing was Congregationalism. In congregationalism, the assembled body of believers has authority at the local level. Many Christian groups, such as Baptists (see ANAPTIST CHURCHES) and various Christian church groups (see CHRISTIAN CHURCHES), participate in church politics. In 1609, John Robinson (1575–1625) fled persecution in England and settled in Leiden, Holland, with the exile community of Scrooby in Nottinghamshire, England. There he met William Ames (1576-1633), the first great theologian of Congregationalism, who was also a fugitive from the ecclesiastical courts of England. In conversation with Ames and others, Robinson converted from rigid separatism to congregationalism. For twelve years Robinson and his congregation enjoyed peace and freedom among the Dutch. However, they were haunted by the belief that their children would not grow up English, and much of the company set sail for the American colonies aboard the historic Mayflower in 1620. In a hostile new world, with the desert ahead and the sea from behind, they helped lay the foundation of the American community. They formed their own alliance as believers and citizens, establishing the first forms of democratic government. Between 1630 and 1640 another 20,000 Puritans arrived in Massachusetts Bay. Even less prone to separatism than Plymouth Colony, the bayside settlers established an effective "theocratic" government. Church and community were the two instruments of this society. Contrary to popular belief, it was not a strict and rigid regime of saints, but it was strict and could be as intolerant of religious dissent as the Church of England. The story of the banishment of such radicals as Anne Hutchinson (1591–1643) and Roger Williams (1603–83) is well known. When four Quakers (see FRIENDS), including a woman, were hanged on Boston Common in the 1660s (after the end of the Puritan Commonwealth in England), there was a public outcry in England. After the Golden Revolution, New England was forced to accept the Toleration Act in 1689.

Congregationalists such as Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) of Northampton played a leading role in the First Great Awakening in the 1730s and 1740s marked by Preaches Edwards, whose books are now considered American classics. New England Congregationalists led the American Revolution, and for the next century Congregationalism played an important role in the development of American religious and institutional life. In the field of education, this Church had already made great contributions. Members of this church founded Harvard in 1636. Yale (founded in 1707) was a project to train Congregational ministers in Connecticut. Dartmouth (founded 1769) grew out of Eleazer Wheelock's (1711-1779) school for Native Americans. These schools were among the first universities in North America. Interest in missions among Congregationalists began the day the Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth. John Eliot (1604–90), Thomas Mayhew (c. 1620–57), Jonathan Mayhew (1720–1766), and David Brainerd (1718–47) all worked among Native Americans during the colonial era. Eliot spent seven years mastering Algonquian, translating the Bible (NT 1661, OT 1663) and publishing a catechism in 1653, the first book printed in a Native American language. In 1674 there were four thousand "praying Indians" and twenty-four native preachers in New England. The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, established in 1810, was primarily concerned with missionary work at home and abroad. It served not only Congregationalists, but also representatives of Presbyterian (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES), Dutch Reformed, and Associated Reformed (see REFORMED CHURCHES) churches. Missionaries were sent to more than thirty foreign countries and American territories. In Hawaii, missionaries from the congregation taught an entire nation to read and write and laid the foundation for constitutional democratic government. The rise of denominationalism offset the rise of the American Council, and by the 1950s all non-Congregationalists withdrew to go their own way. In 1826 the American Home Missionary Society was formed, and in 1846 the American Missionary Association, which operated in the South before the Civil War. He was particularly effective late in that conflict with his "bootleg" black schools, one of which became Hampton Institute. Meanwhile, within the church differences of opinion developed between liberal and conservative theologians. Unitarians were opposed by Calvinists and strict Trinitarians (see UNIVERSALIST UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION). A famous sermon by William Ellery Channing (1780–1842) in Baltimore in 1819

made an inevitable split. The American Unitarian Association was formed in 1825, and nearly all of the older Congregational churches in eastern Massachusetts became Unitarian; Only one Congregational Church remained in Boston. Debate and lawsuits over property and trust did not end until around 1840. Despite Unitarian apostasy, Congregationalism continued to grow until a national supervisory authority became necessary. A council held in Boston in 1865 proved so effective that a regular system of councils was instituted. After interconference meetings in which the churches came together, the first of these national councils was convened in Oberlin, Ohio, in 1871. Known as the National Council of Congregational Christian Churches, it met biennially and served as a general advisory body. . . . for the whole brotherhood. The "wider brotherhood" was taken seriously; Unity and cooperation across denominational lines are hallmarks of Congregationalism. Once the largest youth organization in Protestantism, Christian Endeavor was founded in 1881 by a Congregationalist, Francis E. Clark (1851–1921). In 1885 it became non-denominational and known worldwide as the United Society of Christian Endeavor. In 1925, the Evangelical Protestant Church of North America joined the National Council of Congregational Churches in the Evangelical Protestant Conference of Congregational Churches. This group in turn merged with the Christian Church in 1931 to become the Congregational Christian Churches; and in 1957 this body merged with the Evangelical and Reformed churches to form the United Church of Christ. These affiliations testify to the expansion of fellowship and vision of Congregationalists.

CONGREGATIVE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES (National Association) Established: 1955 Members: 66,262 in 416 churches (2000) This association was formed to “preserve the historical forms of freedom and communion of the Congregation (the way of the Congregation)”. It is the largest of several congregational bodies that did not participate when the General Council of Congregational Churches and the Evangelical Reformed Church merged to form the United Church of Christ in 1957 (see UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST). The National Association brings together the local churches for advice, inspiration and fellowship, but preserves the independence and autonomy of the local churches. It describes its mission as encouraging and supporting local churches "in their development to become living and effective witnesses of Christ in the community."

There is no binding ecclesiastical authority and no binding creed or program. The members "are not united by a unified faith, but by acceptance of the purpose of a covenant to be 'the people of God.'" Membership allows each church to choose to participate in social and political issues and actions. A moderator chairs an annual meeting of representatives from all member churches; a twelve-member Executive Committee, elected for a four-year term, acts between meetings for the membership. The national conference hires an executive secretary and twelve staff members to oversee daily operations. The headquarters are in Oak Creek, Wisconsin. Six committees (Christian Education, Communications, Women's Ministries, Youth, Christian World Relations, and Spiritual Resources) work under the direction of the Executive Committee. Five departments of the National Association provide a Missionary Society, a Building and Loan Fund, the Congregational Endowment for Theological Studies, the Department of Church Service and Congregational Development. A unique feature of the organization is its Referendum Council, which, called by 10 percent of the churches and by a two-thirds majority, can change any action or proposal of any of the association's official or national bodies. There is extensive missionary work in the United States and the Philippines, Mexico, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Greece, Italy, Germany, Brazil, Central America, and southern India. The Congregationalist, a confessional magazine founded in 1849, was revived as a confederation newspaper in 1958.

CONSERVATIVE CONGREGATIVE CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE Established: 1948 Membership: 40,414 in 242 churches (1999) the beliefs, policies, and practices of historic Congregationalism. He continued the educational work through mimeographed documents until 1939, when his efforts were consummated in a monthly publication, The Congregational Beacon. He later became The Congregational Christian and eventually the bimonthly Foresee. A Conservative Congregational Christian Fellowship was organized in Chicago in 1945. The ongoing process of merging congregational bodies (see CONGREGATIVE CHURCHES) led to the reorganization of the Fellowship in 1948 into the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference. The creed of the conference is conservative and evangelical. It includes believing in: the inerrancy and authority of the Scriptures; the Trinity; Deity, virgin birth, sinlessness, atoning death, resurrection, ascension, and promised return of

Jesus Christ; rebirth by the Holy Spirit; the resurrection of both the saved and the lost; and the spiritual unity of all believers in Christ. The local churches are totally autonomous. An annual meeting of clergy and lay representatives from member churches elects a board and number of officers for the conference. National officers include a president, vice president, secretary, chief executive (conference minister), treasurer, and controller, all elected to three-year terms. The Board manages the assets and directs the general affairs of the Conference; An Executive Committee is composed of the Directors chaired by the President. Fifteen subcommittees guide the various efforts of the conference. The main offices are in St. Paul, Minnesota. Much of the work is in the areas of mission, church planting, and Christian education, and is carried out by well-known national and international evangelical organizations, Bible institutions, colleges, seminaries, and Sunday school publishers. The conference is particularly active in the areas of church work, pastoral care, and regional activities.

UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST Founded: 1957, colonial roots Membership: 1,401,682 in 5,961 congregations (1999) Four churches of great importance in American history make up the United Church of Christ: the Congregational Churches, the Christian Church (see CHRISTIAN CHURCHES) , the Evangelical Synod Church and the Reformed Church in the United States (see REFORMED CHURCHES). The first two bodies merged in 1931 to become Congregational Christian Churches. They were united in 1957 through the merger of the Evangelical and Reformed churches. Union was completed with the approval of the Constitution in Philadelphia in July 1961. On July 8, 1959, representatives of the Congregational Christian Churches and the Evangelical and Reformed Churches of Oberlin, Ohio, in the process of merging into the United Church of Christ, they took the following statement, which should be understood as "a testimony rather than a test of faith." We believe in God, the Eternal Spirit, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and our Father, and we bear witness to his works: he calls the worlds, creates man in his image, and sets before him the ways of life and of death. . In holy love he seeks to save all men from aimlessness and sin. He judges people and nations according to his righteous will, which is proclaimed through the prophets and apostles. He came to us in Jesus Christ, the man from Nazareth, our crucified and risen Lord, sharing our common lot, conquering sin and death.

and reconcile the world to itself. He gives us the Holy Spirit from him, creates and renews the Church of Jesus Christ, and brings together in an alliance the faithful of all ages, languages ​​and races. He calls us to his Church to accept the price and joy of discipleship, to be his ministers at the service of men, to preach the gospel to the whole world, to resist the forces of evil, to participate in the baptism of Christ and to eat at his table, to accompany him in his passion and victory. To all who trust in him he promises the forgiveness of sins and the fullness of grace, courage in the fight for justice and peace, his presence in trials and joy, and eternal life in his kingdom. that has no end Blessings and honors, glory and power be yours. Amen. Although this statement is not intended to establish doctrinal positions (the doctrinal and theological positions of the four churches now within the United Church of Christ remain as they were), or to supersede the historic creeds, creeds, and covenants of the churches involved, it is it served as evidence of the faith, charity and understanding of the affiliated groups. The United Church of Christ represents a union of Congregationalism and Presbyterianism. The Church establishes Congregationalism as the rule for the local church and Presbyterianism as the basis for organizing the communion life of the member churches. The constitution expressly states: “The autonomy of the local church is inherent and can only be changed by its own actions. anything . . . destroy or limit the right of any local church to continue as usual." Along with the local church there are associations, conferences and the general synod. The local churches in a geographical area are grouped into an association that looks after the welfare of the churches in their area. Serve communities in need; welcomes new churches to the United Church of Christ; license, ordain, and appoint clergy; adopts its own statute, rules of procedure and rules of procedure; and is composed of ordained clergy and elected lay delegates from the region. The associations meet regularly and refer to the General Synod through their conferences. The associations are grouped in turn into conferences by geographic area, with the exception of the Calvin Synod, a non-geographical conference made up of churches of the Hungarian Reformed tradition. Voting members of a conference are ordained ministers from the conference assemblies and elected lay delegates from local churches. A conference acts on requests and recommendations from local churches, conferences, general synods, and other bodies. It meets annually and its main responsibility is to coordinate the work and witness of its local churches and associations, provide advisory and consultation services, and establish conference offices, centers, institutions, and other agencies.

The General Synod is the highest representative body; it meets biennially and is composed of conference delegates and voting members of the board of directors of Church Covenant Ministries. The general synod nominates and elects a general minister and president, an assistant general minister, and members of the boards of directors of the Alliance ministries: Office of General Ministries, local church ministries, general church ministries, and Justice and Justice Services. Testifying. An Executive Council is elected by the General Synod to act on behalf of the Synod between its sessions. It recommends the salaries of church officers as part of the state budget, is responsible for church publications, prepares the agenda for all general synod meetings, and appoints committees not otherwise appointed. She also presents to the General Synod "any recommendation that she deems useful" for the work of the Church. The Church's headquarters are in Cleveland, Ohio, as is the Church's publisher, Pilgrim Press. Since 1985, the United Church of Christ has maintained an ecumenical partnership with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Both denominations are active in the consultation on the federation of churches; and are united in a common witness through Global Ministries committed to teaching and ministry throughout the world. The United Church of Christ continues to be at the forefront of cooperative Christianity, particularly through its ministries of education, community action, and ministry. 29 colleges and universities are affiliated with the United Church of Christ, six of which are historically African American. DIVINE SCIENCE Founded: 1898 Members: 16 Churches (2000) The principles and practice of Divine Science developed in the late 19th century through the work of Aletha Brooks Small, Fannie Brooks James, Nona Lovell Brooks (all sisters), and Malinda E. Cramer. When the sisters, who lived in Denver, Colorado, met Cramer from San Francisco, California, they all realized that they had independently developed similar ideas. They joined in 1898 and founded the Divine Science College and the First Divine Science Church of Denver. At the heart of divine science is the principle of the all-encompassing Spirit of God: "The principle of God's omnipresence means that He is the One Presence, containing all wisdom, power, and substance." Knowing this truth frees people to reach a larger concept of God and an understanding of his higher nature. According to Nona Brooks, the essence of Divine Science is "the practice of the presence of God." Followers carry out this practice through study.

the Bible and other writings (including the writings of the founders) through prayer, contemplation, and meditation. All of the Founders experienced divine healing and the emphasis on natural healing remains. Healing comes through understanding the nature of God and universal law, and is "the cleansing of the inner man of all that is different from God." Divine science does not deny the existence of visible matter, but interprets form and substance as manifestations of God. Practitioners believe that the human mind is connected to the divine mind. Thoughts, feelings, words, and actions affect a person's life, health, and circumstances. So, prayer is seen as a way to change one's mind, not a way to change God's mind. Jesus is recognized as a man who has realized all of his divine potential and is showing others the way to do the same. For many years, the local churches and the colleges of Divine Sciences were independent of each other. In 1957 some of the key preachers and workers joined together and organized the International Federation of Divine Science. This organization serves its member churches and centers and cooperates with Brooks Divinity School in Denver, which trains ministers, teachers, and practitioners, and Divine Science School in Washington, D.C. Churches, centers, and study groups exist in many of the greater United States. cities and abroad; The association's headquarters are in St. Louis, Missouri. Divine Science is also affiliated with the International New Thought Alliance.

EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES The Church of England is the Church of England that broke allegiance to the papacy during the Protestant Reformation. In doing so, however, the Church of England attempted to maintain unbroken historical continuity with the Christian Church in England from the early 4th century. The historic succession of bishops, or episcopate, is the visible sign of this long tradition of English Christianity, and as Britain established colonies around the world, the Anglican Church established itself throughout the world in various national forms, then the Empire. British. It has often been seen as a "middle ground" between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism and for the last five hundred years there has been tension in Anglican churches between those who prefer a more Catholic/traditional attitude and those who hold to more Protestant principles. It was King Henry VIII who first rejected papal sovereignty in favor of royal sovereignty in the 1530s. During the reign of his successor, Edward VI, the Anglican Church became more clearly Protestant and adopted the Book of Common Prayer, which it exerted considerable influence on the worship and devotion of all the English-speaking churches and the 42 Articles of Religion. (reduced to thirty-nine articles under Queen Elizabeth I). During the reign of Elizabeth I, tensions arose over issues of the episcopate, royal sovereignty, and the prayer book. The so-called Puritans advocated a more Reformed/Calvinistic style of Christianity (see CONGREGATIVE CHURCHES), but the episcopate was firmly rooted in the Anglican Church. Church after the English Civil War and the Interregnum in the 17th century. The Anglican Church took its present form during the era of Richard Hooker (ca. 1554-1600) in the late 16th century. Aesthetically oriented, it incorporates theology into the liturgy and makes use of the senses of sight, taste, hearing, and speech. This church is based on the traditional liturgy for its worship; but it is distinguished because it leaves undefined the exact nature of the communion bread and wine, which is considered a spiritual mystery. The church has no central authority, although the bishops are important symbols of unity. Its sources of belief and practice are the Bible, ecclesiastical tradition, and reason. Anglican clergy are called priests and have the authority of the apostolate. The Anglican Church came to the United States along with the English colonization. When Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540–1596) landed in what is now California in 1578, his chaplain, Francis Fletcher, set up a cross and read a prayer as Drake claimed the new lands for Elizabeth I. Later settlers reached Virginia Raleigh (c. 1552–1618) with Sir Walter, whose chaplain baptized a native named Manteo and the first English immigrant baby named Virginia Dare. With Captain John Smith (c. 1580–1631) came Chaplain Robert Hunt (c. 1568–

1608) spreading a candle between two trees for protection and reading the service from the Book of Common Prayer. In the southern colonies, the Church of England became the majority church, but many colonists, who emigrated to avoid royal authority on matters religious, they distrusted the majority church. The church was administered by the British clergy and maintained by taxes and public dues. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel was founded in England in 1701 to support the low-paid American clergy and spread the work of the church in the West. The American branch of the Church was technically under the authority of the Bishop of London, as there was no American bishop during the colonial period. This meant that colonial ministers had to travel a long way to England to be ordained and few could afford it. This, together with the rising tide of revolutionary fervor, placed the colonial Church of England in an unenviable position. However, the church prospered and membership grew rapidly. William and Mary College was founded in 1693; King's Chapel in Boston opened in 1689; In 1698 a church was founded in Newport, Rhode Island, and another, Trinity Church, in New York City. However, the American Revolution nearly destroyed the colonial Church of England. Under a special oath of allegiance to the king, the clergy fled to England or Canada, or remained loyal in the colonies in the face of persecution. However, the Church provided many leaders in the American cause, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, John Jay, Robert Morris, John Marshall, John Randolph, Charles Lee, and "LightHorse" Harry Lee. Nonetheless, the episcopate became popularly associated with the British Crown rather than independence. At the end of the war, the church had no bishop, no ecclesiastical association, and not even the semblance of an institution. Few thought that Anglicanism would have a future in the United States. However, the remaining clergy in the new nation reorganized the church, and in 1783 a conference of the church met in Annapolis, Maryland. They officially adopted the name "Protestant Episcopal Church". It was Protestant to distinguish it from Roman Catholicism, Episcopalian to distinguish it from the Presbyterian and Congregational churches. Also in 1783, Connecticut clergymen chose Samuel Seabury (1729–1796) as their future bishop. He went to England and waited a year for the consecration of the English bishops, which was refused. He then went to Scotland and was ordained there in 1784. Eventually, the British Parliament and the Church of England accepted the existence of a separate American church. Two other bishops-elect (from New York and Pennsylvania) were consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1787. In 1789, during the first session of the House of Bishops in Philadelphia, the church's constitution, the Book of Common Prayer, was approved.

revised for American use, and the Protestant Episcopal Church became an independent, self-governing body. Various splits and meetings would occur over time.

ANGLICAN CATHOLIC CHURCH Established: 1977 Membership: about 12,000 in 200 congregations (1988) In 1977 an International Congress of nearly 2,000 Anglican bishops, clergy and laity met at St. CHURCH, particularly women's ordination and prayer book revisions . From this assembly of conservative bishops emerged the Anglican Church of North America, which changed its name to the Anglican Catholic Church in 1978 with the approval of a constitution. This body affirmed belief in the seven ecumenical councils of the Church and commitment to Catholic principles. Bishop Albert Chambers was the head of the new body. The American dioceses of this international body use only the American version of the 1928 Book of Common Prayer. The Eucharist is celebrated every Sunday and on holidays, but it is recommended that it be celebrated daily. Clergy are expected to carry out daily services, including the monthly recitation of the Psalter. Seven sacraments are observed: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Marriage, Holy Orders, Penance, and Anointing of the Sick. After the 1977 Conservative Bishops' Convention, the Anglican Catholic Church continued to experience schisms and divisions. The province of Cristo Rei has been autonomous since 1979 and has some fifty parishes nationwide. The United Episcopal Church was founded in 1980. The Anglican Rite Jurisdiction of the Americas was formed in 1991 through the merger of the American Episcopal Church and a significant part of the Anglican Catholic Church.

EPISCOPAL CHURCH Charter: 1789 Membership: 2,317,794 in 7,390 parishes (1998) The largest body in the United States derived from the Church of England has been known simply as the Episcopal Church since 1967. It was one of the most influential churches in the history of United States and has provided many national leaders, including presidents, Supreme Court justices, and generals. In the 19th century, he also actively participated in the founding of Sunday schools, Bible societies, theological seminaries, schools, hospitals, boarding schools,

Guilds of men and women and a domestic and foreign missionary society. In 1830 the Protestant Episcopal Church had 12 bishops, 20 dioceses, 6,000 clergy, and 1,250,000 communicants. The Protestant Episcopal Church was the only major denomination not to split over the issue of slavery and secession from the Confederate States. There were New England ministers who were abolitionists, and a Louisiana bishop, Leonidas Polk (1806–1864), was a Confederate general for Lee; but Polk publicly prayed for Bishop Charles McIlvaine (1799–1873) of Ohio, and the Ohioan prayed for Polk. They were still in a church. A provisional Protestant Episcopal Church was established in the Confederate States to continue work in the South, but the names of the bishops of the South were still mentioned in the General Assembly in New York in 1862. After the end of the war, the episcopal house he quickly reassembled. The prayer book and episcopate remained the glue that held this diverse and active church together. W. A. ​​Muhlenberg (1796–1877) called for a broader Catholicism in the Protestant Episcopal Church, culminating in Chicago's famous 1888 Lambeth Quadrangle on Church Unity. Out of this activity came another revision of the American Book of Common Prayer in 1892. Members of the Episcopal Church profess two of the ancient Christian creeds: the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. The Articles of the Church of England, with the exception of 21 and the 8th, 35th and 36th Amendment, are accepted as general doctrine, but their observance is not required as a creed. Ministers also make the following statement: “I believe that the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the Word of God and contain everything that is necessary for salvation; and I solemnly vow to conform to the doctrine, discipline, and worship of The Episcopal Church. The Church expects its members to be faithful in all essentials to the "doctrine, discipline, and worship of the one, holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church," but to leave great latitude in non-essentials. It allows for variation, individuality, independent thought, and freedom of religion. Liberals and conservatives, modernists and fundamentalists find common ground for worship in the prayer book. Two sacraments, Baptism and the Eucharist, are recognized as "sure witnesses and effective carriers of God's love and grace." Baptism by pouring, sprinkling, or immersion is required for both infants and adults. Baptism by any Church in the name of the Trinity is recognized as valid. Baptized persons are confirmed as members of the Church by the bishop. Adults are considered confirmed when hands are laid on them at baptism. Without affirming or defining the sacred mystery, The Episcopal Church believes in the real presence of Christ in the elements of the Eucharist. The Church also recognizes it

a sacramental character in confirmation, penance, ordinations, marriages and anointing. The episcopal form of government is a federal association, each diocese autonomous in its own area, originally associated with others to maintain common doctrine, discipline, and worship. To these goals were added the unification, development and implementation of missionary, educational and social programs. Each diocese functions through a bishop (elected locally, with the consent of the episcopate and the clergy and lay representatives of the entire Church) who is the spiritual and administrative head. There is a diocesan legislature, made up of diocesan ministers and representatives of local parishes, which meets annually. a standing committee of clergy and laity, counselors and advisers to the bishop; and usually a program board. The typical model of the local congregation is the parish, which elects its own official (rector or priest), who is entrusted with the pastoral supervision of the congregation, and together with the guardians and representatives of the sacristy, administers temporal affairs and the property of the congregation. the congregation . . Each parish and parish district (mission or chapel) is represented at the annual diocesan assembly by its elected clergy and lay delegates (usually in proportion to the parish constituency); Each diocese is represented at the church's triennial general assembly by its bishop (or bishops) and representatives of clergy and laity, elected in equal numbers (currently four each). Between sessions of the General Council, the work of the Church is carried out by the presiding bishop and an executive council. The Church maintains its headquarters in New York City. Some Episcopal churches are "tall" with elaborate rituals and ceremonies; others are described as "low", with a less complicated ceremony and a more evangelistic emphasis. But everyone treasures the prayer book that contains the heart of New and Old Testament devotions. Members have built majestic cathedrals across the United States, including the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York City, the third largest in the world, and the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Saint Paul, the national cathedral in Washington, D.C. The stained glass windows, glowing altars, ornate choirs, and glorious rituals are not only beautiful, but also give believers a deep sense of the continuity of Christian spirit and tradition. Financial assistance is provided to fund US dioceses, Navajoland Episcopal Church (an area mission in the Southwest), and several small, mostly rural Western dioceses. Special emphasis is placed on city ministry, ministry in campus communities, and ministry in African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian American communities. Foreign representations are located in all US territories, as well as in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, India, Japan, the Middle East, Liberia, Mexico, Okinawa, Taiwan, and Central America. The Church sponsors twelve accredited seminaries in the United States and three abroad; nine faculties; a university; more than eighty nursing homes; around

ninety child and youth welfare institutions and agencies; and more than forty hospitals, nursing homes, and convalescent homes. It has religious orders of monks and nuns, sisters and brothers; nine communities for men, eleven for women and two for men and women. Two major developments in recent years have been the subject of debate and division in The Episcopal Church: the revision of the prayer book and the ordination of women to the priesthood. The 1976 General Assembly first approved the proposed Common Prayer Book, the first revision of the American Prayer Book since 1928 and the first to use contemporary language. However, much of the Elizabethan language was retained. The Holy Eucharist, the morning and evening prayers, the service for the dead, and all the collects for the church year appear in contemporary and traditional language; The 'Great Litany' of Archbishop Cranmer (1489-1556) has been slightly revised but appears in its traditional form. All other services, including those for baptism, marriage, confirmation, and ordination, were revised or rewritten in contemporary language. The new prayer book was overwhelmingly approved at the 1979 convention, and a new hymn book was approved in 1982, the first since 1940. In fact, it has to do with the historic doctrine of unbroken succession in the historic episcopate, the apostolic succession in which only men were ordained to the triple office of deacon, elder, and bishop. Opposition to the ordination of women came from two groups: those who believed that it was impossible for women to be priests, and those who believed that the General Convention, although it was the highest legislative authority in the Episcopal Church, had no right to decide this issue. without some kind of Ecumenical Council. The 1970 General Convention authorized the ordination of women to the diaconate. The ordination of women to the priesthood was finally authorized in 1976. In 1988, the Rev. Barbara C. Harris was elected auxiliary bishop of Massachusetts, and in February 1989 she was ordained as the first female bishop in the historic line of succession.

ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN EPISCOPAL ARCHDIOCESE OF AMERICA Established: 1963 Membership: approximately 6,000 in 200 churches (2000) Until 1999, this body was known as the Anglican Orthodox Church and was formed when the Rev. James Parker Dees resigned the priesthood from the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1963, to protest what he said was “a failure to firmly state Biblical doctrine and . . . his emphasis on the social gospel and pro-communist program.” His group tried to preserve traditional Anglicanism, particularly the belief in basic Biblical truths (King James).

and Morals, the 1928 Book of Common Prayer, the Thirty-nine Unrevised Articles of Religion, Sermons, the Teachings of the Anglican Reformers, and other fundamental Anglican traditions and Church government. Dees was ordained a bishop by Bishop Vasyl Sawyna of the Holy Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and Bishop Orlando J. Woodward of the Old Catholic Succession. Doctrines of the virgin birth, atonement on the cross, the Trinity, the resurrection, the second coming, salvation by faith alone, and the deity of Christ are emphasized. Church ministers are trained at Cranmer Seminary in Statesville, North Carolina. While the Orthodox Christian Episcopal Archdiocese of America has remained small in the US, it has sponsored movements in Africa and Asia that have grown exponentially. In 1999, the US corporation came under the jurisdiction of the Anglican Rite Synod in the Americas, which is under the jurisdiction of the Independent Catholic Church of the Philippines.

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNION OF CHARISMATIC EPISCOPAL CHURCH Founded: 1992 Membership: 600 parishes (2000) This communion, founded by Bishop Austin Randolph Adler, seeks to combine the Pentecostal/charismatic experience with liturgical worship. It is a new and growing community of charismatic churches that maintain their identification with traditional Episcopalianism. Harking back to the desire expressed by various evangelicals in the 1970s to connect with "historic Christianity", the church aspires to bring in evangelicals and charismatics who seek to bring the rich liturgical and sacramental life of the early church. The charismatic Episcopal Church clings to traditional Christian doctrine expressed in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds; The doctrine was explicitly formulated in the "1999 San Clemente Declaration". Church teaching gives priority to worship and liturgical practice in congregational life. By emphasizing that it is not a splinter group but a conscious religious community based on a rich theological and liturgical heritage, the community aims to be “a home for all Christians seeking a liturgical-sacramental, evangelical, charismatic church and to provide a foundation for their church life and service gifts.” The fellowship maintains relationships with groups in more than twenty countries and reports a worldwide communicative membership of more than 200,000 in approximately 1,000 parishes. As an Episcopal community, the leadership of the church is in the hands of the bishops, who are seen as pastors.

church and that they should be rectors in their own parishes. The offices of the patriarch and the general secretary are in San Clemente, California.

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE NEW APOSTOLIC CHURCH OF NORTH AMERICA Founded: 1862 Membership: 36,254 in 385 congregations (1999) The New Apostolic Church of North America is a variant or splinter of the Catholic Apostolic Church Movement in England, a movement that it goes back to Edward Irving (1792-1834), a Presbyterian minister in London. It is difficult to categorize this body, as it grew out of the evangelical movement in the Anglican Church, adopted some Pentecostal practices, and over the years has converged with Roman Catholic practice and devotion. The founders of the church believed in the imminent return of Christ and, in preparation for the eschaton, tried to re-establish the apostolic offices of the church. Then there were apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, etc. The twelve apostles held their first conference in 1835. The movement soon spread to the United States and Germany, where several Roman Catholic priests secretly became members. In 1860 there was a debate over the appointment of new Apostles to fill vacancies that had become vacant through attrition. Because of his insistence on twelve apostles at the head of the true church and his proposed election of new apostles, Bishop Schwarz of Hamburg was excommunicated from the Catholic Apostolic Church in 1862. To lead the dissident body, a priest named Preuss was chosen. to the apostolic office "by the spirit of prophecy," and Bishop Schwarz served under him until his own elevation to the apostolic office. Under Preuss and Schwarz, the New Apostolic Church spread from Europe to North America, where today it is organized into districts under apostles, bishops, and elders. This church teaches that only the apostles have received the commission and power from Christ to forgive sins. Each church has a rector and one or more assistants (priests, deacons, etc.) who generally serve without pay. All clergy and other "officers" are selected for the apostolate. The American Church is a member of the international organization headed by Chief Apostle Richard Fehr in Zurich, Switzerland. The New Apostolic Church in North America accepts the Apostles' Creed, but adds a series of articles emphasizing the authority and inspiration of the living Apostles, the Bible, the apostolic ordinances of laying on of hands, the necessity of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, freewill offerings, and the soon personal return of Christ before the millennium. Three means of grace are found in three sacraments: Baptism (also for infants), Holy Communion, and Holy Sealing (giving and receiving the Holy Spirit). In the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Porto, work is being done "along broader missionary lines and inland."

Rich. The international organization has more than nine million members in more than 52,000 chapters around the world.

REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH Established: 1873 Membership: approximately 6,400 in 125 parishes (1998) The Reformed Episcopal Church was organized in New York City by Bishop George D. Cummins (1822-76), eight clergy and twenty lay members of the Church Evangelical Episcopal Church. This body arose during the long-running Tractarian controversy in England and the United States, in which questions of ecclesiastical ritual and authority were at the fore. Cummins was an evangelical party leader who opposed the increased use of priestly vestments, jewelry and rituals in the Episcopal Church. He also protested what he saw as intolerance on the part of other Protestant churches among those influenced by the Oxford Movement, the movement in the Church of England that sought to restore 17th-century High Church ideas and practices. In October 1873, Cummins attended an ecumenical evangelical community service held at the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church in New York City. Faced with public criticism from other bishops, and believing that the Catholic nature and mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church was being lost, Cummins withdrew to found the new denomination. Later, in 1873, he drafted the Declaration of Principles, the foundation of the Reformed Episcopal Church, which is understood to "express the evangelical understanding of the 39 traditional articles of Anglicanism." The doctrine and organization are similar to those of the Mother Church, with a few notable exceptions. The Reformed Episcopal Church rejects the teachings that the Lord's Table is an altar on which the body and blood of Christ are presented anew to the Father, that the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper is in the elements of bread and came, and that regeneration is inseparable. is associated with baptism. He also denies that Christian ministers are priests in any way, except in the sense that all believers are a "royal priesthood." Ordained ministers in other churches are not reordained upon entering the Reformed Episcopal Church's ministry, and members are admitted on the basis of letters of resignation from other Protestant denominations. The cult is liturgical; Sunday morning services require the use of the Book of Common Prayer, which has been revised to remove certain priestly elements. Congregations may use the 1928 prayer book, its use is optional in other services, and the pastor may pray spontaneously in any service. Ecclesiastical and synodal units predominate in the administration of the church. The triennial general council is like the general convention of the Episcopal Church;

however, its bishops do not form a separate house. The Church has seven dioceses in North America (four in the US) and provides oversight work in India, France, Brazil, Uganda, and Germany. There are seminaries in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Summerville, South Carolina; and Shreveport, Louisiana.

EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF THE SOUTH Founded: 1962 Membership: Statistics not available Under the motto "Maintaining Unchanging Faith in a Changing World," this body represents another form of conservative Anglicanism in the United States. the Episcopal Church was threatened by liberalism and called for a return to traditional Anglican beliefs and practices (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES). Among the most important tenets of the Church are an emphasis on the truth of Scripture, the usefulness of the Apocrypha, and the immutability of ancient creeds. Bishop B. H. Webster became the first presiding bishop, followed by Bishop Huron C. Manning, Jr. in 1990. In 1992, The Episcopal Church of the South grew to five dioceses and mission districts, with congregations spread across the United States, Puerto Rico, Canada, Ireland and India distribute. The Church maintains a seminary in Port Richey, Florida.

Dating back to England in the 1650s, the Society of Friends or Quakers is an unconventional but respected Protestant body. Claiming the "Inner Light", the spiritual nerve center that God has placed in every human being, the Classical Friends deny the validity of the clergy, the liturgy and the sacraments. The fact that every human being has this internal spiritual gift made the friends work for equal rights for all people and therefore oppose slavery and were extremely helpful. Despite their small number, Friends had a deep and lasting impact on Western society. His contributions in the religious and humanitarian fields have earned universal respect and admiration, and his fidelity to his quiet faith offers both a challenge and an inspiration to all churches. History. The Society of Friends began with the vision of George Fox (1624-1691), a British seeker for spiritual truth and peace during the turmoil of the English Civil War and its aftermath. Having failed to find satisfactory truth or peace in the churches of his day, Fox found what he sought in a direct personal relationship with Christ: “When all my hopes in [the churches] are gone. . . I heard a voice say, "This is the inner voice or light, as described in John 1:9: 'the true light that enlightens every man who comes into this world.' (KJV)" '" That voice said Fox, is available to all and has nothing to do with the ceremonies, rituals or creeds that Christians fought for. Every heart is an altar and sanctuary to God. This idea of ​​the Inner Light was revolutionary. It implied that theology and dogma mean nothing, that people don't have to go to "steeples" to find God, and that it is wrong to pay taxes to support the clergy of the state church.This was seen as a rebellion, but Fox and his early followers went further. They not only refused to go to church, but also insisted on freedom of speech, assembly and worship. They would not take an oath in court and would not go to war. Hats off to everyone, whether they were kings or commoners, and made no distinction of gender or social class. They condemned slavery and England's treatment of prisoners and the insane. The names they adopted - Children of Truth, Children of Light and Friends of Truth - provoked ridicule and fierce opposition. When Fox stood trial in court and advised a judge to "tremble at the word of the Lord", the judge called him a "Quaker", coining a term that became the name of the movement. Quakers were flogged, imprisoned, tortured, maimed, and killed. Fox served six years in prison; others spent decades, some died there. From 1650 to 1689 more than 3,000 suffered remorse and 300 to 400 died in prison; but in spite of this persecution the group grew, and the Religious Society of Friends was founded in 1652. When Fox died in 1691, the Quakers numbered 50,000.

The friends soon carried their message to the American colonies. Ann Austin (d. 1665) and Mary Fisher (c. 1623–98) came to Massachusetts from Barbados in 1656. They were immediately accused of being witches and deported. Two days later eight more friends arrived from England. Laws were hastily passed to keep them out. The pillory was generous, but it did not deter the Quaker missionaries. Ultimately, four were hanged in Boston. Quakers continued to reach New England, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Rhode Island and Pennsylvania welcomed them from the start, and persecution in the communities did not end with the passage of the Toleration Act of 1689. William Penn (1644–1718), son of a British admiral, became the colony of Pennsylvania for the British crown. He made this colony a haven for his fellow Quakers. When he arrived in Philadelphia in 1682, he sat under an elm at Shackamaxon and made a treaty with the Indians, "the only treaty ever sworn or broken." Penn's "Sacred Experiment" allowed full religious tolerance in the Pennsylvania colony and turned the government away from religious affairs. This was a milestone on the road to full religious freedom in the United States Constitution. A new phase in Quaker life began as the persecution abated and the Quakers turned to business and agriculture. Known for their calm and honesty, many thrived. During this quiet period in the early 18th century, meetings and community life were well organized. It was a time of creativity and mystical inwardness, and close family life was emphasized. Quaker philanthropy increased and was widely admired. His prison reform ideas began to take effect, and his schools increased in number and attendance. The Quakers lost control of the Pennsylvania legislature in 1756 over taxes to pay for a war against the Shawnee and Delaware peoples. Quaker leaders, now looking inward rather than outward, began to impose such severe discipline on their members that they actually became a "peculiar people." members were kicked out or fired for minor violations; Thousands were cut off for "marrying outside of Réunion". Pleasure, music and art were taboo; Sobriety, punctuality and honesty in all matters were required; the dress was painfully simple; and the speech was biblical. They were "different" and did not smile; During this time they gained few new converts and lost many old members. During these years, divisions developed within the ranks. The Hicksites split in 1827, the Wilburites in 1845, the Primitives (a small group now defunct) in 1861. Of these splits, the one headed by Elias Hicks (1748-1830) is the chief concern. Hicks was a rural Quaker from Long Island, and his liberal and rational theological views brought him into conflict with those who were more orthodox and evangelical. Two-thirds of the Philadelphia annual meeting withdrew with the hicksites (a name never officially adopted), and similar splits followed in New York, Ohio, Indiana, and Baltimore. Other divisions were led by Joseph John

Gurney (1788–1847), whose followers gradually moved toward mainstream evangelical devotion, politics, and practice, and John Wilbur (1774–1856), a quietist who sought a return to traditional Quaker faith and practice. work of service and peace. Even during the quieter part of Quaker life, Friends continued to advocate peace, public education, temperance, democracy, and the abolition of slavery. In 1688, the Friends of Germantown, Pennsylvania, proclaimed that slavery violated the Golden Rule. It took Quakers nearly a century to free their own society from slavery, but they did so years before any other religious body in the United States. . Slave sellers or buyers were banished from society at the end of the 18th century. The writings of Friends John Woolman (1720–72) and John Greenleaf Whittier (1807–92) helped foster the abolitionist movement in American society, and after the Civil War ended, the Friends threw their strength into organizations such as the Freedman's Society Aid. Since then they have been committed to the education and legal protection of African Americans. During World War I, friends from all walks of life worked in the American Friends Service Committee (A.F.S.C.) in overseas relief and reconstruction efforts. The A.F.S.C. it remains one of the most effective agencies of its kind in the world. Its volunteers built folding houses, hospitals, farm fields, raised pets and drove ambulances. Anti-hunger and infant feeding programs have been introduced in Serbia, Poland, Austria, Russia and Germany. The A.F.S.C. and his British counterpart received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947. Friends served in the medical corps in both world wars and some saw combat. They also worked to help Japanese Americans displaced during World War II and worked with Brethren (see BROTHERS and PIETIST CHURCHES) and Mennonites (see MENONITE CHURCHES) to get conscientious objectors to get really big jobs on farms and reform schools, to locate hospitals and psychiatric institutions. No Quaker body ever departed from Charles II's statement in 1661: "The Spirit of Christ, who leads us into all truth, will never move us to fight and make war against a man with outward weapons, whether for that Kingdom of Christ nor by the kingdoms of this world". However, there is a lot of room for individual variation in this position. During World War II, the formal Quaker position favored candidacy for conscientious objector status, either as a non-combatant in the armed forces or alternative service. In the case of the Vietnam War, corporate positions changed to encourage men to refuse conscription and go to prison if necessary. In both cases the most varied positions were adopted; the emphasis was on following individual conscience. Friends who join the military are no longer barred from membership, but many leave the Society and join a non-pacifism church. On the other hand, pacifists who grew up in other traditions often join their friends in later life.

The friends are not satisfied with just working on relief efforts. Peace conferences have taken pride of place, from local to international and spanning all ages. Dozens of youth conferences and camps in the United States and abroad bear witness to Friends' dedication to the way of Christ as they understand it. Young Quaker volunteers at summer camps inspired goodwill between nations and minority groups within nations. Quakers have always valued education, emphasizing its importance among members of the various Groups of Friends and working to make it available to as many people in society as possible. Quaker affiliated colleges and universities include Bryn Mawr, Haverford, and Swarthmore Colleges in Pennsylvania; Guilford College in North Carolina; Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion in Indiana; Wilmington University in Ohio; Friends University in Kansas; Whittier College, California; and George Fox University in Oregon. worship and politics. The Inner Light is at the heart of Quaker theology and practice. The friends believe that grace, the power of God to help humanity do good and resist evil, is universal among all people. They do not strive for holiness but for perfection, a higher and spiritual standard of living for both society and the individual, and they believe that the truth is revealed and endures. They value the Bible, but prefer to trust the new individual guidance of God's Spirit brought by the Bible, rather than simply follow what has been revealed to others. Worship and business in the Society are conducted at monthly, quarterly, and annual meetings. The monthly meeting is the basic unit consisting of one or more meetings (groups) in a neighborhood. It meets weekly for worship and once a month for business purposes. Keeps records of membership, births, deaths, and marriages; appoint committees; considers matters of spiritual well-being; and do all the business. The monthly meetings meet four times a year in a quarterly meeting to stimulate the spiritual life and decide on all matters that must be presented to the annual meeting. The annual meeting corresponds to a diocese in an episcopal system. There are standing committees on topics such as publications, education, social order, mission, peace, charity, and national legislation; Income from trust funds is allocated and, in general, the work of the association is supervised. In business meetings of friends at all levels, there is often an open investigation into the business dealings of members and the treatment of others. The decisions of the group await the direction of the meeting. If the opinion is not unanimous, the meeting may have a "quiet moment" until agreement is reached, or it may defer consideration of the matter or refer it to a committee for investigation. The minority opinion is not defeated but persuaded. Every man, woman and child can speak freely at every meeting; Delegates are appointed at quarterly and annual meetings to ensure fair representation, but do not enjoy unusual privileges or status.

The officers, elders, and ministers of the Church are selected for their recognized spiritual leadership, but are equal to other members. For Friends, all members are clergy. Some full-time employees receive modest salaries, and "registered" ministers who serve as pastors in congregations where services are called also receive salaries. Worship can be planned or unscheduled, but the two are not always different. The first is more like an ordinary Protestant service, although there are no external rites or sacraments. Although the friends believe in spiritual fellowship, the participation of the elements is considered unnecessary. In unscheduled meetings there is no choir, assembly, singing or pulpit; The service is dedicated to silent meditation, prayer, and communion with God. Every vocal contribution is spirit driven. In the traditional Quaker marriage, the bride and groom simply stand in front of a gathering and pledge their love and loyalty to each other. In many pastoral meetings, however, the leader of the meeting is officiating. Friends once were exclusive, they are no longer. A worldwide reach was evident and increased in the closing years of the 20th century. Friends United Meeting and Friends General Conference are members of the World Council of Churches, and Philadelphia Yearly Meeting is affiliated with the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States. The Friends World Committee for Consultation (F.W.C.C.), organized after the Second World Conference of Friends in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, in 1937, acts as an agent or clearing house for the exchange of Quaker efforts and experiences through regional visits , national and international publications. , personal inquiries, lectures, correspondence and a variety of publications. The F.W.C.C. maintains a world office in London, England and is a non-governmental organization (NGO) established through collaboration with A.F.S.C. associated with the United Nations; helps implement a program at UN headquarters to promote world peace and human unity. A kind of worldwide fellowship has been formed in the Wider Quaker Fellowship where non-friends sympathetic to the spirit and program of Quakerism can participate in the work without becoming full members.

EVANGELICAL FRIENDS INTERNATIONAL Founded: 1990 Membership: 36,760 in 288 meetings (1995) This is one of the newest and largest Friends Meeting organizations in the United States. and denominational unity. The Evangelical Friends represent part of the general evangelical renewal that profoundly shaped American Christianity in the second half of the 20th century. However,

This evangelical Quaker movement also grew out of new research in the early years of Quakerism, which indicated its strongly Christ-centered evangelical character. Evangelical Friends is organized into six regions of the US, with committees dedicated to mission, education, youth work and communications. The service is scheduled and includes scripture readings, congregational singing, and a sermon by the pastor. Theology is generally conservative and Evangelical Friends cooperates with other evangelical groups. The main concern is the Great Commission (Matthew 28:19) to make disciples of all nations.

FRIENDS GENERAL CONFERENCE Constitution: 1,900 Membership: Approximately 32,000 at 620 meetings (1999) The Friends General Conference is a federation of fourteen annual meetings and regional meetings and seven monthly meetings of Friends (Quakers) in the United States and Canada. It is less of a denomination and more of a service organization that provides resources for annual and monthly meetings. Most of these gatherings are unscheduled, that is, worshipers gather in silence, waiting for one or more friends to be moved by the Holy Spirit to speak. Shepherds are not hired; The responsibilities assumed by pastors of other denominations are shared among the members of the congregation. This group of friends emphasizes the Quaker belief that belief is based on direct experience of God and that God is found within each individual. Friends General Conference serves members of affiliated meetings by preparing and distributing educational and spiritual materials, providing opportunities for Friends to share experiences and strengthening Quaker fellowship, and sponsoring monthly and annual meetings to enhance the spiritual and corporate life of Friends. the Friends promoted and supported. from North America It is best known for the annual "Friends Gathering", which attracts between 1,500 and 2,000 Quakers from all over North America. The offices of the General Association of Friends are in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The conference publishes various books and materials for religious education and supports Friends Journal, a magazine for friends and other seekers.

UNITED FRIENDS MEETING Founded: 1902 Members: 33,908 in 379 meetings (1999)

The United Friends Meeting brought together eighteen annual meetings in the United States and six abroad (in East Africa, Cuba, and Jamaica) in a cooperative relationship of a slightly different status. There are now twenty-seven congregations that work together in various departments, such as missionary service and the production of Sunday School materials. While each annual meeting is independent, they meet every three years for spiritual inspiration, business, and conferences. The ministries are carried out between the triennial meetings by two planning committees and the general meeting, which meets semiannually. Offices are in Richmond, Indiana, as is Friends United Meeting's publishing arm, Friends United Press. The print shop produces a wide variety of materials, from books of poetry and religious reflections to religious education materials and the monthly Quaker Life magazine. This group emphasizes the importance of personal religious experience and represents a creative balance between fundamental Quaker accents, evangelism and community involvement, mission and service, worship and service. Within the Friends United spectrum of meetings, friends of different faiths work together. It tries to fulfill its commitment as a classic "Church of Peace" and to support ministries throughout North America and the world. Its support of higher education, with seven universities stretching from North Carolina to the Midwest to California, is remarkable given the size of its membership. One seminary, the Earlham School of Religion, is located in Richmond, Indiana.

RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS (Conservative) Established: 1845; 1904 Members: est. 1500 (1999) This group, also known as the Wilburites, resulted from a schism over the nature of Scripture and the gift of ministry (see FRIENDS). Joseph John Gurney, a British evangelical Quaker who came to the United States in 1837, taught essentially evangelical doctrine, and his followers adopted conventional Protestant policy and practice. John Wilbur, a conservative friend from Rhode Island, while not denying the authority of the Bible and its teachings, believed that Gurney's preaching replaced the immediate revelation of the divine Spirit with a creed. Therefore, the term conservative refers to adherence to traditional Quaker beliefs and practices rather than to theological doctrines as such. Gurney and Wilbur had a large following and from 1845 to 1904 there were Quaker Secessions in various regions. Many of the divided friends coalesced throughout the 20th century, but some conservative friends remained outside the larger organizations. The main conservative group of Friends is the North Carolina Annual Meeting (Conservative) of the Religious Society of Friends. This group of friends dates back to the first annual meeting established in the state in 1698.

as a separate body in 1904 on the issues of the "immediate and perceptible leading of the Holy Spirit", the leading of Christ in the Church, and the traditional worship practice of Quakers. These friends work with other Quaker groups in various areas of ministry and intervention.

BIBLICAL/FUNDAMENTALIST CHURCHES Representing the most conservative form of Protestantism, socially and theologically, Fundamentalism was one of the strongest forces within American Christianity in the 20th century. It is also one of the most difficult to categorize and study due to the diversity within fundamentalism and the fact that fundamentalism exerts influence beyond the many different fundamentalist churches. Fundamentalist churches tend to be Congregational (see CONGREGATIVE CHURCHES) and Baptist (see BAPTIST CHURCHES); Therefore, the structure exists mainly at the local level. Pastors tend to start their own churches and work to turn them into large corporations loosely associated with like-minded churches. Rather than having traditional denominational structures, fundamentalist churches tend to establish a variety of cooperative services, such as radio and television services, sponsorship of foreign missions, and educational programs. Bible schools, often linked to local churches, are one of the mainstays of fundamentalism. Graduates of these Bible schools often serve in non-fundamentalist denominations. Fundamentalism grew out of American evangelicalism and the revival of the 19th century. Dwight L. Moody (1837–99), founder of the Moody Bible Institute, was one of the key figures in founding fundamentalist organizations, but the movement's roots go back to the Plymouth Brethren (see CHRISTIAN BROTHERS) of England. The early brothers renounced the clergy and encouraged all spiritually gifted members to preach, evangelize, and administer the sacraments. One of the leading preachers was John Nelson Darby (1800-1882), who emphasized the importance of Bible prophecy, especially the apocalyptic books, in understanding human history. Darby taught that history was divided into seven dispensations, the first six ending in a catastrophe like the great flood. The seventh dispensation will be the millennial age that Christ will usher in. Cyrus Scofield (1843–1921) made Darby's theory the centerpiece of his popular reference Bible in the early 20th century. Fundamentalism, therefore, went directly against modern trends in biblical scholarship and scientific theories about the origin, age, and evolution of the universe. The Basics: A Testimony of Truth was a popular series of pamphlets created to defend the Bible from critics. It appeared between 1910 and 1915 and contained nearly one hundred articles attempting to defend the deity of Christ, the virgin birth, the historic resurrection, the inerrancy of Scripture as the Word of God, and the reality of sin and Satan. World War I put the fundamentalist controversy on hold as Christians of all persuasions joined the war effort, but the fundamentalist controversy heated up in the 1920s when fundamentalist Baptists and Presbyterians (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES) fought to protect its churches of modernism. This first period ended

in Scope's famous 1925 Monkey Trial on the teaching of evolution in public schools. After this famous process, fundamentalists began founding separate churches, schools, and interchurch organizations. The founding of the State of Israel in 1948, which had been a key prediction of fundamentalist preaching, and the threat of nuclear destruction during the Cold War era gave new strength to fundamentalist preaching and writing. Prone to fractures and doctrinal disputes (like other Christian movements), fundamentalists have increasingly established cooperative ministries with other evangelicals since World War II. Many fundamentalist bodies are closely associated with the Holiness movement (see HOLINESS CHURCHES). Some of the major fundamentalist denominations are discussed below, but it should be noted that there are thousands of fundamentalist (or near-fundamentalist) organizations in the US.

AMERICAN EVANGELICAL CHRISTIAN CHURCHES Founded: 1944 Membership: Statistics not available The American Evangelical Christian Churches (AECC) is less of a denomination and more of an interchurch organization offering clergy credentials. The communities affiliated with the AECC are autonomous but subscribe to a fundamentalist creed. AECC-accredited ministers serve in a variety of roles, including prison chaplaincy, military and hospital chaplaincy, and liaison with truckers, motorcyclists, and others without permanent Christian fellowship. Ministerial candidates must subscribe to the "Seven Articles of Faith": (1) the Bible as the written Word of God; (2) the virgin birth; (3) the deity of Jesus Christ; (4) salvation through the atonement of Christ; (5) live in prayer; (6) the return of Christ; and (7) the establishment of the millennial kingdom. Upon completion of training, ministry students receive licenses that allow them to perform all ministry functions and positions, with the exception of the marriage position. Full ordination is withheld until the licensee becomes a pastor of a regular church or engages in full-time evangelistic or missionary work. Twelve regional offices in the United States and one in Canada oversee the organization's work.

BAPTIST BIBLIA FELLOWSHIP INTERNATIONAL Founded: 1950 Members: Approximately 1,200,000 in 4,500 congregations (1997)

The Baptist Bible Fellowship was founded by about one hundred Baptist ministers and missionaries (see BAPTIST CHURCHES) to promote fellowship among independent Baptists in three major areas of church life: evangelism, training church workers, and church planting. Many of the founders belonged to the World Fundamental Baptist Missionary Fraternity, which grew out of the Baptist Bible Union founded in 1921. The Baptist Bible Union's creed was based on that of the Baptist Bible Union. It is strongly fundamentalist in character and emphasizes the inerrancy of Scripture, the virgin birth, the deity of Christ, the vicarious atonement, the resurrection of the body of Christ, biblical miracles, and the literal millennial reign of the earth. Ministers and parishioners of English-speaking churches use only the King James Version of the Bible. The Baptist Bible Fellowship also teaches that Jesus was a Baptist in thought and deed. They recognize baptism by immersion only, commune only with members of their own church, and vehemently oppose dancing, drinking, smoking, movies, gambling, and extramarital sex. No formal membership statistics are kept, but there are approximately 850 missionaries working in more than 100 mission fields around the world. In the US, its greatest strength lies in the Great Lakes region and the Southwest. Baptist Bible College in Springfield, Missouri, and Baptist Bible College East in Boston, Massachusetts are owned and maintained by these independent Baptists. The Baptist Bible School of Theology was recently established in Springfield, Missouri. Other schools supported by scholarships include the Pacific Coast Baptist Bible College and the Spanish Baptist Bible Institute in Miami, Florida.

BAPTIST MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA Constitution: 1950 Membership: 234,732 in 1,334 congregations (1999) This group was organized in Little Rock, Arkansas as the North American Baptist Association and changed its name to the Baptist Missionary Association of America in 1968. Encourage and encourage missionary cooperation . There are national missionaries and foreign missionaries in Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Taiwan, Portugal, Cape Verde Islands, Uruguay, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Australia, Italy, France, Africa, India, Bolivia, Honduras, Korea. and the Philippines. A strong publishing department publishes literature, pamphlets, books, pamphlets, and magazines for Sunday school and formation classes in English and Spanish. The association also owns and operates a printing press in Brazil, which prints literature in Portuguese for use in Africa and Europe. A worldwide radio ministry is also maintained.

Thoroughly fundamentalist in their beliefs, members place great emphasis on verbal inspiration and scriptural accuracy, direct creation, the virgin birth and deity of Jesus, his blood atonement, justification by faith, salvation alone. by grace and the imminent personal return of Christ to life. .Land. The Lord's Supper and baptism are accepted as ordinances, and baptism is considered "foreign" unless it is administered to believers by divine authority granted to missionary Baptist churches. With its roots in the American Baptist Association, this body perpetuates the Landmark Baptist movement (see BAPTIST CHURCHES) and maintains the historic lineage of independent Baptist churches from the time of Christ. The churches are fully autonomous in the Baptist tradition and, regardless of their size, have an equal voice in the association's cooperative missionary, publishing, evangelistic, and educational efforts. However, member churches must adhere to the doctrinal standards of the association. At the state level, there are three community colleges and several homes for orphans, and there is a theological seminary in Jacksonville, Texas.

BEREAN FUNDAMENTAL CHURCH Founded: 1947 Membership: Approximately 8,000 in 51 churches (1997) In the mid-1930s, Dr. Ivan E. Olsen became the first pastor of Berean Fundamental Church, an independent congregation on North Platte, Nebraska. Following the biblical principle of evangelism found in Acts 1:8, Olsen helped plant sixteen more churches in surrounding churches. In 1947, the churches formed the Berea Fundamental Church Council, Inc. Today there are churches in eight states: California, Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, South Dakota, Oregon, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and one in Manitoba, Canada. The member churches have a common constitution that emphasizes the basic tenets of Christianity and the full and verbal inspiration of the Scriptures (the inerrancy of the Bible in all matters of faith and morals); the virgin birth of Christ; the divinity of Christ; blood atonement; the bodily resurrection of Christ; and Christ's return to earth after the rapture and before the millennial reign. Local congregations are also Bible-focused and evangelistic. The founding Berean churches support a variety of independent faith missions, attract pastors from various seminaries and Bible institutes, and freely choose their own Sunday school curriculum and literature. The Berean Fundamental Church Council, Inc. supports its own Maranatha Bible camp and conference site near North Platte.

BIBLIA COMMUNION CHURCHES Charter: 1858 Membership: 7,169 in 56 churches (1998) This body was organized in the 1850s when Mennonite leaders (see MENNITE CHURCHES) in Pennsylvania opposed the more evangelical style of some of the younger generation. Evangelical Mennonites formed a separate group. It was originally called the Evangelical Conference, but was renamed in 1959 when a new creed was adopted. The church now has a more fundamentalist outlook while retaining some of its Mennonite heritage. The tenets of Bible Fellowship Church include salvation through the death and resurrection of Christ, life transformed through birth again by the Holy Spirit, the authority and trustworthiness of the Bible as the word of God, the culmination of story at the return of Jesus (premillennialism). ) and a life together in the church of believers, with each member responsible for spreading the gospel through evangelism and mission. The churches are located primarily in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Ontario, Canada. Churches support missions on five continents, Pinebrook Junior College, Victory Valley Children's Camp, a retirement home, and Pinebrook-in-the-Pines, a conference and retreat center, all in Pennsylvania.

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF THE BIBLE Founded: 1938 Membership: about 10,000 in 32 congregations (2000) On June 11, 1936, during the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy, a group of about 300 led by J. Greshammachen (1881-1937) from the Princeton Theological Seminary, met in Philadelphia to organize a new Bible-based church. The name chosen was the Presbyterian Church of America, and Machen was unanimously chosen as the first moderator. A year later it became clear that the new church was actually made up of two groups with such different views that it was impossible to continue their unity. So, on September 6, 1938, a group formed the Bible Presbyterian Church; the other retained the name Presbyterian Church of America, but was denied by the courts, and later adopted the name Orthodox Presbyterian Church. The founders of the Bible Presbyterian Church have stated their fundamental beliefs: “We are convinced that the great struggle in the world today is the faith of our fathers against modernism, compromise, indifference and worldliness. With all our hearts we give our strength to the great work of winning lost souls to Jesus Christ through the gospel of God's grace."

In 1941, Biblical Presbyterians joined with other like-minded churches to form the American Council of Christian Churches, in opposition to the National Council of Churches; In 1948 the International Council of Christian Churches was formed to provide worldwide membership (membership in 1998 included 700 branches in over 100 countries). The word Bible is included in the name of this church to emphasize its biblical position. He is a fundamentalist through and through and adheres to the Westminster Standards (the Creed, the Shorter Catechism, and the Larger Catechism). He opposes all forms of social gospel and liberation theology, and refuses to cooperate with those who compromise doctrines such as the inerrancy and inerrancy of the Bible, the virgin birth and deity of Christ, His atoning blood, and physical resurrection. , and His literal twist. . It also opposes the policies of the US National Council of Churches of Christ and the World Council of Churches, calling it a "historical Christianity movement." Ownership of the local church rests with the church itself. Local congregations may call their pastors "without interference" from presbyteries or synods. Any church can withdraw at any time "for reasons sufficient to do so." The work of the church is carried out by independent agencies rather than denominational bodies. Approved agencies include Western Reformed Seminary, Cohen Theological Seminary, Faith College of the Bible, and two independent Presbyterian mission boards, one overseas and one local. Presbyteries and synods are assemblies for edification and fellowship, not administration. The largest stronghold is in the Midwest.

CHRISTIAN AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE Founded: 1887 Membership: 347,973 in 1,973 churches (1999) A. B. Simpson (1843–1919), a Presbyterian minister (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES) in New York City, left that church in 1882 to pursue an evangelistic ministry independent in training by two societies: the Christian Alliance for missionary work in the country and the Evangelical Missionary Alliance for work abroad. These united in 1897 and formed the Christian and Missionary Alliance. The Alliance remained a confederation for over seventy-five years, but formalized its status in 1974 with statutes and a constitution. The strongly evangelical Alliance believes in the inspiration and inerrancy of the Bible, the atoning work of Christ, the reality of supernatural religious experience, sanctification, and the millennial return of Jesus Christ. It emphasizes the central position of Christ as Savior, Saint, Healer, and King to come.

The alliance has ministries in 66 countries. Twenty-one geographic and ten intercultural districts operate in the United States and Puerto Rico. Ethnic groups include Cambodian, Dega, Haitian, Hmong, Jewish, Korean, Laotian, Native American, Hispanic, and Vietnamese. Each member church or group is engaged in missionary and evangelical activities. A general conference of delegates, the General Council, meets annually in various cities throughout the United States. The Christian and Missionary Alliance in Canada became autonomous in 1980 but continues to send and assist missionaries abroad along with the United States Alliance. True to its original purpose, the Alliance sponsors the work of foreign missions in Latin America, Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. There are more than 1,000 Alliance missionaries and nearly 15,000 national pastors and staff ministering to nearly two million people. When the Charismatic Assembly of God was formed, about a tenth of that constitution resulted from people leaving the Christian and Missionary Alliance. The two groups have highly unified histories, are similar in doctrine, and share ties of community.

CHRISTIAN BRETHERS (Plymouth Brethren) Founded: 1820 Membership: approximately 100,000 in 1,150 churches (1997) Plymouth Brethren is a common but unofficial term for a loose grouping of churches with roots in the British Isles in the early 19th century. Within these churches, the usual terminology is simply "Brethren" or "Christian Brethren", but they are to be distinguished from Sister churches associated with the Pietist movement (see BRETHERS and PIETISTIC CHURCHES). Similar to restorationist bodies in the US, the early brethren envisioned a basis for Christian unity by abandoning denominational names and structures in favor of simply coming together as Christians. The autonomy of the local church is another feature of the movement, along with the doctrinal understanding that a church is not a building but the gathering of people who meet there. The hour-long weekly "Memorial Meeting" is probably the surest way to identify a congregation of brethren. The centrality of the communion service is characteristic: in the sense of "priesthood of all believers" the service is unstructured. The Brethren have consistently refused to restrict the administration of baptism or the Lord's Supper to ordained ministers, effectively eliminating the distinction between clergy and laity and the traditional concept of ordination. Everyone in the congregation, male or female, is free to speak. A minister may serve full-time in a church, but is not identified as a minister or given control of the church.

The brothers are committed to all the essentials of conservative Christianity, including the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures. It emphasizes the preaching of the gospel and the need for personal conversion. With the exception of the weekly breaking of bread and the absence of collections at other meetings, their services are similar to those of Evangelical Baptists (see ANAPTIST CHURCHES) or Independent Biblical churches. Among American evangelicals, the Brethren had an influence out of proportion to their numbers. His age-old theology helped shape evangelicalism, particularly in the proliferation of independent churches and missions. Many responded to the Brethren's emphasis on plurality of leadership and participatory worship in the local church. Brethren are also characteristically found in leadership positions in nondenominational evangelism campaigns and in the founding and administration of nondenominational Bible schools, colleges, seminaries, and parachurch organizations. They have only one perennial university-level institution, Emmaus Bible Institute in Dubuque, Iowa. As a result of a split in England in 1848, there are two basic types of assemblies, commonly known as exclusive and open. Exclusive congregations, led early by John Nelson Darby (1800-1882), produced most of the movement's foremost Bible teachers, such as William Kelly and others. They assumed that disciplinary measures taken by one congregation were binding on all. Accordingly, the division, once started, continued until, towards the end of the century, the exclusive brethren divided into seven or eight main groups. Recent mergers have reduced that number somewhat, and a large American group has joined forces with open caucuses. The open meetings were led by George Muller (1805–1895), known for his orphanages and his life of faith. The strength of the brothers has always been in evangelization and foreign missions. Without the exclusive disciplinary premise, local disputes only spread to the extent that there is interest and involvement; therefore, open assemblies have never experienced world division. The brothers are strongest in Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Florida, Michigan, Illinois, New Jersey, Iowa, and California. Outside of the Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas, there are only isolated congregations in the western half of the United States.

CONSERVATIVE BAPTIST ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA (CBAmerica) Founded: 1947 Membership: Approximately 200,000 in 1,200 congregations (1998) The Conservative Baptist Association officially describes itself as "a voluntary association of sovereign, self-governing, independent, Bible-believing Baptists."

churches". The founders of this association were active in an earlier organization known as the Fundamentalist Fellowship, formed within the (then Northern) American Baptist Convention in 1920 (see BAPTIST CHURCHES). This group of religious conservatives opposed what they saw as the infiltration of liberal and modernist tendencies and doctrines into this convention. The basic disagreement was doctrinal in nature, relating to fundamentally different views and interpretations of Scripture and theology. The dispute was exacerbated by the inclusive policies of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, which sent missionaries of both conservative and liberal theology to the country and abroad. As an association, this body should be distinguished from the Conservative Baptist movement as a whole. Various Conservative Baptist institutions, such as the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society, the Conservative Baptist National Missions Society and various schools and colleges, function as part of the movement but are separate from the association. The association's work includes providing resources and personnel in the areas of Christian education, leadership training, church planting, financial services for ministers and staff, trust services, women's ministries, and retiree counseling services; service in the pastoral office; printing and distribution of literature, books and Sunday school supplies; approval of chaplains for the US military; and providing a national magazine, The Conservative Baptist. In doctrine the Church defends the infallibility of Scripture; God as Father, perfect in holiness, infinite in wisdom, immeasurable in power; Christ as the eternal and only begotten Son of God: his sinlessness, virgin birth, atonement, resurrection, and ascension; the Holy Spirit that comes from God to convince the world of sin, justice and judgment; the sinfulness of all human beings and the possibility of being born again, sanctified and comforted by Christ and the Holy Spirit; the church as a living body, with Christ as head; the local church as free from interference by ecclesiastical or political authority; the responsibility of each man only before God; and the ordinances of baptism and the Lord's Supper. Union and regional leaders are elected at annual meetings; A board is made up of the directors of the association and eighteen regional representatives who are elected for three years. The Association maintains offices in Littleton, Colorado. It supports five schools, including seminaries in Portland, Oregon, Denver, Colorado, and Dresher, Pennsylvania, with expanding campuses in other states.


Established: 1944 Membership: approximately 60,000 in 128 churches (1992) Dispensational and premillennial, this fellowship had its beginnings as a fellowship of pastors at a conference of pastors and missionaries at the Berean Bible Church in Indianapolis, Indiana, in the year 1943 later, In Evansville, Indiana, its purpose was laid out in a constitution: “To promote a fellowship among those who believe in the truths contained in [our] doctrinal statement and the gospel of the grace of God on this earth and in announcing it to the whole world.” . This doctrinal statement involves belief in the Bible as inerrantly inspired by God; in the total depravity of the human race; in redemption by the grace of God through the blood of Christ through faith; in eternal security for the saved; in the gifts of the Spirit (as listed in Ephesians 4:7-16); and that the human nature of sin will never be eradicated in this life. Its members believe in the baptism of the Holy Spirit, but hold that water baptism, though biblical, is not relevant to the present dispensation. Any church can vote to join the Grace Gospel Fellowship as long as it meets doctrinal standards. Outside of the US, there are over 1,000 churches in Zaire, Puerto Rico, India, the Philippines, Australia, South Africa, Tanzania, and South America. Grace Bible College and Fellowship is headquartered in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Closely associated with Grace Gospel Fellowship are Grace Ministries International, Grace Publications, and Grace Youth Camp in Indiana.

INDEPENDENT FUNDAMENTAL CHURCHES OF AMERICA (IFCA International, Inc.) Founded: 1930 Membership: 61,655 in 659 churches (1999) This body was organized in Cicero, Illinois by representatives of various independent churches anxious to preserve fundamental doctrines. Members must accept inerrant verbally inspired Biblical teachings; the virgin birth, deity, and sinless life of Jesus Christ; the death, burial and resurrection of Christ to bring salvation to all; the person and work of the Holy Spirit; the reality of Satan and his destructive work today; the personal and physical return of Jesus Christ; and the bodily resurrection of all men, some for eternal life and others for "eternal punishment". This body is less of a traditional denomination and more of an agency that sponsors churches and autonomous ministries. There are two types of membership: one for churches and organizations, another for ministers, missionaries, evangelists, and lay people. It is heavily involved in various forms of chaplaincy, particularly military and prison chaplaincy. It also edits the magazine Voz y

other materials dedicated to evangelical/fundamentalist ministries. There are five Bible camps, seven Bible institutes, and two children's homes. Conferences are regularly scheduled to promote fellowship between churches and fundamentalist workers. The President of the Board presides over an annual conference in which members have the right to vote; a twelve-member executive committee serves for three years. Individual churches are completely independent but must adhere to the creed of the organization. A home office is maintained in Grandville, Michigan.

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HOLY CHURCHES The Holiness movement grew out of the Methodist Church in the mid-19th century (see METHODS CHURCHES). Early Methodist ministry in the United States focused primarily on conversion and church enlargement, sometimes neglecting John Wesley's (1703-1791) emphasis on sanctification and the pursuit of perfection. As Methodism became established, there was a renewed interest in the doctrine of perfection. One of the key figures in this revival of holiness doctrine was the itinerant evangelist and author Phoebe Palmer (1807-1874), who experienced sanctification by the Holy Spirit in 1837. She worked tirelessly to lead others to a similar experience. of holiness. By the end of the 19th century, the Holiness movement had spread across the country and was becoming a source of controversy in local Methodist churches. divided communities; Holiness-oriented ministers left the Methodist Church to work independently; and a multitude of small churches, often with "stained glass windows," have sprung up in virtually every community in the United States. Over time, many of these independent churches formed denominations. Holiness doctrine generally rejects many forms of popular entertainment, including dancing, movies, popular music, makeup, costumes, gambling, drinking, and smoking. In many ways, the Holiness movement represents a counterculture movement in the United States, but its followers continue to live and work in the larger society. Many Holiness churches use the word apostolic in their names to emphasize their goal of returning to the New Testament church life when the Holy Spirit has been felt to be particularly active. After 1900, many in the holiness movement accepted other works of the Holy Spirit, such as speaking in tongues and physical healing (see Pentecostal Churches). Because the Holiness movement focuses more on lifestyle and a conversion experience followed by sanctification, it must be distinguished from the more doctrinally oriented fundamentalist movement. However, there was a great deal of cross-fertilization between these two forms of conservative Protestantism.

APOSTOLIC CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF AMERICA Founded: 1830 (arrived in US in 1847) Membership: 12,800 in 91 churches (1999) This is the only holiness group to have its origins in Europe. It all started in Switzerland when H.H. Froehlich had a dramatic conversion experience that she felt shaped

the New Testament model of Christian experience. Froehlich's church initially adopted the name Evangelical Baptist, but adopted the Apostolic title because it embraced the doctrine of holiness. Froehlich himself came to the United States in the 1850s and ministered to Swiss and German immigrants in the Midwest. At that time, another Swiss pastor named Benedict Weyeneth had already organized the first church in the United States, in upstate New York. The theology of the church is conservative and reflects some concerns of German Pietism (see BROTHERS and PIETIST CHURCHES). The basic doctrine is salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ. Those who are saved experience a change of heart through rebirth and a life of godliness guided and directed by the Holy Spirit. The Church consists of Christ-converted, born-again and baptized members, who are seeking sanctification, and of friends of the truth, who earnestly and earnestly seek God's acceptance in Christ. Members are characterized by living in simplicity, separation from worldliness, and obedience to the Bible, which is considered the inerrant Word of God. Family members may serve in the armed forces but may not carry weapons, as this violates the principle of loving the enemy. Although they strive to be good citizens, they do not take oaths. The local churches are independent in politics but united in basic organization. Each church is administered by elders who have authority to baptize, lay hands, administer the sacrament, and hold meetings to exercise church discipline. There are no educational institutions for the clergy and they are not paid. Also, they should not prepare sermons, but rely entirely on the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. There is close fellowship and a strong sense of community throughout the denomination, as evidenced by the observance of the kiss of peace. The teaching authority and the government of the national church rest in a council of about fifty elders. A smaller related body is called the Christian Apostolic (Nazarene) Church.

APOSTOLIC FAITH CHURCH Founded: 1907 Membership: approximately 4,500 in 50 churches (2000) This body was founded in Portland, Oregon by the Rev. Florence L. Crawford to “compose all the doctrines taught by Christ and His apostles in the days of the The early Church was to restore, defend, and teach." The Church is Trinitarian, Fundamentalist, and Arminian in theology. It presents the principles of fundamentalism, emphasizing justification by faith, full sanctification, and

The baptism of the Holy Spirit as witnessed at Pentecost. There are branches in several other countries, with more members in Africa than in the United States. Although the church maintains baptism records, there are no membership records. Being born again and subscribing to the group's teachings are prerequisites for membership. It is a church without a plate where no offerings are collected during the service. True to the Holiness tradition, secular entertainment (dancing, theatre, card games, drinking, smoking) is prohibited. Members must dress conservatively and marriage with non-believers is not permitted. The governing bodies consist of a board of five trustees, chaired by the denomination's general superintendent, and a board of twenty-four elders. Portland is home to the church's headquarters, a camp, and a publishing house that distributes evangelical literature in more than sixty languages ​​and dialects.

APOSTOLIC VICTOR SANTA IGLESIA DE DIOS Founded: 1916 Membership: 10,714 in 129 churches (2000) Bishop W. T. Phillips (1893-1973), formerly a member of the Methodist Church (see METHODIST CHURCHES), devoted himself to teaching the doctrine of holiness and holiness After four years of study and preaching on the subject, he founded the Ethiopian Church of God, Holy Overcoming, in 1916 in Mobile, Alabama. Later, "Ethiopian" was changed to "Apostolic". Church ministers, both men and women, serving in 22 states, the West Indies, Haiti, and Africa are supported by tithing. Worship includes foot washing and divine healing. Worship services are often emotionally expressive, with participants speaking in tongues and engaging in ecstatic dances. This church is said to have existed since the days of Enos, when Christianity was known in Abyssinia. Intermarriage with the unsaved, the use of tobacco, idle talk, joking, and the use of slang are prohibited. The doctrine emphasizes sanctification and holiness, along with the deity of Christ, the final resurrection of the dead, and the punishment of the wicked at the time of final judgment at Christ's second coming. A special relief fund covers the needs of orphans, widows, the elderly and the disabled. A publishing facility is located in the main building in Birmingham, Alabama. An executive bishop and six other bishops oversee the work of the church; A general assembly meets every June, composed mainly of representatives of the local churches.

CHURCH OF CHRIST (Holiness) USA Established: 1894 Members: 10,383 in 167 churches (1998) A Baptist minister in Alabama and Mississippi, C. P. Jones, searching for a new church and a new faith that would make him “one of the true children of wisdom” would do. . . like Abraham, friend of God”, he founded this church. The body maintained its emphasis on holiness while other early black churches transitioned to Pentecostalism (see Pentecostal churches). The Church of Christ (Holiness) seeks to spread the gospel throughout the world, save those who have strayed from the faith, encourage believers to experience sanctification, and facilitate divine healing. The Church also has a strong eschatological focus. In doctrine, the Church emphasizes original sin, the Holy Spirit as the indispensable gift of every believer, and the Atonement and the Second Coming of Christ. There are two sacraments: baptism and communion. Foot washing and divine healing are used as aids to the growth of spiritual life. The church has bishops who speak for the church, but its government is representative, with ultimate authority vested in a biennial assembly made up of local elders, clergy, and lay leaders. There are seven dioceses, each headed by a bishop. Missionary work is done in the US, Liberia and Nigeria. The Church supports Christ Missionary and Industrial College in Jackson, Mississippi, and a national publishing house in Chicago, Illinois.

CHURCH OF GOD (Holiness) Foundation: 1886 Affiliation: est. 8,000 in about 140 churches (2000) The Church of God (Holiness) is a federation of autonomous congregations founded by former Methodist Churches (see METHODIST CHURCHES) that were active in the Southwest Holiness Association. They believed that complete sanctification was a biblical teaching that described the doctrine as a second definitive work of God's grace in the believer's heart and life after regeneration, at which time the believer is cleansed from the effects of sin. original and completely subject to control. hand of the Holy Spirit. The Church today has about 120 English-speaking congregations centered in Missouri and Kansas and a rapidly growing ministry among Hispanics in the United States. The Home Missions Department also works with Haitian immigrants in New York City and sponsors a Navajo mission in the Southwest. The Department of World Missions has works in Bolivia; Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, British West

India; Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands, British West Indies; St. Croix and St. Thomas, Virgin Islands; Anguilla, Jamaica, Tortolla and Virgin Gorda, British West Indies; Nigeria; Mexico; and Ukraine. In addition to Kansas City College and the Bible School in Overland Park, Kansas, the Church operates many day schools across the United States and maintains Harmony Hill Youth Ministries near Fulton, Missouri. The printer is Herald and Banner Press, which produces Sunday school literature for all ages, devotional books, and The Church Herald magazine and Holiness Banner. Annually in the month of June a general assembly is held, to which each municipality can send delegates representing their interests, depending on the allocation of the size of the local entity. The main function of the General Council is to elect members to the boards and committees of the church.

CHURCH OF THE NAZARENE Charter: 1908 Membership: 627,054 in 5,101 congregations (1998) The Church of the Nazarene is one of the largest and most influential holiness organizations and one that holds true to its Wesleyan roots. The Church was formed from the merger of three independent holiness groups that already existed in the United States. In 1907, an Eastern Holiness organization, the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America, with headquarters primarily in New York and New England, merged with a California organization, the Church of the Nazarene. The two churches agreed on the name "Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene." Then, in 1908, this body merged with a southern group known as the Holiness Church of Christ. In 1919, the word Pentecostal was given a different connotation, and the church dropped it from the name. Although many participated in the organization of the Church, perhaps the leading figure was Phineas F. Bresee (1838–1916), who became its first general superintendent. The theological background of the Church is Wesleyan. Four of the first five General Superintendents of the Church of the Nazarene, including Bresee, were former Methodist ministers (see METHODIST CHURCHES), and the Church manual is similar to the Methodist Book of Discipline. The doctrine of the church is based on the justification and sanctification of believers by faith. This includes the entire sanctification of the believer as the second work of grace after regeneration. All ministers, both men and women, and local church officers must profess this experience of complete sanctification. Other teachings include belief in the full inspiration of the Scriptures which contain all the truths necessary for Christian faith and life; Christ's atonement for all mankind (ie Arminianism); justification, regeneration, etc.

adoption of all repentant believers in Christ; the second coming of Christ; the resurrection of the dead; and the final sentence. Members believe in divine healing but never exclude medical facilities. The consumption of tobacco and alcoholic beverages is reported. Two sacraments, baptism by sprinkling, pouring, or (more commonly) immersion, and communion are accepted as "instituted by Christ." Infant baptism is permitted, but believer's baptism prevails. Pastors are called by local churches; Each district is overseen by a district superintendent, who is elected by the members of the district assembly for a four-year term. The General Assembly, the supreme body of the Church, elects six General Superintendents, whose terms will last until the next General Assembly, and the General Council, made up of laymen and clergy equally. The Board of Directors meets annually and oversees the five administrative departments of the Church: World Mission, Church Growth, Sunday School Services, Communications, and Finance. The Church is organized in 109 world areas and supports nearly 600 missionaries. There is a strong emphasis on evangelism. The International Center of the Church is in Kansas City, Missouri. Throughout the world, the Church maintains ten liberal arts colleges, two theological colleges, and forty-three biblical colleges. Outside of North America, the Church operates two hospitals, 38 medical clinics, three nursing schools, a teacher training school, a university, and 430 elementary and secondary schools for more than 51,000 children. Church books, magazines, and curriculum are produced at the Nazarene Publishing House in Kansas City.

CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN THE CHRISTIAN UNION Established: 1909 Membership: 10,104 in 216 congregations (2000) This church was formed when, at the 1909 meeting of this group in Marshall, Ohio, five clergy and several lay members withdrew from the churches of the Christian Union. The Christian Union was organized in Ohio in 1864 “to promote fellowship among God's people and to do all possible to proclaim God's saving grace to the lost. . . and to proclaim the whole counsel of God for the edification of believers." Some Christian Union ministers felt that important doctrines were being neglected, and so the Churches of Christ in the Christian Union organized "for complete freedom in the preaching of full salvation." make possible, as John Wesley explains in the Teaching ". The first council was held that year in Jeffersonville, Ohio, and district councils have been held since that date. A law providing for the organization of additional councils was passed in 1945, and the Church now extends to seventeen states and several foreign countries. pensioners

The Methodist Church merged with the Churches of Christ to form the Christian Union in September 1952. The churches of this body are generally evangelical in faith and work; Camp meetings, revivals, and soul-winning drives are held regularly throughout the denomination. The cult follows simple forms, with little prescribed ritual. The emphasis is "on God's blessing, not man's ingenuity." A general assembly meets every two years in Circleville, Ohio, the corporation's headquarters. Circleville Bible College educates clergy and laity.

WESLEYAN CHURCH Founded: 1843 Members: 121,356 in 1,594 congregations (1999) The first Holiness denomination in the United States, this church arose as an anti-slavery protest led by Orange Scott (1800–47) and other New England Methodists (see METHODS OF THE CHURCHES ) . When the Methodist bishops called for silence, these abolitionists challenged the episcopate and organized a separate Wesleyan Methodist Connection. This split predates the historic split between the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church South by one year. After the Civil War and Emancipation, the Wesleyan Methodist Connection joined the Holiness Movement. The ideas of complete sanctification and moderation seemed important enough to continue the Methodist split. In 1947 a central supervisory authority was established and the word "connection" was changed to "church". The doctrine of complete sanctification remains central to the church, and prospective church members must refuse to use, sell, or manufacture tobacco and alcoholic beverages and refrain from membership in secret societies. This body was called the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America until it merged with the Pilgrim Holiness Church in 1968. This church was one of the bodies that arose during the Holiness revival in the late 19th century. In doctrinal and political terms it was close to the Church of the Nazarene (see CHURCH OF THE NAZARENE) and therefore close to Methodism and in accordance with Wesleyan teachings; Therefore, there was no change in doctrinal emphasis when the two churches merged. The strongest areas of the Wesleyan Church are Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and North Carolina. From Church headquarters in Indianapolis, Indiana, increasing evangelism and outreach activities are taking place. Missionaries work in many countries in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America, and Europe. Church

it supports four liberal arts colleges and a Bible college, and maintains good relations with several conservative seminaries in the Wesleyan tradition. HUTTERIAN BROTHERS Founded: about 1530 (arrived in the United States in the 1870s) Membership: approximately 42,800 in 428 congregations in the United States and Canada (1997) This is one of the few American organizations that grew directly out of the Anabaptist movement during the Protestant Reformation (the other Mennonites; see MENONITE CHURCHES). The Anabaptists carried the ideas of the Reformers further than the civil judges allowed. They rejected infant baptism and insisted on the separation of church and state. The New Testament, especially the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:1–7:29), was considered the literal authority of true Christians; therefore, the Anabaptist brethren embraced nonviolence. The Church of the Hutterite Brethren was founded by Jacob Hutter, a 16th-century Tyrolean Anabaptist who advocated common property. The community thrived in the sparsely populated areas of central Europe, particularly Moravia, but was always threatened with persecution. Hutter himself was martyred in Austria in 1536. In time, the Hutterites migrated to Russia, where the need for peaceful peasants and workers was evident. As persecution increased in the 19th century, many Hutterites left Russia for Canada and the United States. Most Hutterites are of German descent and use this language in their homes and churches. Other than the idea of ​​common property, they are quite similar to the Old Order Amish (see AMISH CHURCHES DISTURBING THE ORDER); they seek to express their Bible-centered faith in brotherly love and aim to recapture the spirit and fellowship of the New Testament. They feel that it requires nonconformity with the world; As a result, they practice non-resistance, refusing to participate in local politics and wearing traditional clothing. They maintain their own schools where the Bible is fundamental. ISLAM Islam is second only to Christianity in size and geographic distribution among the world's religions, but it was not until the last quarter of the 20th century that Muslims had a significant presence in the United States. As a result, Islam is misunderstood in the US and Muslims are subjected to unfair stereotypes, especially since Iran's Shiite revolution. Militant Islamic fundamentalists make up a small percentage of Muslims.

Islam is a monotheistic religion, closely related historically and theologically to Christianity and Judaism. Like them, he strives to build a just and peaceful society based on a rational moral code. Islam has a long and glorious tradition. In fact, when the Christian West was in the so-called Dark Ages, Islamic countries were famous for their science, art, and philosophy. In the 19th and 20th centuries, many Islamic regions were colonized by Western nations. Its development was hampered by colonial rule, and anti-Western sentiment intensified among many Muslims. For Muslims living in the US, the ever-present question is how long one can live as an American and remain faithful to Allah's commandments. History. According to Muslims, Islam actually began with the patriarch Abraham, with whom God made a covenant. Abraham was obedient to God; Therefore, Abraham was a Muslim, someone who submits to the will of Allah. His was the true religion that later suffered corruption. Abraham's eldest son was Ishmael, who is believed by the Arabs to be his ancestor. Historically, however, Islam as an organized religion developed out of Judaism some 600 years after the birth of Christ. Within a hundred years, Muslims would conquer much of the ancient Christian world: Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, and Spain. In 1453, the great Christian city of Constantinople became the Islamic capital of Istanbul. But it all started with one man. Muhammad was a member of the Quraish tribe in Mecca, a major commercial and religious center in Arabia. Mecca was home to the Kaaba, a very important sanctuary among the people of Arabia. Thousands made pilgrimages each year to visit the Kaaba and see or touch the sacred stone within. They also left offerings in front of the idols placed in the sanctuary. When he was 25 years old, Muhammad married a wealthy widow and managed his extensive property and trade. Every year, during the month of Ramadan, the family left the heat of the city to live in one of the cool caves nearby. During one of these family retreats, Muhammad was called to be a prophet. He heard a voice telling him to read. When he protested that he couldn't read, the voice commanded him again. He then came out of the cave and saw the angel Gabriel telling him that he would be the messenger of God. It was later revealed to Muhammad that he was called to reform the religion of the people of Mecca. They must get rid of their idols and worship only the true God of Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael. Muhammad's first converts were his first wife Khadijah, his cousin Ali and his friend Abu Bakr. Muhammad's attempts at reform offended his own tribe, which profited from pilgrimages and offerings to idols in the Kaaba. After some thirteen years of fighting to convert the people of Mecca, a group of pilgrims from Yathrib, now known as Medina, heard Muhammad's preaching and accepted him as a prophet of Allah. Messianic hopes were

high among the Jews at Yathrib, and for a short time the first Muslims and Jews were united. In AD 622, Muhammad fled to Yathrib at night to avoid being killed. This is known as the Hijri and begins the Muslim calendar. Dates in Islamic countries are counted in years after the Hijra, just as in Christian countries events before and after the birth of Jesus are dated. In Yathrib/Medina, Muhammad laid the foundation for the religion of Islam and became a great chief. After several years, Muhammad entered Mecca as a conqueror. The residents were converted and the idols were destroyed. Soon after, Muhammad became the virtual emperor of Arabia and outlawed all forms of idolatry. Only monotheists, Muslims, Jews and Christians were tolerated. Before Muhammad died in AD 632. C., it is said that Gabriel took him to Jerusalem, where he visited the site of the Temple. There Muhammad ascended to heaven and found Moses and Jesus. Muhammad's death was a blow to his followers, but they remembered that he was a mortal and not a god. Muslims follow the teachings of Muhammad; they don't adore it. The first five successors of the Prophet are known as caliphs. They were instrumental in defining the essence of Islam and ensuring its long-term survival. In AD 662, the leadership of Islam passed to the Umayyad dynasty after a period of internal conflict. At this point, Shia Islam was born. In AD 750, the leadership of the Islamic Empire passed to the Abbasids in Persia, who built the capital, Baghdad. They ruled one of the world's most glorious empires until the Mongol invasion in the mid-13th century. Eventually, Islam spread to Africa, India, Indonesia, and Central Asia. theology and practice. The basic idea of ​​Islam is submission to the will of Allah. This will is expressed in the Qur'an and Islamic law. Over the years, Muhammad received many divine messages while he was in a trance. These prophecies, called suras, were written down by his hearers and then compiled and turned into the book we know as the Qur'an, or simply the Lecture. They are arranged by length rather than by content or chronology. Other words of the Prophet, the Sunnahs, were recorded in Hadith. They are respected but not considered writing. Like Judaism, Islam is a religion of law and observance. This law (Sharia) contains not only what Westerners would consider criminal, such as theft, but also instructions on how family life and society should be organized. It also includes laws related to religious observance, devotion and worship. Muslims have always needed teachers to enlighten people about the law and to interpret it in a way that can be applied to all walks of life. This

Teachers are sometimes called magnets. Often the imam is the head of the mosque. Over time, four main schools of legal interpretation arose in Islam. Today, 90 percent of all Muslims belong to one of these four schools, but each school accepts the others as orthodox. This orthodox interpretative scheme of four schools is known as Sunnism. It contrasts with Shiism, which has remained closer to ancient Arab traditions. Some things are central to all forms of Islam (except for the US Nation of Islam). There are five main beliefs in Islam: (1) There is only one God; (2) there are angels; (3) there were many prophets, but there is only one message; (4) there will be a final judgment; (5) it is possible to have knowledge of God and the will of God. Islam emphasizes the intellect; therefore, every Muslim is a student. There is a saying that God's first creation was the pen and that the first word that God revealed to Muhammad was read. In Islam it is obligatory to read, study and seek knowledge; The ink of a scholar is considered more valuable than the blood of a martyr. More important than these principles are the five pillars of Islam: (1) Shahada: "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet"; (2) salat: five daily prayers in front of Mecca; Prayers are prohibited, as is the posture; (3) Zakat: almsgiving ritual; today, Muslims are expected to donate 2.5% of their income to those in need; (4) Siyam: Fasting for a month during Ramadan, imitating the practice of Muhammad; and (5) Hajj: a pilgrimage that every Muslim must make at least once in his lifetime to Mecca. Today, more than two million do this each year, at great cost to the Saudi Arabian government, which provides hospitality. Every Muslim must follow these five pillars to reach heaven, but provision is made for the weak, the poor and the sick. However, this is not the sum of Islam. Islamic law covers all aspects of life. It is a practical religion, providing guidance for daily life rather than promoting asceticism. For example, celibacy is condemned and large families are encouraged. Moderation is emphasized in all things, including religion. Some things like photos, alcohol and pork are prohibited. Other things like divorce are allowed but discouraged. Therefore, there are some differences in Muslim customs as they reflect local traditions. Islam in the US differs from Islam in Pakistan; However, the Islamic ideal is for everyone to submit to God's will. Islam in the United States. Since the change in US immigration policy in 1965, an average of 30,000 Muslims have immigrated to this country each year. This influx of immigrants, the generally high Muslim birth rate, and the growing number of converts to Islam mean that Islam will surely surpass Judaism as the second largest religion in the United States this century. is found mainly in

the urban centers of the Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast. American Muslims come from more than sixty different nations; Therefore, there have been some difficulties in connecting different cultural expressions of religion. Mosque architectural styles, leadership styles, and attitudes toward gender roles vary greatly among American Muslims. However, Muslims are generally much more conservative than the mainstream American culture. Despite the diversity of American Islam, things like learning Arabic, reciting prayers, and reading the Qur'an unite Muslims of all nationalities. In the 20th century, Islam began to attract significant numbers of African American converts. For many of them, Islam represented an alternative to Christianity, which they associated with slave owners. Furthermore, Islam provided a link to their ancestors, as at least some of the African captives on these shores were Muslims in their homeland. Finally, Islam offered a practical discipline and control over one's destiny that many believed was denied to them in the mainstream culture. It was Malcolm X (1925-1965) who did the most to highlight Islam in the African-American community. He was originally a leader of the Nation of Islam (see NATION OF ISLAM); however, he rejected this organization when he performed his Hajj in Mecca and found Sunni Islam in all its international and interracial character. He saw that racism of any kind is condemned in Islam: all Muslims are equal in the eyes of God and will face the same judgment, and all Muslims performing Hajj wear the same white robes of penance and submission to Allah. Malcolm X was assassinated when he was starting his own Islamic organization for African-Americans, but many followed his example and continued his cause. Among them were notable athletes who took on Muslim names such as Muhammad Ali and Karem Abdul Jabbar. African-American Muslims tend to start their own mosques and publishing houses, but the same is true for recently immigrated Muslims. Perhaps 25% of American Muslims are of African descent.

NATION OF ISLAM Founded: 1920 Membership: estimated between 800,000 and 1 million (2000) The Nation of Islam was an expression of the African Pride movement of Marcus Garvey (1887–1940) and others in the early decades of the 20th century (see ORTHODOX CHURCH AFRICANS). Convinced that Islam was the true religion of blacks, Timothy Drew founded the Moorish Temple of Science in Newark, New Jersey, under the name of Noble Drew Ali (1886-1920). According to Drew, African Americans were Moors whose ancestors lived in Morocco. Only by abandoning the distorted white religion of Christianity could Africans

Americans be free. When he died in 1920, his followers divided into several groups. Wallace D. Fard (born ca. 1877) led a group in Detroit, Michigan. He called himself the reincarnation of the noble Drew Ali and taught "The religion of the black men of Asia and Africa", initially based on the Bible and the Koran. Fard's ideas eventually became more radical, attacking the Bible as a book of lies and claiming that African Americans were gods while the white race was the devil's serpent that would eventually be destroyed. Fard announced that he was an instrument in the hands of Allah, called to tell the truth about the races and prepare for the Last Judgment. After his mysterious disappearance in 1933, his followers claimed that he was the incarnation of Allah. Fard was succeeded by Elijah Poole (1897-1975), known as Elijah Muhammad. Elijah Muhammad continued to preach the gospel of Fard's black revolution, whereby African-Americans would end white supremacy. He called for the creation of a black nation within the United States independent of Islam. Originating in the desperate poverty of inner-city ghettos, the movement spread across the country and became increasingly militant after World War II. Elijah Muhammad encouraged its members to spread its teachings to the millions of African-American men incarcerated in the United States. Malcolm used the symbol X to negate the name acquired during slavery. He urged African Americans to take charge of their own destiny instead of relying on the charity of white liberals. He also rejected the pacifist Christian approach of Martin Luther King Jr. during the civil rights movement. Rather than call for the integration of African Americans into white society, Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam promoted a culture of their own. His preaching helped build membership in the Nation of Islam, but divisions later arose between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad after Malcolm discovered orthodox Islam. Malcolm was assassinated in New York City in 1965, but his ideas remained influential. After his death in 1975, Elijah Muhammad was succeeded by his son, Warith Deen Mohammed, who reoriented and decentralized the movement. He also brought the organization closer to the normative Islamic tradition. Meanwhile, a Chicago, Illinois-based splinter group led by Louis Farrakhan continued to emphasize the more radical aspects of the Nation of Islam, particularly black nationalism and Fard's racial theories. Farrakhan's words and actions drew admiration and condemnation. Meanwhile, Warith Deen Mohammed joined other Muslim leaders in 1992 to found the American Muslim Society, which claims 200,000 members. Despite being the subject of controversy and occasional violence, the Nation of Islam has achieved some definite successes. established a chain of industries,

such as hair salons, grocery stores, bakeries, restaurants, cleaning companies, and farms to alleviate poverty among African Americans. Black Muslims do not gamble, smoke, drink, eat, or buy on credit. They organize probation for convicts and provide counseling for those released. They claim to give blacks self-esteem and a sense of identity, and have reached many people that mainstream Christianity has failed to reach.

SHI'ISM Founded: 662 AD C. Members: 100 million worldwide, maybe 100,000 in the US (2000) Shias broke with mainstream Islam (see SUNISM) over the issue of caliph succession. Shias believe that the leadership should have stayed with the Prophet's family instead of going to the Umayyads. Originally a resistance movement against Umayyad supremacy in Islam, Shia soon became the official religion of Iraq and developed its own distinctive legal system. Shias use the title "Imam" instead of "Caliph" to refer to the true leader of Islam. Most Shias anticipate the appearance of a "twelfth imam" at the beginning of the messianic era. Clerics in Shi'ism generally have more authority to interpret Islamic law and customs than in Sunni Islam.

SUFISM Founded: 8th century Affiliation: Statistics not available Sufism is a mystical tradition in Islam (see ISLAM) that originated sometime before the 10th century and is similar to Hasidic Judaism (see JUDAISM) in its teaching that God is in all things is in her focus on divine joy at all times and in the use of dance to induce religious experiences. Unlike the Hasidim, however, the Sufis do not establish separate communities. Instead, Sufi masters teach Sufi arts in various schools or religious orders. Sufism is not for all Muslims but for those who are particularly called; However, the teachings of the Sufis are accessible to all. In general, Sufism places less emphasis on legalism and more on religious experience and the inclusion of all people in divine love. Sufi texts have become popular in the United States, and there is a Sufi order in the West, but most Muslims do not accept it as orthodox.


Founded: 622 AD C. (large influx in the US after 1965) Membership: est. between 3.5 and 6 million in about 1,500 mosques Ninety percent of the world's one billion Muslims belong to one of the four orthodox branches of Sunni Islam (see ISLAM). Membership numbers are very rough estimates, as there are no central organizations for Muslims and many mosques do not keep or report statistics. The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), based in Plainfield, Indiana, is the largest organization supporting Muslim ministries. In particular, it helps establish full-time Islamic schools and reviews textbooks for Muslims. It also helps Muslims comply with dietary laws while under US government control (for example, in the military or in prison). ISNA also has programs aimed at keeping young people in Islam and training Islamic workers.

JEHOVAH'S WITNESS Founded: Circa 1870 Membership: 990,340 in 11,257 congregations (1999) Jehovah's Witnesses are among the most zealous religious communities when it comes to promoting their faith. At Kingdom Halls (not churches), members come together and profess their faith in testimony and in a far-reaching missionary effort. They do not believe in the separation of clergy and laity since "Christ Jesus made no such separation", and they never use titles like "Reverend". All members are expected to give generously of their time to share their faith and teach in private homes. They are called "Kingdom preachers" and they preach exclusively from the Bible. Pioneers or full-time ministers must give at least 90 hours per month; Special pioneers and missionaries give at least 140 hours a month and are sent to remote areas and foreign countries where new congregations can be planted. All pioneers provide their own support, but some are given a small allowance by the Society in view of their special needs. This missionary activity has made Jehovah's Witnesses one of the best known (although not widely understood) churches in the United States. It was Charles Taze Russell (1852–1916) who founded the Witnesses, and by 1931 they were known as the Russellites, Millennial Dawn People, or International Bible Students. Russell, the first president, is not recognized as a founder (there is no such thing as a human founder) but as a general organizer. Witnesses claim to have been on earth as an organization for over 5,000 years (based on Isaiah 43:10-12; Hebrews 11; John 18:37).

Russell was heavily influenced by Adventist thought that came to the attention of Americans in the mid-19th century (see ADVENTIST CHURCHES). Based on personal study of the Bible, he developed his own Adventist ideas and his talks attracted many people. To date, some thirteen million copies of his books have been distributed and have had a profound impact on Jehovah's Witnesses. The first formal Russellist group was organized in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1870, and shortly thereafter a board of directors was elected by a vote of all members who contributed $10 or more to support the work (a practice that was discontinued in 1944). In 1884 the Zion Watch Tower Tract Society was formed. In 1939 this company changed its name to the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society and remains one of the largest publishers in the world. When Russell died in 1916, Joseph F. Rutherford (1869–1942), commonly known as Judge Rutherford, became president. He had been a lawyer and occasionally served as a district judge in Missouri. His numerous books, pamphlets and pamphlets supplanted Russell's, but his neglect of some aspects of Russell's teachings brought discord. The extensive Witness literature (all distributed without authorship or attribution) quotes the Bible extensively and relates to the Church's eschatological teachings. Witness theology is based on the idea of ​​theocracy, or the government of God. It teaches that there is only one God; Jesus is a creature, not God. In the beginning, the world was under the theocratic rule of the Almighty. Everything was "happiness, peace and bliss" then. But Satan rebelled and became the ruler of the world, and from that time mankind followed his evil lead. Then came Jesus, "the beginning of the creation of God" (Revelation 3:14 KJV) to put an end to Satan's rule as foretold by the prophets. Witnesses claim that Jesus' heavenly rule began in 1914 after he paid the ransom sacrifice of his death on earth. Russell had seen World War I as the final apocalyptic battle that would usher in the second coming of Christ. When this did not happen, Rutherford reorganized the movement and in 1918 proclaimed that Christ had already "come into the temple of Jehovah." With Jesus enthroned in Jehovah's temple, Satan's reign was nearly over, so Rutherford began sending his followers out to preach the good news in the last days. God, according to what witnesses believe, will take revenge on the wicked of our time. God is showing great love now by “gathering” multitudes of people of good will that God will bring to life in the new world that will come after the battle of Armageddon. This will be a universal fight; Christ will lead the army of the righteous, consisting of "the army of heaven, the holy angels," and will utterly destroy the army of Satan. The righteous on earth will watch the fighting and suffering of God's enemies, but will not participate. After the battle, the Witnesses teach, believers in God and God's servants will remain on earth. Those who proved their integrity in the ancient world.

Multiply yourselves and populate the new earth with just. There will also be a resurrection of the just as another means to fill the clean land with better inhabitants. After the Holocaust, "righteous princes" will rule the earth under Christ, the "king of the great theocracy." A special group, the 144,000 Christians mentioned in Revelation 7 and 14, will become the "bride of Christ" and will reign with him in heaven. The group's management changed during Rutherford's presidency. The Governing Body today is in the hands of older, "spiritually qualified" men who base their judgments on the authority of Scripture. This is not considered a ruling hierarchy, but rather an imitation of the early Christian apostolic organization. Under the direction of headquarters leaders, local Witness congregations (always called congregations, never churches) are organized in circles, with an itinerant preacher spending a week in each congregation. About twenty congregations belong to each circuit, and the circuits are grouped into districts, of which about forty are in the United States; Circuit organizations now exist in 211 countries and islands around the world. The main office is at Bethel Home in Brooklyn, New York. Employees are primarily engaged in editorial and printing work and receive an expense allowance of US$45.00 per month, plus room and board. They write, print, and distribute literature on an almost astronomical scale. The official newspaper A Sentinela has a circulation of 16,400,000. Over a billion Bibles, books, and tracts have been distributed since 1920; are available in at least 200 languages. Although Armageddon predictions have been repeatedly disproved, witnesses maintain their belief that it is imminent. They have been particularly active in speaking out against Satan's three allies: the false teachings of the churches, the tyranny of human governments, and the oppression of big business. This "triple alliance" of ecclesiastical, political, and commercial powers has deceived mankind, Witnesses claim, and must be destroyed at Armageddon before the new world can be born. They refuse to salute the flag, bear arms in war, or participate in government political affairs, not because of pacifist beliefs but because they want to stay away from what they see as an expression of Satan's power over humanity. This attitude put her at odds with law enforcement; They also suffered flogging, mob attacks, stoning, beatings and feathering, burning of their houses, imprisonment and incarceration in concentration camps. All this they accepted with a submissive spirit. Their position is that they will obey the laws of the land if those laws are not contrary to the laws of God.

Judaism Judaism is one of the world's oldest religions. Today there are about twelve million Jews in the world, half of whom live in the United States. Judaism can refer to both a religion and an ethnicity, and there are many Jews who do not belong to a synagogue or follow the fundamentals of the Jewish religion. Of course, there are differences of opinion among Jews as to what makes a person truly Jewish, whether it be a matter of birth, cultural heritage, or religious practice. Perhaps as many as half of the Jews in the United States are non-believers. Unlike Christianity, which is generally defined in terms of doctrines and beliefs, Judaism as a religion is primarily defined by practices and ethics. In short, the Jews see themselves as the people to whom God has given commandments that they are obligated to fulfill with God. By following God's instructions, the "chosen people" in turn become a blessing to the whole world by helping to establish God's kingdom of justice and peace (shalom). History. Jews trace his heritage to the patriarch Abraham, who heard God's call and left his home in Mesopotamia to seek a promised land on the other side of the Jordan. According to tradition, Abraham's grandson was Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel after he wrestled with an angel one night. The Children of Israel were the parents of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel. The defining event for the Israelites and their descendants was the Exodus. After many years of serving as a slave to Pharaoh in Egypt, God called a prophet named Moses to lead the people to freedom. Moses parted the waters of the Red Sea (traditionally the Red Sea) and led the people to Mount Sinai. There he made laws for him and gave instructions on how they should live. Israel's obligations to God became known as the Torah ("law" or "instruction"). The Torah remains at the heart of all forms of Judaism to this day. Around 1000 B.C. King David established a strong and prosperous central government with a standing army and an efficient bureaucracy. He conquered the Canaanite city of Jerusalem and made it the capital of his kingdom. Despite his personal weaknesses and shortcomings, David was heralded as the perfect king, the true son of God. Both the prophets and the priests proclaimed that God made a special covenant with the house of David that there would always be a son of David, one of the anointed (Hebrew, Messiah) on the throne in Jerusalem. David's son Solomon expanded the kingdom and built a great central temple in Jerusalem. Jerusalem was declared a holy city, the dwelling place of God. Centuries after the destruction of the Temple, Jerusalem is still considered a holy city by most Jews. After Solomon's death, the kingdom was divided into two unequal parts. The smaller southern kingdom of Judah consisted mainly of the tribe of Judah. The capital

The city was Jerusalem, where David's descendants lived until the sixth century B.C. reigned The words Judaism and Jew come from "Judah." The northern kingdom was known as Israel and its capital was Samaria. At the beginning of the VIII century B.C. This kingdom was destroyed by the Assyrians. The people scattered, never to meet again. From that moment on, the southern kingdom took over the inheritance of Israel. Around 587 B.C. BC the kingdom of Judah was conquered by the Babylonians and thousands of its citizens were taken into captivity. During the forty years of exile, the prophets, priests, scribes, and scholars began to codify the scriptures that became Holy Scriptures. Eventually, the Jews were allowed to return to the land of the patriarchs and established a nation under Persian and then Greek control. There was no longer a king; Instead, the high priest served as the chief administrator of Judea. In the 2nd century B.C. His Hellenistic overlord, the Syrian Emperor Antiochus IV, tried to destroy the Jews and their religion to make them more subservient to his rule. Copies of the Torah (the scrolls of the first five books of the Bible) were burned, Jews were forbidden to circumcise their young children (the physical sign of being in the covenant), and the Temple was desecrated with the sacrifice of an animal. unclean. a deity Instead of breaking the spirit of the Jews, these measures led to open revolt. This revolt of the Maccabees in the name of the right of the Jews to obey God's commandments is celebrated every year on Hanukkah. However, one hundred years after the rebellion against foreign rule, Judea fell to the Romans and was administered by a Roman governor in the days of Jesus. In AD 66 another rebellion broke out, but this time the Jews were defeated. Jerusalem and the Temple were destroyed in AD 70. At that time, Jewish communities existed in the Roman and Persian worlds, and they grew in importance as the heart of Judaism was destroyed. The diaspora or dispersal of the Jews was facilitated by the development of a mobile form of religion based on the family and the small community. Only ten men are needed to found a congregation or synagogue and hold services. Even without a synagogue, Judaism can be practiced at home, if necessary in secret. Following the rise of Islam (see ISLAM), which has many affinities with Judaism, Jews found some tolerance in the Islamic Empire and in many Islamic countries. Jews often held positions of great power and influence, particularly in learned professions such as medicine. Jews in the Islamic world generally spoke Arabic or other local languages ​​and even translated the Torah into Arabic. They assimilated outwardly while upholding Jewish observance and theology. These Jews from the Mediterranean basin eventually came to be called Sephardim, from the Hebrew word for "Spain." Spain had a thriving Jewish community until Isabella and Ferdinand consolidated their rule over the Iberian Peninsula. In 1492, the year Columbus sailed west, the Jews were forced to leave Spain or face the wrath of the Spanish Inquisition. Many Sephardic Jews came to the New World, settling in Brazil, New York, and Rhode Island.

The Jews of the Christian kingdoms of the West had a poorer existence than those of the Islamic countries. Much of the anti-Semitism found its way into Christian theology and practice during the struggle to define Christianity as distinct from Judaism in the patristic period. Throughout the Middle Ages, Jewish communities were persecuted by Christian mobs. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Jews were expelled from England and France. Many moved east to the sparsely populated countries of Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Russia. There they established separate communities, often building entire farming villages, where they could observe Torah in relative tranquility. These Jews became known as Ashkenazi, from the Hebrew word for "Germany", and developed a unique German dialect known as Yiddish, written in Hebrew letters. The Ashkenazi were generally less educated and secular than the Sephardim. Serious persecution of Ashkenazi Jews in Russia began in the 19th century, and thousands immigrated to the United States. Antisemitism soon rose in Germany and throughout Central Europe. Jew-hatred peaked in the first half of the 20th century. When the National Socialist (Nazi) Party came to power in Germany through popular elections, it encouraged violence against Jews. Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) and his advisers implemented a series of anti-Jewish laws that stripped Jews of their rights. He soon began sending Jews to concentration camps, where an estimated six million were brutally tortured and murdered, along with millions of Gypsies, Slavs, and other hated groups. This Holocaust marked a turning point in Jewish history that continues to have a profound impact on Judaism. Never before has the threat of the annihilation of the Jewish people been so close to being fulfilled. During the Nazi era, perhaps half of the world's Jewish population died. The establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 was linked to the horrors of the Holocaust. There have been calls for a Jewish nation since the 19th century, when many peoples in Europe were fighting for their own nations. This Zionist or Jewish nationalist movement was led by Theodor Herzel (1860-1904), who laid the foundations on which the Jewish homeland would be built. Originally a fairly small movement among secularized Jews, many of whom held socialist beliefs, Zionism grew in power as Jews learned the truth about the Holocaust. A Jewish state free from Gentile control seemed the best solution for Jewish survival. In the 1960s and 1970s, religious Jews also became strong supporters of the Jewish state; and many people saw a connection between the future of Israel as a nation and the establishment of the long-awaited messianic era. In the last quarter of the 20th century there was a growing fundamentalist movement focused on Zionist goals. Jews in the United States. There were Jews in the United States during colonial times, and President Washington was able to assure a delegation of Jewish leaders that the new United States Constitution guarantees freedom of religion and conscience for all people, not just Christians. despite numerous

Incidents of antisemitism, many Jews saw America as the new promised land where they could live and worship in relative safety. Some Jews embraced American culture so fully that they redefined Judaism in terms familiar to liberal Protestants. Hebrew was eliminated except for special services, rules of ritual observance relaxed, and synagogues equipped with organs. Some synagogues even began to pray on Sundays instead of Saturdays. Other Jews rejected this extreme assimilation into the American Protestant mainstream and retained traditional elements of worship and observance. The massive influx of Eastern European Jews, the Ashkenazi, deeply affected the American Jewish community. Millions of immigrants settled in the big cities of the North, creating large Jewish neighborhoods where they were able to retain much of their Old World identity in the midst of industrial America. Many of America's most famous artists come from this Yiddish culture with its distinctive foods and traditions. Ashkenazi tended to be more conservative than Sephardic Jews who had lived in the United States for decades. However, over time much of this Yiddish culture faded away. By the end of the 20th century, Judaism was so firmly entrenched in American society that a devout Jew, Joseph Liebermann, was appointed vice president. While the local synagogue is very important to Jewish life in the United States, there are hundreds of Jewish organizations that help define and defend Judaism. They range from those focused on Jewish rights to youth organizations. There are approximately 200 magazines and newspapers and two news syndicates dedicated to Judaism. The American Jewish Committee is organized to protect the civil and religious rights of Jews around the world. It fights for equal economic, social and educational opportunities and offers help and advice in cases of intolerance and persecution. Jewish universities affiliated with various movements serve the community across the country by not only training rabbis but also providing general Jewish education for anyone interested. The most important are Rabbi Isaac Elchanan's Theological Seminary (Orthodox) at Yeshiva University in New York City; (Reformation) Hebrew Union College - Jewish Religious Institute in New York, Cincinnati, Los Angeles, and Jerusalem; Jewish Theological Seminary (Conservative) in New York City; and Reconstructionist Rabbinical College in Philadelphia. Yeshiva University in New York City is the only Jewish university to offer a B.A. Degree; Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts is the only non-sectarian Jewish-sponsored college or university in the United States. Rabbinic Judaism was the only form of Judaism to survive from antiquity. In fact, it developed at the same time as the rise of Christianity. In fact, first-century Christianity was simply one of many forms of non-rabbinical Judaism. In the sixth century, the two had religions.

it developed the basic structures, theology, and practices that define it to this day. Judaism as a religion is based on the Hebrew Scriptures (the Old Testament for Christians), but differs from the form of religion described in those texts. The ancient religion of the Israelites centered on cultic practices, particularly animal sacrifice and revelation through the prophets. The priests were responsible for ensuring that the rites of the cult were performed correctly and that ritual purity was maintained. The prophets also fulfilled social and religious functions. They were men (and occasionally women) through whom God spoke, especially in judgment. The prophets urged the leaders of society, including the king, to comply with the ethical requirements of the covenant. Justice for the poor, marginalized, and oppressed was a major theme of the prophetic judgment. Over time, scribes codified the proclamations of the prophets and the laws of the priesthood, producing a wealth of legal and ethical material that has profoundly shaped Western society. However, many of the laws and instructions contained in the scriptures clearly reflect the world of an ancient peasantry. Later Jews would try to understand them in radically different historical and social contexts. Rabbinic Judaism grew out of the Pharaonic movement. The Pharisees were a Jewish party that controlled most of the synagogues in and around Palestine. They differed from priests and other Jews in their strict interpretation of the Torah's requirements: it must be observed as faithfully as possible. To facilitate Torah observance, the Pharisees taught that Jews should keep their distance from non-Jews, especially at meals when it would be difficult to comply with Torah dietary restrictions. Intermarriage with non-Jews was also generally prohibited. The Pharisees did not emphasize temple observance or animal sacrifices and focused on Torah requirements in daily life. Justice, not sacrifice, is what God requires, the prophet Micah had said, and the Pharisees agreed. For the Pharisees, prayer and Torah study served the religious needs previously attended to by priests. One of the key concepts of Rabbinic Judaism is that there are two Torahs. The written Torah was given to Moses and is contained in the scrolls of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). These scriptures were revealed by God through the prophetic lawgiver, but the written Torah can be very confusing and difficult to follow unless you live in a small farming community. This is where the second Torah comes in. This is the Oral Torah that was also communicated to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. The Oral Torah is the key to understanding the Scriptures and applying the teachings of the Scriptures to daily life. The written Torah says to keep the Sabbath day and keep it holy. The Oral Torah tells you how to do this. According to tradition, this oral Torah was given by various prophets and scribes such as Ezra.

However, after the destruction of the Temple, it became necessary to codify, clarify, and preserve this oral tradition in writing. This culminated in the production of the Talmud around AD 600. The Talmud is one of the masterpieces of world literature and intellectual history. Contains the debates of the rabbis on questions of biblical interpretation and the understanding and application of the Torah. In fact, there are two Talmuds, one in Babylon by the descendants of the Jews who did not return to Israel, and another written in Palestine centuries after the destruction of the Temple. The Talmud consists of two main parts, one of which, the Haggadah, deals with Biblical interpretation, customs, legends, and uplifting stories. The other part refers to the halakah, the rules of the covenant with God. Halakah includes the 613 commandments that Jews must observe and practice in their daily lives. This can be difficult as the world changes, which is why the Talmud also provides guidelines for rabbis to continue the tradition of interpreting the halaka. This process of interpretation, adaptation, and even disagreement about the meaning of the Torah is the common thread that runs through the history of Judaism. There are some features of Jewish theology and religious practice that are common to the various branches of Judaism. At the center of Jewish theology is the concept of the unity of God. There is only one God, and God's will is known in the covenant. Every day, the believing Jew repeats the ancient verse that introduces the Ten Commandments in Deuteronomy: “Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord alone” (Deut 6:4 NJPS). There is only one Creator who ultimately controls the destiny of humanity and the world. Humanity created by this one God is inherently good. In Judaism there is no concept of original sin. Man is created in the image of God and endowed with an intelligence that allows him to choose between good and evil. The Torah helps in this process of choosing good over evil, but all people, both Jewish and Gentile, will be judged. The just (or upright) are rewarded and the wicked punished. However, concern for life after death is a secondary issue for most Jews. What is more important is the way one lives in this life. Judaism yearns for the establishment of a divine kingdom of truth and justice on earth. Orthodox Jews believe that the time will come when God will send the Messiah, the descendant of David, who will restore the kingdom. Other Jews speak of a messianic age. To work for the divine kingdom, the Jews were designated by God as a "kingdom of priests and a holy people", as "servants of the Lord." Judaism follows a liturgical calendar that dates back to ancient times. It is based on the lunar year and not the solar year, so the dates vary from year to year. The year begins in the fall with Rosh Hashanah, a New Year's celebration that ushers in the High Holidays. For ten days, Jews are encouraged to examine their lives and reconcile with those who have offended them, including God, in preparation for Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. On this day God judges the sins of the people and makes atonement.

A few weeks after Yom Kippur is Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles, when Jews relive years of wandering in the desert. Hanukkah in December commemorates the cleansing of the Temple during the Maccabean Revolt. This holiday gained importance in the United States due to the commercial power of Christmas. Pesaj or Pesaj in spring is a commemoration of the liberation of the Jews from Egypt. Shabuoth, also known as the Feast of Weeks or Pentecost, follows Pesach in late May or early June. Once a harvest festival, it now commemorates Moses receiving the Torah. Other observations follow the life cycle of the individual. These include circumcision of male children on the eighth day after birth, bar/bat mitzvah (a rite of passage into adult responsibility), weddings, and funerals. Also important in Judaism is the observance of the Sabbath (Friday sunset to Saturday sunset) as a holy day of rest and Torah study. Most synagogues have Sabbath services, although Sabbath observance is really a domestic duty. The local churches are completely independent. There are no synods, assemblies, or hierarchies of leaders. Jewish worship varies by theology and culture. Traditional Orthodox synagogues, for example, have no instrumental music, the congregation prays with their heads covered, and men and women sit separately. In Reformed, Conservative, and Reconstructivist places of worship, sermons are given in English and there is no gender segregation. At the head of the community is the fully ordained seminary-trained rabbi. He (in some cases she) performs marriages and issues divorce decrees under Jewish law after the state has declared civil divorce. Rabbis conduct funerals and generally oversee burial as required by Jewish law. Orthodox rabbis may oversee the slaughter of animals and enforce other aspects of dietary law. Many congregations hire lectors or singers to lead the majority of the service.

CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM (United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism) Founded: 1913 Membership: approximately 1,500,000 in 800 synagogues (2000) Solomon Schechter (1847–1915), director of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York and founder of the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, it provided the conservative movement with its intellectual and organizational base. The central belief of Conservative Judaism is that the entire Jewish community should be united in a Judaism based on the American experience and adapted to modern life, but committed to Torah and Halakah. In other words, Conservative Judaism is willing to make changes to Jewish customs, such as: B. Separate seating for men and women, but

strives to uphold Torah requirements as closely as possible in a modern setting. Education was one of the main focuses of the conservative movement. United Schechter Synagogue's oldest department is the education department, which produces and sets standards for Jewish textbooks and curricula. The United Synagogue Religious Congregational Religious school system had over 100,000 students in 1996. There is also the Solomon Schechter Day School System, a network of 68 schools across the continent with a total enrollment of over 17,000 children. Youth programs are designed to help Jewish teens and youth live as Jews in a non-Jewish world. Conservative Judaism emphasizes the observance of the Sabbath, Jewish holidays, and kashrut ("purity rules"). Synagogues are encouraged to have schools for boys and follow the halaka. Each community is free to accept changes in halakah observance recommended by the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards if they so choose.

HASSIDIC JEWS Founded: Roots in 1700 Membership: Approximately 165,000 (2000) Hasidic Jews are often confused with Orthodox; however, they represent one of the most distinctive types of Judaism (see JUDAISM). Like the Amish (see MENONITE CHURCHES) among Christians, Hasidim are so conservative that they generally wear the same style of clothing that their ancestors wore in the 19th century. They willingly live in segregated communities and clearly distance themselves from the prevailing culture. They resemble the Orthodox in their strict observance of halaka and their literal approach to Torah, but theologically and liturgically they are far removed from Orthodoxy. Hasidic Judaism developed in Eastern Europe in the early 18th century, when groups of devout laymen began to read Kabbalah (medieval Jewish mystical writings) and strictly observed Torah. In the process, they developed a number of controversial practices, such as rocking from side to side during prayer, that set them apart in synagogue. The key figure in early Hasidism was Israel b. Eliezar Ba'al Shem Tov (c. 1700-1760), known as the besht, who entered a state of ecstasy and was guided by the Spirit of God. The besht was a charismatic figure who attracted a large number of disciples to whom he served as an adviser and guide. His visions and revelations soon gained real power among his followers. In 1780, Jacob Joseph Toledot wrote Ya'akov Yosef, a treatise containing many sayings of the Besht. This was the first attempt at a theoretical formulation of the Hasidic faith. One of those beliefs is separation.

between the Creator and the creation is just an illusion. God is hidden in creation, but he is present in this veil. There is only one God and God is everything. God is complete in creation; therefore, we are all one with God. The key to religious life and Torah understanding is understanding and experiencing the reality of union with God. This mystical idea underlies the entire life of the Hasidim. Rituals are not meaningless if the mind and heart are properly prepared. The correct attitude towards devotion and life is joy and not melancholy. Melancholy and despair are the great enemies of faith because these emotions deny the reality of God's presence in the world. If God is everything, then we should be joyful. Out of this burning desire for joyous union with God through the celebration of creation arise characteristic Hasidic practices, such as dance in worship. The key to the spread and development of Hasidism were the tzaddikim, the holy men, who continued to demonstrate the true presence of God in the world through their own experiences and activities. These tzaddikim were seen as intermediaries between God and the community, offering vicarious satisfaction to people through their spiritual achievements. Known today as the Rebbes, these charismatic figures continue to shape Hasidism. The most influential Rebbe in the United States was Menachem Schneerson (1902-94), the Lubavitcher Rebbe in New York City.

ORTHODOX JUDAISM (Orthodox Union) Founded: 1898 Members: approximately 1,000,000 in 1,000 synagogues (2000) Orthodox Judaism developed in 19th-century Europe in response to the rise of so-called Reform Judaism. The Orthodox sought to save the synagogues from what they saw as corruption and to maintain the traditional forms of worship and observance of the halaka. This often included the preservation of Eastern European customs. For the Orthodox, the Torah is binding on all Jews and is not subject to interpretation or change. The Orthodox Union in America was founded by Dr. Henry Pereira Mendes (1852-1937), a Sephardic leader in New York. He hoped that this union would unite traditionalists, promote Torah observance, and stop Jewish assimilation. Initially, the Union focused on protecting Jewish children and immigrants from Protestant missionaries and promoting strict Sabbath observance. Another problem was the difficulty of maintaining kashrut (kosher laws) in the United States. In 1924, the Orthodox Union created the first non-profit kosher certification program, which today certifies more than 200,000 products and oversees more than 2,000 companies with 4,000 certified plants in 56 countries. The Orthodox Union also helps American soldiers observe kashrut even on the battlefield and educates the public about Jewish dietary restrictions.

The Orthodox see intermarriage and assimilation as a threat to the survival of Judaism. The National Synagogue Conference for Youth (NCSY), an outreach service for teens, emphasizes Jewish identity and the need to marry within the faith. NCSY also prompted the birth of the North American Teshuva movement. After the social upheavals of the 1960s, there was a revival of interest in traditional Jewish beliefs and practices among American youth. Many conservative synagogues have moved more towards Orthodox observance. Orthodox Jews were particularly active in collaboration with Russian Jews and were strong supporters of the State of Israel.

RECONSTRUCTIONIST JUDAISM (Reconstructionist Jewish Federation) Founded: 1954 Membership: est. 100,000 in some 100 synagogues (2000) Founded in 1934 by the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City under the leadership of Mordecai M. Kaplan (1881–1983), Reconstructionism is a movement originating in the United States. Reconstructionism defines Judaism as an evolving religious civilization and seeks to ensure the physical and spiritual survival of Judaism by demonstrating that a full Jewish life can be lived in the setting of a modern democratic state. Viewing Judaism as a civilization, Reconstructionists are committed to both Jewish tradition and the search for modern meaning. Reconstructionists accept that Judaism developed over centuries; For example, Rabbinic Judaism is not identical to King David's Judaism. However, they do not want to break with the historical process. Rather, "the past has a say" in determining what the present and future will be. The entire Jewish heritage, not just the Talmud, is accepted as a resource for building a Jewish civilization in the midst of modern culture. As such, the Zionist cause plays a prominent role in Reconstruction, but also a vigorous program of scholarly efforts to provide resources for understanding Jewish heritage. Theologically, Reconstructionists believe that it is the duty of all Jews to question and study to find unique pathways to the divine. They believe in a God who dwells in this world and especially in the human heart. This God is a source of generosity, sensitivity and concern for the world.

REFORM JUDAISM (Union of American Hebrew Congregations) Founded: 1873 Membership: est. 1,500,000 in some 890 synagogues

The earliest roots of Reform Judaism go back to the Hasshalah movement in Europe during the Enlightenment. In the 1740s, Moses Mendelsohn (1729-1786) urged his fellow Jews to learn from the secular world and speak the languages ​​around them, rather than Hebrew or Yiddish. He translated and published the writings into German and encouraged others to translate the Talmud so that Jews and non-Jews alike could read and understand it. Those in the Hashalah movement advocated for Jews to fully assimilate into their local culture, to speak, dress, act, and even eat like their fellow men. That would be the path to emancipation from persecution: Jews would overcome cultural alienation and be able to fully participate in life around them. Some of the more religious in the movement sought to reform Judaism from what they considered an archaic past, hence they are known as Reform Jews. Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise (1819–1900) brought the Hashalah movement to the United States when he emigrated in the 1840s. His (Minhag America) American plan included new liturgies for use in congregations. For example, the prayers did not mention the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. Wise attempted to unite Jews in the United States by calling a conference in Cleveland calling for "a free, progressive, enlightened, united, and respected American Jewry." In 1873, Wise founded the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, one of the leading Jewish schools in the United States, and for many years served as the leader of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations. Since Wise's time, Reform Judaism has continued to understand Judaism as an "ethical monotheism" in which the ethical requirements of the Torah are more important than dietary and ceremonial aspects. Reform Judaism encourages assimilation into American culture, in part, as a way to move this nation toward justice and peace.

LATTER-DAY SAINTS (Mormons) Latter-day Saints, better known as Mormons, are neither Protestant nor Catholic and have one of the most distinctive theologies of any Christian group. In addition to the Old and New Testaments, Latter-day Saints base their beliefs on the Book of Mormon discovered by Joseph Smith Jr. (1805–1844) in the 1820s and on two of Smith's later works, the Doctrine and Covenants. and The Pearl of Great Price. They believe that the authentic Church, which has been underground for many centuries, has been restored with Smith's new revelations. In the mid-19th century, Latter-day Saints succeeded in establishing a civilization based on Mormon teachings in the Utah Territory. Attacked by mobs and once overrun by US Army troops, they formed a religious community in what was once a desert and established themselves as one of the most well-known religious groups in the country. Few churches live with such a clear identity and achieve such a high level of loyalty and devotion. Today the Saints are politically and morally conservative, giving predominant place to family life. However, they had one of the most tumultuous histories of any church in United States history. The focus of the early years was the prophet and translator of the Book of Mormon Joseph Smith Jr., who organized the movement with six founding members in Fayette, New York, in 1830. York, named for the frequency and intensity of religious revivals during the second great awakening of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Smith claimed to have experienced a series of heavenly visitations beginning with the appearance of God and Jesus Christ in 1820. During these visits he was told that all existing churches were false and that the true gospel had not yet been restored. He would be revealed to him and would restore the true Church on earth. An angel named Moroni led Smith to a hill called Cumorah near Manchester, New York, where he found a book written on gold plates left there by an ancient prophet named Mormon. Smith later received a "Seer Stone" which gave him the knowledge to translate the mysterious hieroglyphic writings. The plates contained the sacred records of the ancient inhabitants of North America, righteous Jews who died in 600 B.C. fled from Jerusalem. and sailed to North America in an ark designed by God. According to Smith, he returned the metal plates to the angel. In addition to Smith, there were eleven other people who claimed to have seen the book before it was returned. The “priesthood of Aaron” was given to Smith and his scribe, Oliver Cowdery (1806–1850), by a heavenly messenger, John the Baptist, who taught them

they baptize each other. In 1829, a year before the Church was organized, three other divine visitors, Peter, James, and John, bestowed the "Melchizedek Priesthood" on Smith and Cowdery and gave them the keys of apostleship. As the Church grew stronger, resistance arose, and in 1831 Mormons left New York for Ohio, where they established their headquarters in Kirkland. Smith moved to Independence, Missouri, in 1838, where he and his followers planned to build the ideal church with a temple in the center. Frictions with other settlers became so acute that they left Missouri in 1838 and 1839 and settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Violence ensued, culminating in Joseph Smith announcing his intention to run for president of the United States and shutting down a newspaper that had criticized him. He and his brother Hyrum Smith (1800–1844) were murdered by a mob in Carthage, Illinois in 1844. With Smith's death, the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was adopted as the head of the Church and Brigham Young (1801–1801– 1844)77) was named President of the Quorum. A defeated minority, claiming that Young was not Smith's legal successor, withdrew to plant other churches. Some followed James J. Strang (1813–1856) to Wisconsin to found the sect known as the Strangite; others joined various other factions. The largest group of "anti-brigamites" believed that the leadership belonged to the direct descendants of Joseph Smith, and in 1847 these people, led by Joseph Smith III (1832-1914), founded the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. the last days. . Young was sworn into office by a majority vote and had the administrative power to protect the church from further upheaval and division. He led the Saints when they were driven from Nauvoo in February 1846 and began their epic march toward what is now Utah. They arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in July 1847 and built the famous Mormon Tabernacle there. Some sources indicate that Joseph Smith Jr. informed his associates in the 1840s that polygamous marriages were sanctioned and even commanded by God. These marriages were entered into in secret for some time before Brigham Young made the practice public in 1852. After the Civil War, the United States federal government launched an increasingly intense campaign against Mormon polygamy. In 1882, the Edmunds Act provided for severe penalties, and in 1887 the Church was delisted and its property confiscated. In 1890, the United States Supreme Court ruled that denying church members all civil rights was constitutional. Also in 1890, the President of the Church issued a manifesto formally ending the celebration of new polygamous marriages. Some followers of Joseph Smith III dispute that the Church sanctioned polygamy; but some in other groups believe it will never end.

CHURCH OF CHRIST (Temple Grounds)

Established: 1867, roots 1830 Members: approximately 2,400 in 32 congregations (2000) After the death of Joseph Smith Jr., those who remained in the Midwest were convinced that church leaders were advocating new doctrines that were in complete disagreement with the original teachings. . In 1852 there were two protest groups. One was known as the New Organization; the other, based in Crow Creek, Illinois, traded under the name Iglesia de Cristo. This latter group returned to Independence, Missouri, in response to a revelation given in 1864 by then-Presiding Elder Granville Hedrick. In the “appointed year” of 1867, they returned to the land dedicated by Joseph Smith Jr. in 1831 for the building of the Lord's temple. His belief is that the Lord will determine the construction time. Although he cannot build until the appointed time, the Church has a sacred duty to “guard and keep this land free; When the time comes for construction, you can proceed as the Lord sees fit.” This church has won legal battles with other Mormon organizations to retain control of these properties. This church of Christ trusts in the pattern and thought of the church "as it was in the days of Christ and his apostles." Therefore, the highest office is that of apostle, of which there are twelve. They are charged with missionary work and general oversight of the Church. Temporal affairs are administered directly by the General Bishopric under the direction of the General Conference and the Council of Apostles. Local churches run their own affairs but must keep their doctrines and practices consistent with those of the denomination. The Church accepts the King James Version of the Bible and the Book of Mormon as its standards. It is claimed that all modern revelation, including that of Joseph Smith, Jr., must be tested by these scriptures; therefore, it does not accept everything given by Smith. Because of the changes made to the early revelations, this Church prefers the Book of Commandments to the Doctrine and Covenants, which contains changes. For this reason, the doctrines of plural marriage, baptism for the dead, celestial marriage, and the multiplicity of gods are not accepted.

CHURCH OF JESUS ​​CHRIST (Bickertonites) Established: 1862 Members: 2,707 in 63 congregations (1989) The founders of this church were once members of a Mormon congregation in Pennsylvania (see LATTER-DAY SAINTS) led by Sidney Rigdon (1793–1876) , who refused to join the West March under Brigham Young and denounced

Young's teaching on polygamy, the multiplicity of gods, and baptism for the dead. In 1846, his followers purchased a farm near Greencastle, Pennsylvania. A small party led by William Bickerton, one of Rigdon's elders, did not go to Greencastle but stayed in West Elizabeth. In 1862 they were officially organized as the Church of Jesus Christ. The name "Bickertonites" is used to distinguish this body from other Mormon groups; Members prefer to be known as the Bickerton Organization. Foot washing is practiced and the members greet each other with the holy kiss. Monogamy is required, except in case of death. Members are also required to obey all state and civil laws. The Church has its own edition of the Book of Mormon (in English and Italian) and publishes a monthly magazine, The Gospel News, along with other denominational materials. A General Conference meets annually at the headquarters in Monongahela, Pennsylvania. Missionary work is being done in Italy, Nigeria, Mexico, and among Native Americans in the United States and Canada.

CHURCH OF JESUS ​​CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS Constitution: 1830 Membership: 5,113,409 in 11,315 congregations (1999) This is the main Mormon group (see LATTER-DAY SAINTS), headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, where the great Tabernacle situated. beliefs and practices. Mormonism clearly stems from the Christian tradition and in some ways resembles conservative Protestant churches; but certain aspects of Latter-day Saint theology differ from traditional Christian theology. For example, in Mormon doctrine there are three persons that make up the Godhead: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. However, the Father and the Son have bodies of flesh and bones. It is also said that people are punished for their own individual sins, not for Adam's transgression. All people, including those who have died, can be saved through the Atonement of Christ and through obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel. Mormons claim that after the restoration of the ten tribes of Israel, Christ will return to rule the country from his capitals of Zion (Salt Lake City) and Jerusalem. For this group of Mormons, the revelation should not be considered limited to the Bible or the Book of Mormon; continues today in the living apostles and prophets of the Church of Latter-day Saints. Latter-day Saints must abide by the official statements of the living President (prophet) of the Church. Submission to civil laws and norms is defended, as well as the insistence on the individual's right to worship according to the dictates of conscience.

The ordinances include faith in Christ, repentance, baptism by immersion for the remission of sins, the laying on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost, and the celebration of the Lord's Supper every Sunday. Baptism is necessary for salvation. Like Pentecostal churches (see Pentecostal churches), Mormons believe in the gift of tongues and the interpretation of tongues, vision, prophecy, and healing. Two practices, baptism for the dead and sealing in marriage for eternity, are unique to this church. Baptism and salvation for the dead are based on the belief that people who have died without the opportunity to hear or accept the gospel cannot be condemned by a just and merciful God. The gospel must be preached to them after death; They find authority for this practice in 1 Peter 4:6. Baptism is considered as important to the dead as it is to the living, though ultimately the rites do not save them without personal faith and repentance. The ceremony is performed with a living person representing the dead. Marriage has two forms: temporary marriage and eternal marriage (celestial marriage). Mormons who are only legally married still have a good reputation in the church, but marriage for time and eternity in church temples is considered the prerequisite for the greatest chance of salvation. Policy. Latter-day Saints recognize two priesthoods: (1) the higher Melchizedek Priesthood, which has power and authority to preside at Church services and whose officers include apostles, patriarchs, high priests, seventy, and elders, and (2) the lesser priesthood Aarons priesthood, directing the temporal affairs of the church through its bishops, priests, teachers, and deacons. The Presiding Council of the Church is the First Presidency, consisting of three high priests: the President and two Counselors. His authority is final in spiritual and temporal matters. The President of the Church is "the mouthpiece of God"; through him come the laws of the church by direct revelation. In addition to the Presidency, there is the Council of the Twelve Apostles, chosen by revelation to oversee all the work of the Church under the direction of the First Presidency. The Church is divided into areas, regions, and stakes (geographical divisions) made up of various congregations (local churches or parishes). Members of two quorums of the Seventy preside over areas under the direction of the Twelve. The high priests, assisted by the elders, are responsible for the stakes and wards. Members of the Melchizedek Priesthood officiate in all gospel ordinances under the direction of the Presidency. Stake presidents, ward bishops, patriarchs, high priests, and elders oversee the work of the stakes and wards of the Church. The Aaronic Priesthood is governed by three Presiding Bishops, collectively called the Presiding Bishopric, who also oversee the work of priesthood members in stakes and wards. In June 1978 it was decided that "all worthy men of the Church, regardless of race or color, may be ordained to the priesthood."

Mission. The Church affects all aspects of each member's life; provides relief in case of sickness or poverty and helps with education and employment if needed. This church maintains the congregation's stock of food and clothing as part of a self-help system. Members manage vegetable, seed and wheat farms; orchards, dairy and canning plants; sewing centers; soap processing plants; and various grain elevators. Through this system, the Church annually donates thousands of tons of surplus clothing to needy people throughout the world and sponsors water and agricultural projects in underdeveloped countries. The welfare system also includes sheltered workshops for people with disabilities and a range of social services, including foster families and adoption agencies. Nearly 37,000 Mormon youth are currently serving full-time, unpaid missions around the world; They spend from eighteen months to two years spreading the teachings of their church at home and abroad. Only about 100 people in full-time leadership positions receive a salary or scholarship. Latter-day Saints have grown enormously in the 20th century and have become highly influential in national politics over the past half century. Many Western states now have significant Mormon populations, and the Church has spread throughout the world. Education is of great importance to this Mormon group. The Church's largest institutions are Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, and Ricks College in Idaho. Worldwide, approximately 425,000 high school and post-secondary students are enrolled in seminary and institute classes that teach religion.

REORGANIZED CHURCH OF JESUS ​​CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS Founded: 1860, rooted in 1830 Membership: 137,065 in 1,236 congregations (1999) This church claims to be the true continuation of the original church founded by Joseph Smith, Jr., upon his death, leadership was delegated to his son Joseph Smith III in 1860. He bases this claim of succession on the Doctrine and Covenants. Trials are cited on two occasions, in Ohio in 1880 and in Missouri in 1894, to identify them as legal continuations of the original church. The Reorganized Church has rejected claims by Mormons (see LATTER-DAY SAINTS) under the leadership of Brigham Young to have abandoned this rule of succession, along with other doctrinal disagreements. Those who advocated linear succession eventually reorganized, the first collective expression of this movement occurring at a conference in Beloit, Wisconsin in 1852. Joseph Smith III was elected president in 1860 in Amboy, Illinois. All his successors were

descendants of the founder. Since 1920, the headquarters have been in Independence, Missouri, where a temple was built in the late 20th century. Although the doctrine of polygamy was endorsed by the de Young group in 1852, the Reorganized Church considered polygamy to be contrary to the teachings of the Book of Mormon and the doctrine and covenants of the original organization. It also differs in the doctrine of the Godhead, celestial marriage, and baptism for the dead. Fundamental beliefs include belief in the universality of God the Eternal Father, in Jesus Christ as the only begotten Son of the Father, the Holy Spirit, the worth and dignity of man, repentance from sin, baptism by immersion, the efficacy of various Sacramental ordinances, the resurrection of the dead, the open canon of Scripture and the continuity of revelation, the doctrine of stewardship, and the responsibility of all men before God. The work of the Church is supported by tithing and voluntary donations. This is considered a divine principle, and tithing is calculated on the basis of one-tenth of each member's annual increase in needs and righteous desires. The doctrines, policies and legal matters of the church must be approved and decided by a conference of delegates, held independently every two years. The general administration of the Church is exercised by a First Presidency of three High Priests and elders, a Quorum of Twelve Apostles representing the local Presidency, and a Pastoral Arm that reports to the High Priests and Elders. Bishops are responsible for the property of the Church, the administration of the members, and the finances of the Church. The Reorganized Church has been active in developing ministry and understanding as it has expanded into non-Western cultures since the 1960s. It functions in more than thirty countries and has about 250,000 members worldwide. She patronizes numerous nursing homes, medical clinics, and educational institutions in the United States and abroad. He wants to dedicate himself to fighting for world peace and reconciliation. The ordination of women was adopted in 1984 and by the year 2000 more than 3,500 women had been ordained in religious orders. In 2000, church officials and members agreed to change the name of this Mormon church to Fellowship of Christ effective April 2001.

LUTHERAN CHURCHES In the early 16th century, a German theologian named Martin Luther (1483-1546) began to reform the Roman Catholic Church (see CATHOLIC CHURCHES) of his day. Although he had no intention of starting a new church, his followers were nicknamed "Lutherans." These Protestants, as they were later called, wanted to establish the message of the Bible as the sole authority for Christian church life, faith, and practice without rejecting the historic church. To this day, Lutheranism retains much of the ancient and medieval church tradition, including a sense of participation in the historical people of God and revised traditional liturgy in accordance with Protestant Biblicalism. Lutherans are committed to sound doctrine, systematically developed and articulated in careful preaching. Luther's doctrine of justification by faith and of the universal priesthood of believers can be described as the cornerstone of Protestantism. History. The story of Luther's rebellion against the Roman Catholic Church is well known. In short, his position was that the church and the papacy had no divine right in spiritual matters; The Scriptures, not the priest or the church, have the ultimate authority over the conscience. "That which is not against the Scriptures is for the Scriptures, and the Scriptures are for it," said Luther. Not through good works or a church rite (especially not through the sale of indulgences that the Roman Catholic Church offers for sale), but by turning away from sin through the power of sin, people are forgiven and absolved of their sins by the spirit. . straight to God. Justification is achieved by faith, not by ceremony; and faith is not submission to the dictates of the Church, but "the full confidence of the heart" in Christ. "The just shall live by faith" was the beginning and end of Luther's thoughts. He held that the individual conscience is responsible only before God. He also held that the Bible is the clear, perfect, inspired, and authoritative Word of God and the guide for mankind. In 1529 Luther wrote the Larger and Shorter Catechisms for him. A year later, Philipp Melanchthon (1497–1560) wrote the creed known as the Augsburg Confession. The year 1537 brought Schmalkald's Articles of Faith, written by Luther, Melanchthon, and other German reformers; In 1577 the formula of concord was drawn up. These documents, which offer an explanation of Luther's ideology and theology, form the doctrinal basis of Lutheranism. The German Reformation did not result in a unified Protestantism, but one with two main branches: Evangelical Lutheranism, with Luther and Melanchthon as leaders, and the Reformed Church (see REFORMED CHURCHES), led by John Calvin (1509-64), Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) and John Knox (ca. 1513-1572). Evangelical Lutheranism spread to Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Bohemia, Austria, Hungary, France, and the Netherlands. It became the official church of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Estonia, and Latvia.

Lutherans in the United States. Lutheranism came to the United States primarily from Germany and Scandinavia. In 1619 a Lutheran Christmas service was held in Hudson Bay; The first European Lutherans to settle permanently in this country arrived on Manhattan Island from the Netherlands in 1623. The first independent Lutheran colony, New Sweden, was founded in 1638 at Fort Christiana on the Delaware River in present-day Wilmington, Delaware . However, the large influx of Lutheran immigrants went to Pennsylvania, where by the mid-18th century there were 30,000 Lutherans, four-fifths of whom were Germans and the remainder Swedish. The first churches were small and poor, often without pastors. The situation was eased with the arrival of Henry Melchior Mühlenberg (1711-1787) from the University of Halle. He founded the first genuine Lutheran organization in 1748, uniting pastors and congregations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Maryland in what became known as the Pennsylvania Ministry, the first of many Lutheran synods in the United States. : 1786 in New York, 1803 in North Carolina, 1820 in Maryland, 1836 in Ohio. The need for even greater organization was made evident by the increasing influx of Lutherans from Europe, leading to the formation of the General Synod in 1820. With the formation of a national synod, the last real ties to Europe and the Americans they began to break up and Lutheranism was increasingly alone. The General Synod was forced to expand its efforts westward, and the Missouri Synod was formed in 1847. From 1850 to 1860, one million Germans came to the United States, most of whom were Lutherans. The Iowa German Synod was organized in 1854; in the same year the Norwegian Lutheran Church was founded; The Augustana Synod was formed in the New West in 1860. By 1870, Lutherans were the fourth largest Protestant body in the country, with approximately 400,000 members. The Civil War brought the first serious break in Lutheran ranks with the organization of the United Synod of the South in 1863; Three years later, several other synods headed by the Pennsylvania Ministry withdrew from the General Synod to form the General Council. To add to the complexity, Lutheran immigrants continued to arrive in increasing numbers. These immigrants spoke different languages ​​and came from nations where the Church was organized differently. Approximately 1.75 million Scandinavians came from 1870 to 1910, bringing with them a slightly different form of Lutheranism than the older, now established German congregations. Numerous small synods were organized.

At one time there were 150 Lutheran institutions in the United States; Consolidation, unification, and federation have now reduced that number to less than a dozen. In 1917, three main bodies combined to form the Norwegian Lutheran Church of America. Some of the German Midwest synods merged into the Wisconsin Joint Synod in 1918; That same year, the General Synod, the General Council, and the United Synod of the South merged to form the United Lutheran Church. Synods from Iowa, Ohio, and Buffalo, New York merged to form the American Lutheran Church in 1930, and no fewer than eight Lutheran churches participated in mergers between 1960 and 1962. The unification movement lasted until the end of the century, with the disappearance of the old language and nationality barriers. In 1988, the American Lutheran Church merged with the Lutheran Church in America and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The joint efforts can also be felt internationally. Groups of lay delegates and officials from the main Lutheran churches in twenty-two countries formed a Lutheran World Federation in 1947 with the purpose of helping and rehabilitating Lutherans worldwide. Perhaps the most cooperative effort in the history of American Lutheranism is found at Lutheran World Relief, which has distributed more than $300 million in cash and food (including goods donated by the US government) around the world. beliefs and practices. Despite their divisions, there was a real unity among Lutherans, based more on faith than organization. All the churches represent a unique brand of Protestant Christianity, built on Luther's principle of justification by faith alone. Lutherans hold that the Bible is the inspired Word of God and the rule and standard of faith and practice. They profess their faith through the three common creeds of Christianity (Apostles, Nicene, and Athanasian), which they believe to be in accordance with Scripture. They also believe that the Augsburg Confession is an accurate statement of the faith and doctrine of Evangelical Lutheranism, although there is disagreement as to which version is preferred. Luther's two catechisms, the Schmalkaldic Articles and the Formula of Concord are considered faithful interpretations of Lutheranism and the Bible. The two Lutheran sacraments, Baptism and Communion, are not just signs or memorials, but channels through which God bestows forgiving and strengthening grace on people. The body and blood of Christ are believed to exist “in, with, and under” the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper and are received sacramentally and supernaturally. Children are baptized and baptized people are believed to receive the gift of regeneration from the Holy Spirit. Policy. The local church is generally governed between its annual meetings by a church council made up of the pastor and various elected lay representatives. Pastors are appointed by the voting members of the congregation.

Congregations are organized into synods made up of pastors and lay representatives elected by the congregations and authorized by the synod's statutes. In some cases, instead of synods, there are territorial districts or conferences that function in the same way and under the same limitations; some may legislate, while others are solely for consultative or advisory purposes. Synods (conferences or districts) are organized into a general body, which may be national or even international, and is variously called a "church", "synod", or "conference". Some of these general bodies are of a legislative nature, others consultative; They oversee worship, education, publications, charity, and missionary work. communities hold business meetings at least once a year; Synods, districts, and conferences hold annual conventions; general committees meet annually or every two years.

LUTHERAN APOSTOLIC CHURCH OF AMERICA Founded: 1872 Members: approximately 9,000 in 58 churches (2000) By Lars Levi Laestadius (1800-61), naturalist, evangelist, and minister in the Swedish State Church, this church is sometimes also called Laestadius Church with Finnish immigrants in Calumet, Michigan, in the mid-19th century. They first worshiped at Calumet Lutheran Church under the direction of a Norwegian pastor. However, differences between the two national groups led to the establishment of a separate Finnish congregation in 1872, led by Solomon Korteneimi. The church was first organized in Michigan in 1879 as the Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church of America, which was actually a federation of independent Apostolic Lutheran congregations. The new church spanned Michigan, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Massachusetts, Oregon, Washington, and California and was divided into two districts, East and West, with overseas offices in Nigeria, Liberia, and Guatemala. Conservative in theology, this church emphasizes the inerrancy of Scripture and the importance of a biblical Christian experience of justification by faith. Such experience is required to vote as a member in spiritual matters; Supporting members can only vote on temporary issues. The Church accepts ecumenical creeds and places great emphasis on confession, absolution, and rebirth. A confession can be made to another Christian, but when one has fallen into a sin unknown to others, a private confession is not enough; the person "must publicly confess it before the congregation and receive absolution."

Local churches are totally free to govern themselves. At the annual church meeting, in which each congregation has one vote, three members are elected to a nine-member board for three-year terms; The board elects a president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer.

FEDERATION OF FREE LUTHERAN CHURCHES Founded: 1962 Members: 32,984 in 241 congregations (1999) This association was founded by Free Lutheran Church congregations that refused to merge with the newly formed American Lutheran Church in 1962 (see LUTHERAN CHURCHES). It has its roots in a revival movement that swept through Scandinavian Lutheran churches in the late 19th century. He is theologically conservative, holding that the local church is not subject to any authority other than the Word of God. Areas of focus include the inerrancy and supreme authority of the Bible as the Word of God, church policy, the spiritual unity of all true believers, evangelical work aimed at leading people to an experience and dedication to Christ. , the lordship of Christ in personal life. and conservatism in social affairs. The Association elects a President and a Coordinating Committee. The committee, made up of seven people selected from member congregations, maintains a list of ministers and promotes interchurch collaboration on youth ministry, evangelism, church education and other matters. Association members also sponsor a theological seminary and Bible school in Minneapolis, Minnesota, through a school community made up of fifty people from member churches.

CHURCH OF THE LUTHERAN BROTHERS OF AMERICA Constitution: 1900 Membership: 13,920 in 115 congregations (1999) This is an independent Lutheran body (see LUTHERAN CHURCHES) made up of autonomous congregations in the United States and Canada. The synod was organized in 1900 for the purpose of serving its member congregations in the broader services of Christian education and home and world mission. The Church clings to the supreme authority of the Scriptures. She accepts basic Lutheran teachings and emphasizes the need for a personal faith in the Lord Jesus Christ that manifests itself in daily life. The basis of membership in the local church is personal creed. Worship services are characterized by a non-liturgical style,

the use of traditional and contemporary music, the participation of the laity, and biblical teaching and preaching that is evangelistically and personally applicable. The congregations maintain a seminary, a Bible school, and a four-year high school. These institutions, as well as their headquarters, are located in Fergus Falls, Minnesota. Home missions congregations are organized in many areas of the United States and Canada. Extensive mission projects are carried out in Chad, Cameroon, Japan and Taiwan.

CHURCH OF THE LUTHERAN CONFESSION Founded: 1960 Membership: 8,631 in 72 congregations (1999) This confessional church was organized by clergy and laity who had resigned from several synods of the North American Synod Conference over the issue of union with other synods . The Confessing Lutheran Church holds to the doctrine of the literal inspiration and inerrancy of the Bible, and asserts that there can be no ecclesiastical unity (even with other Lutherans) unless there is full doctrinal agreement. It applies without restriction to all historical confessions of the Lutheran faith (see LUTHERAN CHURCHES). Membership is concentrated in South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. He is also involved in missionary work in India and Nigeria. The Church supports a high school, college, and seminary in Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMERICA Founded: 1988 Membership: 5,149,668 in 10,851 congregations (1999) On January 1, 1988, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) was formed by a union of the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), the Church American Lutheran, Founded Church (ALC), and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (AELC), making this body not only the largest Lutheran denomination, but also one of the largest religious organizations in the United States. Two of the unified names themselves were the result of mergers. The ALC was formed in 1960 by synods from the Midwest, three of which were Scandinavian. This merger marked a departure from the ethnic identity of Lutherans. The LCA was formed in 1962 in New York and Philadelphia from four synods, including a Finnish synod. The LKA grew out of the old General Synod and represented a reunion with the Lutherans of the South. The AELC, however, broke in 1976 in a doctrinal dispute with the Missouri Synod. So this new body

it represents the historical continuity of Lutherans from colonial times to the present, as well as Lutheran unity across ethnic lines. Efforts to form the ELCA began in 1982 when the three united churches elected a 70-member committee to write the constitution and other documents for their new church. In August 1986, individual board meetings approved the constitution, and the following May the ELCA Constituent Assembly elected Herbert Chilstrom bishop. The headquarters of the ELCA is in Chicago and its congregations are grouped in 65 synods in the United States and the Caribbean. Nine regions coordinate the work between synods and between synods and organizations throughout the Church. The church's biennial assembly, which includes about 600 voting lay members, divided equally by sex, and about 400 voting clergy members, is the church's highest legislative authority. A 37-member church council, elected by the assembly, serves as interim legislative and executive authority between assemblies. The bishop is the chief and official pastor of the church. The mandate is four years and is renewable by the general assembly of the Church. The Treasurer, Secretary, and Executive Directors are also elected for four-year terms. The ELCA organization provides departments for congregational life ministries, higher education, global mission, ministry, outreach, and church in society. His Minneapolis-based publishing company produces and distributes print and other media resources for the Church. Publications include The Lutheran Church magazine. The Department of Ecumenical Affairs coordinates ecumenical, inter-Lutheran and inter-faith activities and maintains relationships with the Lutheran World Federation, the National Council of Churches of Christ in the USA and the World Council of Churches. In 1997, the ELCA approved partnerships with the Presbyterian Church (USA), the United Church of Christ, and the Reformed Church of America; Similar status was passed in 1999 for the Moravian Church in America and the Episcopal Church USA.

EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN SYNOD Founded: 1918 Membership: 22,264 in 139 congregations (1999) This synod traces its roots to Norwegian immigration in the mid-19th century. A Norwegian synod was formed in 1853, and the current body was organized in 1918 by a minority group that refused to join the other Norwegian groups when they joined in 1917 to form the Norwegian Lutheran Church (later the Evangelical Lutheran Church). .

The jurisdiction of the synod is purely advisory; all synod resolutions are ultimately accepted or rejected by the local congregations. However, the officers and organs of the synod direct the work of common interest to the extent that they do not interfere with the rights or privileges of the congregation. For several years, the Synod used the facilities of the Missouri and Wisconsin synodical colleges and seminaries as part of the Synod Conference. In 1963, the Evangelical Lutheran Synod withdrew from the conference due to doctrinal differences with the Missouri Synod, but remains in fellowship with the Wisconsin Synod. It has maintained Bethany Lutheran College in Mankato, Minnesota, since 1927 and Bethany Lutheran Theological Seminary, also in Mankato, since 1946.

LUTHERAN CHURCH - MISSOURI SYNOD Founded: 1847 Members: 2,582,440 in 6,220 congregations (1999) in Prussia and from its inception this synod has been dedicated to maintaining denominational Lutheranism along with a strong sense of missionary work. It emphasizes the authority of the classical Lutheran confessions and the inerrancy of the Scriptures. The synod has long been recognized as a leader in the field of communications. It operates the world's oldest religious radio station, KFUO in St. Louis, Missouri; offers fifty-year-old "Lutheran Hour" heard in more than 100 countries; and is producing This Is the Life, television's longest-running syndicated drama series in thirty years. It also operates Concordia Publishing House, one of the largest religious publishers in the United States. In addition, the Church has given significant attention to ministry to the deaf and blind, publishing literature in Braille and supporting nearly sixty congregations for the hearing impaired. Due to differences in doctrine and practice, the Missouri Synod was not part of the 1988 merger that united three other Lutheran denominations. However, he continues to work with these churches in various ministries, particularly in areas of social work such as world hunger relief and refugee resettlement. The church's headquarters are at the International Center in the suburb of St. Ludwig. Congregational leaders are elected by a triennial meeting of pastors and laity, whose members represent synodical congregations. Emphasis has always been placed on Christian education for members of all ages. the synod

operates twelve colleges and seminaries in North America with more than 8,000 enrollments. The elementary and secondary school system, with more than 1,500 schools, is the largest of any Protestant denomination in the United States. Missionary work is being done in thirty foreign countries.

WISCONSIN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN SYNOD Founded: 1,850 Members: 411,295 in 1,239 congregations (1999) This Milwaukee church organized as the Wisconsin German Evangelical Lutheran Synod merged with the Minnesota and Michigan synods in 1917 to form the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod and other states. In 1959 the current name was adopted. This Synod professes confessional Lutheranism and unreservedly professes the inspiration and inerrancy of Holy Scripture. Refuses communion with other church bodies unless there is complete agreement in doctrine and practice. It is divided into twelve districts and maintains its national headquarters in Milwaukee. Mission churches are maintained in Zambia, Malawi, Brazil, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Cameroon, Nigeria, Russia, Bulgaria, and among Native Americans in Arizona. The synod maintains two colleges, three academies, and a theological seminary for the training of its Christian pastors and teachers. The community associations manage seven residences for the elderly and a social service.

MENONITE CHURCHES Dating from the 1520s in Central Europe, these Protestant churches are named after Menno Simons (ca. 1496-1561), one of the early Dutch leaders of the "Radical Reformation." "Radical" in their desire to get to the "roots" of the Biblical way of life, they rejected the "Magnificent Reformation" of Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564). Known to others as Anabaptists, they were treated as misfits, heretics, and even outlaws by both Catholics and Protestants. His concern was not with theology proper, the sacraments, or the liturgy. Rather, they believed that they were called to live a godly life according to the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:1-7:29). Until recently, most (and still some) of these quietly devout Christians disapproved of participating in secular activities, refusing to take the oath, bear arms, vote, or hold public office. They are a so-called community of believers (from the state, from society in general). Some groups always emphasize the local community and insist on living in 'conscious communities'. Similar to the Brethren family (see BROTHERS and PIETIC CHURCHES), Mennonites go their own way in many ways, prioritizing lifestyle over cultivated piety. The first recorded Anabaptist congregation was founded in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1525 by those who disagreed with Ulrich Zwingli (1484–1531) in his desire to forge a union of church and state. They also denied the Biblical validity of infant baptism and were therefore called Anabaptists or Anabaptists. Anabaptist congregations were organized in Holland as early as 1534 by Obbe Philips (ca. 1500-68). Philips baptized Menno Simons in 1536, and Simons, a converted Roman Catholic priest, organized so many Anabaptist congregations that his name became identified with the movement. Simons's writings, which emphasized pacifism, continued to influence Mennonites. His pacifism and rejection of the state religion led to severe persecution, and the number of martyrs might have been much higher if William Penn (1644-1718) had not offered refuge in the American colonies. Thirteen families settled in Germantown, near Philadelphia, in 1683, and a Mennonite church was eventually planted there. Mennonite immigrants from Germany and Switzerland spread to Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Indiana, Illinois, and the far western United States and Canada; others came later from Russia, Prussia, and Poland. Thanks to their historic insistence on non-resistance, their colonial settlements were comparatively peaceful and prosperous. The Mennonite faith is based on a creed signed in Dordrecht, Holland, in 1632. In eighteen articles the following teachings were established: belief in God as Creator; the fall and restoration of humanity at the coming of Christ;

Christ as the Son of God who redeemed humanity on the Cross; obedience to the law of Christ in the gospel; the need for repentance and conversion for salvation; baptism as a public confession of faith; the Lord's Supper as an expression of common unity and fraternity; Marriage only between "spiritual relatives"; Obedience and respect for civil government, except when armed force is used; Expulsion from the church and social ostracism of willful sinners; and future reward for the faithful and punishment for the wicked. Communion is served twice a year in almost all Mennonite congregations; in most cases, baptism is by pouring. Most also observe the washing of the feet in connection with the Lord's Supper, after which they greet one another with the "kiss of peace." In the last two ceremonies the sexes are separated. All Mennonites baptize only according to one creed, refuse to take an oath before judges, oppose secret societies, and strictly adhere to New Testament teachings. They have a strong church service program and provide service around the world through Mennonite Central Committee. The local church is more or less autonomous and authoritative, although in some cases appeal is made to district or state conferences. Church officials are bishops (often referred to as elders), ministers, and deacons (Almonians). Many clergy are self-sufficient and hold secular jobs when they are not involved in church work. Other officers are assigned to Sunday school, youth work, and other duties. The Amish movement in Mennonite ranks takes its name from Jacob Amman (c. 1656–c. 1730), a late-17th-century Swiss Mennonite bishop who insisted on strict observance of the creed, particularly in matters of avoiding excommunicated members. . This literalism led to a split in Switzerland in 1693. The first Amish immigrants to the United States were concentrated in Pennsylvania and spread to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Nebraska, and other western states and Canada. Distinguished by their strictly simple dress, many Amish can be found at the Conservative Amish Mennonite Church and the Old Order Amish Mennonite Church. They remain the literalists of the movement, clinging tenaciously to the Pennsylvania Dutch language and the culture of their 17th-century Swiss-German ancestors. They reject the use of cars, telephones and higher education and are considered extremely efficient farmers.

BEACHY AMISH MENONITE CHURCHES Founded: 1927 Membership: 7,853 in 114 congregations (1997)

These churches are comprised primarily of Amish Mennonites (see MENONITE CHURCHES) who have split from the more conservative Old Order Amish (see OLD ORDER AMISH CHURCHES) over a period of years beginning in 1927 in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. They were led by Bishop Moses M. Beachy and are now found primarily in Pennsylvania and Ohio. They believe in the Trinity and that the Bible is the infallible word by which all men will be judged, the just up to heaven and the wicked up to eternal suffering. To some extent, they resemble the Old Order Amish in dress and general demeanor, but their discipline is more lenient. These Mennonites pray in churches, have Sunday schools, and actively support missionary work. Almost all churches sponsor Christian schools. They sponsor a monthly publication, Calvary Messenger, and an annual twelve-week Calvary Bible School. The Mission Interest Committee sponsors homes for the aged, disabled, and missions in the United States and Europe.

BRUDERHOF COMMUNITIES Founded: 1920 Members: 2,500 worldwide (2000) One of the most recent manifestations of Anabaptist witness is the Bruderhof movement, which began in Germany after the economic and social devastation of World War I. Founded by Eberhard Arnold (1883-1935), theologian and writer, it gained attention in North America in the 1960s and has now grown to nine congregations in the US, England, and Australia, where nearly 2,500 men, women and children live together according to the testimony of the first Christians as described in Acts (chap. 2 and 4). They live together in full communion, sharing possessions, working and praying together, and striving for unity in all things. Many more people are connected to the movement without being members. Theologically, the farmer brothers profess the Apostles' Creed, but emphasize the expectation of the coming of the kingdom of God on this earth. They believe that followers of Jesus are empowered by the Spirit to now live in harmony with the rule and kingship of God as expressed in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:1-7:29). The mission of the Bruderhof is to bear witness to the good news that in Christ it is possible to live a new life and to share that life with others in fraternity, communion and justice. Based on the teachings of Jesus, the Bruderhof affirms the sanctity of all life; Therefore, they oppose all forms of violence and murder, including abortion, the death penalty, war, and physician-assisted suicide. They also believe in the sanctity of marriage (between a man and a woman) and the sanctity of sex (sexual intimacy only within marriage). They do not proselytize, they seek

work together with others regardless of their faith and whenever possible in a spirit of Christian unity and shared concern.

CHURCH OF GOD IN CHRIST, MENNONITE Founded: 1859 Membership: 12,144 in 102 churches (1999) This church grew out of the preaching and work of John Holeman (1832–1900), a member of the Mennonite Church (see MENONITE CHURCHES) of Ohio, who was convinced that the Church was wrong in many of its teachings and practices and deviated from the teachings and practices of his forefathers. He fervently preached on the need for regeneration, the baptism of the Holy Spirit, a better education of children in the fundamentals of the faith, the discipline of unfaithful members, the prevention of apostates, and the condemnation of worldly churches. He broke away from the Mennonite Church and in 1859 began holding meetings with a small group of followers. They then officially organized into the Mennonite Church of God in Christ. The Church holds that all churches should believe and practice the same creed "from the time of the apostles to the end of the world," and that the Bible, as the inspired and inerrant Word of God, should govern all doctrine. and doctrine. Accept the Eighteen Articles of Faith written in Dordrecht, Holland, in 1632. Women must cover their heads and men must wear beards. Non-participation in military and secular government is imposed. The highest decision-making body is the General Conference, a body of officers, deacons, and delegates that meets every five years or as needed. The Church teaches the world non-conformity in dress, body adornment, sports and entertainment. Most ecclesiastical communities maintain a Christian school for the education of their children. Missions are operated in the US, Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Haiti, the Philippines, India, Nigeria, and other countries. Kansas is the state with the highest concentration.

CONSERVATIVE MENNONITE CONFERENCE Established: 1910 Membership: 10,334 in 102 churches (1999) The Conservative Mennonite Conference (CMC) is an autonomous federation of congregations within the Mennonite Church (see MENONITE CHURCHES).

was founded in 1910 at a meeting of Amish Mennonite Church leaders in Pigeon, Michigan. Five ministers were present representing Amish Mennonite churches that refused to embrace Old Order Amish Mennonite conservatism (see OLD ORDER AMISH CHURCHES) regarding cultural expressions. However, they were also more conservative than the mainstream Amish-Mennonite and Mennonite approach of the time. The organization was known as the Conservative Amish Mennonite Conference from 1912 until it adopted its current name in 1954. CMC signs the Mennonite Confession of Faith (1963) and the Conservative Mennonite Statement of Theology (1991). These documents affirm the full humanity and divinity of Jesus Christ, the full inspiration and autographic inerrancy of Scripture, believer's baptism, and nonviolence. Members are expected to refrain from gambling, alcohol, tobacco, indecent clothing, swearing, and sexual activity before and after marriage. The highest decision-making body of the Conservative Mennonite Conference is the biennial Business Ministers Meeting, which elects an Executive Council and a General Secretary to oversee the day-to-day affairs of the Conference. CMC's mission arm is Rosedale Mennonite Missions. There are internationally affiliated religious communities in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Haiti, Germany, and Kenya. Rosedale Bible Institute in Irwin, Ohio offers college courses in a variety of Christian studies. The conference sponsors the Bethel Mennonite Camp for youth in eastern Kentucky. The official publication of the CMC is Brotherhood Beacon.

EVANGELICAL MENONITE CHURCH Founded: 1865 Membership: 4,929 in 33 churches (2000) Formerly the Forlorn Mennonite Church (see MENONITE CHURCHES), this organization was formed as a result of a spiritual awakening among the Indiana Amish led by Henry Egly, who emphasized the need for of repentance and rebirth before baptism. Egly's practice of changing the name of the Amish who had converted caused conflict within the Amish community, leading to the formation of the evangelical church. It goes on to emphasize regeneration, separation and non-conformity with the world and non-resistance. The program of the Evangelical Mennonite Church today consists largely of church missions and evangelism. An orphanage in Flanagan, Illinois and a camp near Kalamazoo, Michigan are maintained. The current name was adopted in 1949; However, in 2000, the denomination explored dropping the word Mennonite from its name.

COMMUNION OF EVANGELICAL BIBLICAL CHURCHES Founded: 1889 Membership: 1,917 in 16 churches (1990) Formerly known as Evangelical Mennonite Brethren (see MENONITE CHURCHES), this group originated from the Russian immigration of Mennonites to the United States and Canada in 1873 and The 1874 conference was organized in 1889 to emphasize the gospel teachings of repentance, conversion, baptism into the creed, and the life surrendered to Jesus Christ. It also defends faith in the infallible and inspired Word of God and a contemporary interpretation of Biblical history and prophecy that fights for the imminent return of Christ. Most communion churches are outside of the United States, in Canada, Argentina and Paraguay. Despite its size, it maintains an active worldwide missionary program.

GENERAL CONFERENCE OF MENONITE CHURCHES Established: 1860 Membership: 82,130 in 368 churches (1996) This church of Dutch and German origin was founded in the Ukraine by a small group of Mennonites (see MENONITE CHURCHES) seeking more attention to prayer and study of the Bible than for them. found in their native Mennonite church. Its founders were strongly influenced by German Pietism (see BROTHERS AND PIETIST CHURCHES), but they retained the parish politics common to Mennonite churches. Small carcasses reached Kansas in 1874 and later spread to the Pacific coast and Canada. A General Conference meets every two years as the main governing body, bringing together delegates from its two territories (Canada and the United States). Each area has a series of districts. Area conferences oversee local mission work, education, and publications. The main offices are in Fresno, California. The Krimmer Mennonite Brethren merged with this church in 1960, and General Conference Mennonites continue to work closely with other Mennonites in the mission. There are foreign representations in Africa, Asia, Europe, South America and Mexico; a radio ministry broadcasts around the world in English, German and Russian; and in 1976 a French-language Bible Institute was established in Quebec.

MENONITE CHURCH Founded: 1525 (Organized in USA 1725) Membership: 92,002 in 935 churches (1999) This major Mennonite organization (see MENONITE CHURCHES) was brought to Germantown, Pennsylvania in 1683 by Dutch and German immigrants. The Dordrecht Confession was adopted as a Mennonite statement of faith at a conference of Mennonite ministers in Pennsylvania in 1725. In 1921 Christian foundations were accepted. A creed adopted in 1963, without attempting to transform the body into a church of faith, attempted to establish the main tenets of Scripture as understood in the Anabaptist-Mennonite tradition. The creed emphasizes faith in Christ, the salvation status of children, the importance of proclaiming God's Word and "making disciples", believer's baptism, absolute love, non-resistance rather than revenge as a personal response. to the injustice and abuse of the Church as a non-hierarchical community. Because of their insistence on freedom from traditional Mennonite dress codes, some other Mennonites regarded this group as "liberal in conduct." The General Assembly meets every two years. It brings together representatives from all the regional conferences and from many North American congregations. The discussion is open to all; However, only elected delegates (women and men, ordained and non-ordained) have the right to vote. Churchwide program committees are responsible for mission, community service, education, publications, and mutual service; they are all under the supervision of the Church Council. Home missions emphasize evangelism, and missions are in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Central and South America. The Church sponsors hospitals, nursing homes, and child welfare services. Membership is strongest in Pennsylvania and the Midwestern states. In 2001, this church will merge with the General Conference Mennonite Church (founded in 1860). The membership of the new body is expected to be around 125,000 people in 1,020 communities. The unified church will have a "one denomination, two country structure" with the new Mennonite Church split into Mennonite Church USA and Mennonite Church Canada. In 1995, General Conference Mennonites and Mennonite Church members adopted a new creed from a Mennonite perspective. The creed is the latest in a series of historic Anabaptist creeds beginning with the Schleitheim Articles of 1527. The new creed includes twenty-four articles that interpret Mennonite beliefs about God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, the Scriptures, creation, sin , salvation, the church, Christian life and mission, peace and justice and the kingdom of God.

Associated Biblical Mennonite Seminary in Elkhart, Indiana, trains General Conference and Mennonite Church pastors, missionaries, ministers, peace workers, and lay leaders.

MISSIONARY CHURCH Charter: 1969 Membership: 46,015 in 334 churches (1999) The Missionary Church consists of two groups that merged in March 1969: the Missionary Church Association, organized in Bern, Indiana, in 1889, and the United Missionary Church founded in 1883 in Englewood, Ohio as Mennonite Brethren in Christ. Both earlier denominations had a Mennonite heritage (see MENONITE CHURCHES) and grew out of the Holiness revivals of the late 19th century. The missionary church is conservative and evangelical in theology and practice. Local churches are free to manage their own affairs, but recognize the authority of a general conference, made up of clergy, missionaries, and laity, which meets every two years. A General Council operates under the General Conference, overseeing a variety of mission organizations and activities. The president, vice president, and secretary are elected for four-year terms. Missionary Church USA works closely with the Missionary Church of Canada in foreign ministry in a joint venture called World Partners. Church planting, Bible translation, correspondence courses, Bible colleges, seminaries, graduate seminars, clinics, youth camps, and other programs are run by 139 missionaries working in partnership with churches nationals. Countries served include Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Haiti, Jamaica, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Spain, and others. There are also indigenous churches in India, Mexico and Venezuela. Wider outreach is achieved through other evangelical missionary corps in 23 countries around the world. The Church is affiliated with an educational institution in the United States: Bethel College in Mishawaka, Indiana.

OLD AMISH CHURCHES Bylaws: 1,720 Membership: Approximately 80,800 in 898 districts (1993) The Old Order Amish upholds the ancient traditions of the Amish movement more strictly than the so-called Amish Church. For example, her “simple dress”

it requires the use of hooks and eyes instead of buttons or zippers, and members do not own cars. It is impossible to provide accurate membership statistics as the Ancient Order is not a denomination in the usual sense of the word. There are no church buildings because believers pray in private homes. Also, there are no lectures. Members do not believe in missions, charities, or centralized schools; However, some contribute to the missions and charities of the Mennonite Church (see MENONITE CHURCHES). There are nearly 900 Old Order Amish districts, each averaging 100 to 150 members, about half of whom are baptized.

OLD ORDER MENONITE CHURCH (WISLER) Founded: 1872 Membership: Statistics not available This church is named for Jacob Wisler, the first MENNONITE CHURCH in Indiana, who led a secession from this church in 1872 to oppose its use by the English protest at religious services and the introduction of Sunday schools. Like the Old Order (Order) Amish, these Mennonites maintain the ancient style of dress, have limited use of modern technology, and keep their distance from the world. Like-minded groups from Canada, Pennsylvania, and Virginia joined the Church in 1886, 1893, and 1901 and are still holding out on the basis of those protests. Each section of the Church has its own district conference, and conferences are held twice a year in each ward. All churches participate in relief work, particularly for those in need at home and abroad, and some contribute to the work of the Mennonite Church.

METHODIST CHURCHES For decades, the Methodist Church was the largest religious organization in the United States and still has the largest geographic reach of any church. Beginning as a Pietist movement (see BRETHERS and PIETIST CHURCHES) within the Church of England in the 1730s, Methodism greatly expanded in the 18th century under the leadership of brothers Wesley John (1703-91) and Charles (1707). -88). of. who preached and wrote hymns about the need for a personal experience of salvation and life change. While Methodism remains story-oriented and respects the liturgy, it is generally concerned with ministry to the poor and disadvantaged and expresses its belief in compassion for the human condition. In many ways, the witness of the Spirit was a driving force for worship, charity, personal piety, and evangelism among Methodists. History. The origins of the Methodist Church can be traced back to a small group of students and serious members of Oxford University who were nicknamed 'Methodists' (also known as 'Bible freaks' and 'holy club') due to their strict regime of prayer. Fasting, Bible reading and works of charity inspired by William Laws (1686-1761) A serious call to a devout and holy life and a treatise on Christian perfection. Members of the group included the Wesleys and the future evangelist George Whitefield (1714–70). John Wesley was ordained into the Church of England in 1728 (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES) and served in a church with his father for two years before the old man died when John returned to Oxford as a fellow of Lincoln College. Charles was ordained in 1735. The two left Oxford for the colonies, arriving in Georgia in 1735. Charles joined General James Oglethorpe (1696–1785) as secretary, and John was sent by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to be missionary among Native Americans. It was an unsuccessful and unhappy two years for John, but while on board a ship bound for the colonies, he met a group of Moravians (see MORAVIAN CHURCH) and was deeply impressed by their piety and humble Christian way of life. On his return to London he attended a meeting of a Moravian religious society in Aldersgate Street. There he heard the preacher read Luther's "Foreword to the Epistle to the Romans" and his heart felt "strangely warm" as the meaning of the Reformation doctrine of "justification by faith" penetrated the soul of he. This was the evangelistic spark that energized his life and ignited the Wesleyan revival in England. The Wesleys and the Whitefields soon began to preach the need for a personal conversion experience and the sanctity of life. Banned from their pulpits by the sober Church of England, they went out and sought an audience among the large and neglected working class of the new industrial revolution. Charles wrote revival hymns for the streets, barns, houses, and mining pits of

Cornwall. Juan preached repentance, regeneration, justification, holiness, and sanctification to the miners and textile workers. The conversions came thick and fast; it became necessary to organize themselves into "societies." Una was attached to a Moravian congregation in Fetter Lane, London, in 1739 and then moved to her own quarters in a dilapidated government building known as the Foundry, where in 1740 she became the first self-sufficient Methodist Society in London. Between 1739 and 1744 the organizational elements of Methodism were introduced: a circuit system and itinerant ministry, class meetings and class leaders, lay ministers, and annual conferences. There has been phenomenal membership growth; More than 26,000 Methodists worshiped in England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales in 1767. Methodism was primarily a secular movement, and Wesley did his best to keep it in the Church of England. An evangelical party arose within this church, including such luminaries as the hymn writer Isaac Watts (1674–1748) and the philanthropist and abolitionist William Wilberforce (1759–1833), but it became clear that a separate Methodist organization was needed to emerge. to deal with a large number of recruits among the unchurched. As early as 1739, John Wesley developed a set of general rules that modern Methodists still regard as the ideal outline of Biblical rules of conduct. A Declaration Act of 1784 gave legal status to the annual Methodist conference. Methodists in the United States. Meanwhile, the movement reached Ireland and the American colonies, and Wesley began sending out leaders. Early in the colonies were Joseph Pilmoor (1739–1835) and Richard Boardman (1738–82). In 1769, New York Methodists built Wesley Chapel, now known as John Street Methodist Church. Captain Thomas Webb (ca. 1726-1796) founded societies in Philadelphia; Robert Strawbridge (died 1781) started a revival in Maryland and built a church in a cabin on Sam's Creek. Devereux Jarratt (1733–1801), a transplanted Anglican minister, led a revival in Virginia that drew thousands. The real center of Methodism was then in the South; Of the 3,148 Methodists in the colonies in 1775, about 2,000 lived south of the Mason and Dixon lineage. Wesley, aware of the rapid expansion of the movement, sent emissaries to take the initiative, including Francis Asbury (1745-1816) and Thomas Rankin (1738-1810), the latter as "Superintendent of all the work of Methodism in America." Rankin chaired the first conference in the colonies, held in Philadelphia in 1773. At the time of the Revolution, Methodism seemed doomed in North America. Wesley's pro-British stance caused resentment, and Asbury, working almost alone, found some of the churches difficult to keep alive. Surprisingly, of all the religious groups in the colonies, only the Methodists seemed to succeed during the revolution. Membership at the end of the war

it had grown to 14,000 and there were almost 80 ministers. It was now an American church, free of England and the Church of England. Wesley accepted the inevitable; He ordained ministers to the colonies and appointed Asbury and Thomas Coke (1747–1814) overseers. Coke brought from England certain instructions from Wesley, a service book and hymnbook, and the authority to carry on the organization. The Christmas Conference, held in Baltimore in December 1784, organized the Methodist Episcopal Church and elected Coke and Asbury as superintendents (later called bishops). The Sunday Service (a summary of the Book of Common Prayer) and the Articles of Religion were adopted as written by John Wesley, with the addition of an article that Methodists must pledge allegiance to the United States Government. Under Asbury's vigorous leadership, Methodism adapted to the American landscape. Itinerant ministers on horseback who traveled the sprawling frontier went to mountain lodges, prairie churches, schools, and campgrounds and preached the need for conversion and renewal. The Methodist Book Concern was founded in 1789 and placed in the saddlebags the religious literature of the hippodrome jockeys who followed the march of the American Empire south and west. The Methodists adopted and fully exploited the revival flavor of the camp meeting born among the Presbyterians. In the mid-19th century there were approximately 1.3 million Methodists in the United States. Not all was peaceful under the Methodists. Various groups opposed what they saw as abuses of the episcopal system and split: Republican Methodists, later the Christian Church, withdrew in Virginia; Methodist Protestants broke away in 1830. Between 1813 and 1917, large groups of African Americans formed independent churches: the African Methodist Episcopal Church; the African Union Church, now the American Union Methodist Episcopal Church; and Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1844 the most devastating split of all occurred, the split of the Methodist Episcopal Church into the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Northern body, and the Methodist Episcopal Church of the South, organized in 1845. The reason for this great split was, of course, , slavery. . Bishop JO Andrew (1794–1871), a Georgian, owned slaves by inheritance and his wife was also a slave owner. They could not free their slaves under Georgia law, but the 1844 General Conference, held in New York City, required the bishop to step down as long as he remained a slave owner. Enraged, the southern delegates revolted; A provisional plan for secession was formulated, and the southerners returned home to start their own church.

Central to the split was the constitutional question of the power of the General Conference, which southerners claimed assumed supreme power, effectively deposing a bishop who had not violated canon law and against whom no charges had been brought. It was a division that was not healed until 1939, when the Methodist Episcopal Church; the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; and the Protestant Methodist Church combined in Kansas City, Missouri to organize the Methodist Church. This year's unification conference approved a new constitution in three sections: a summary of the Articles of Religion written by John Wesley; the General Rules covering the Conduct of Church Members and the Duties of Church Officials; and the Articles of Organization and Government, which describe the organization and conduct of conferences and local churches. This Constitution may not be changed by any General Conference unless and until each Annual Conference has responded to the proposed changes. Another Methodist body with a notable history was the Evangelical United Brethren Church, which grew out of a series of mergers between two groups: the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical Church. The Evangelical Church, originally the Evangelical Association, arose as a result of the work of Jacob Albright (1759-1808) among the Pennsylvania Germans. Albright preached first as a Lutheran and then as a Methodist preacher, and was appointed bishop at the first annual conference of the Evangelical Association in 1807. He applied Methodist discipline, preached Methodist doctrine, and was so successful that for a time his followers were known as " the Albrights". ". A split in 1891 resulted in a separate denomination, the United Evangelical Church. The two groups were reunited in 1922 under the name "Evangelical Church." Another group, the United Brethren in Christ Church, developed parallel to through the preaching of Pietists (see BROTHERS and PIETIST CHURCHES) Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813) and Martin Boehm (1725-1812) among the Germans of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia They were elected bishops at a conference in September 1800 This Conference formed the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, which was also strongly Methodist in policy, doctrine, and practice. Each group had a discipline modeled on that of the Methodists. The Church of the United Brethren in Christ and the Evangelical Church were merged in 1946 to form Evangelical United Brethren Church (E.U.B.) in Johnstown, Pennsylvania In April 1968, the Methodist Church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church (E.U.B.) to form the United Methodist Church. No major doctrinal or policy changes were made to this association. Representatives of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church, Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, and The United Methodist Church have met as a commission since the mid-1980s.

on pan-Methodist collaboration. In 1996 a newer body, the Committee on Unions, was formed, again with representatives from the four churches. Members of both bodies recommended merging the committees; the recommendation must be approved by the general conferences of each of the four churches before being adopted. beliefs and practices. In matters of faith there was very little room for confusion or disagreement; Doctrinal disputes were conspicuous by their absence. Historically, Methodists have not built theological fences to keep anyone out; they emphasized the core beliefs of Protestantism and provided a common theological foundation. Not all churches repeat the Apostles' Creed in their worship, although church discipline provides for its use in formal worship. The theology is Arminian, emphasizing individual free will and the death of Jesus Christ as atonement for all people, as interpreted by Wesley in his sermons, his New Testament notes, and his articles on religion. The Church preaches and teaches the doctrines of the Trinity; the natural sinfulness of humanity, its fall, and the need for conversion and repentance; Free will; justification by faith; sanctification and holiness; future rewards and penalties; the sufficiency of Scripture for salvation; and the enabling grace of God. Two sacraments are observed, baptism and communion; Baptism is administered to children and adults, usually by sprinkling. Membership is based on a creed or conversion letter from another church; The admission of children to membership is generally limited to the age of thirteen and over, but in the South the age may be a few years younger. There is wide latitude in the interpretation and practice of all the teachings, with some communities being more liberal and others more conservative. Methodists have played important roles in many major American religious movements, most notably the temperance, social gospel, holiness, and ecumenical movements. Some of these movements spawned new denominations. Worship and liturgy are based on the English prayer book with extensive modifications. The language of the prayer book is very clear in the sacraments of Methodist churches. However, in many forms of worship, each congregation is free to use or change the accepted pattern as it sees fit. Policy. Local Methodist churches are called offices; Ministers are appointed by the bishop at the annual conference, and each church elects its own board of directors, which initiates planning and sets goals and policies at the local level. It is made up of staff, chairs of various committees, representatives of various program interests, and members at large. Convocation, Annual and General Conferences predominate in most Methodist bodies. While

The government, popularly called Episcopalian, is largely state through this series of conferences. The Charge Conference meets in the local church or circuit under the chairmanship of the district superintendent. Sets the pastor's salary, elects church officers, and sends delegates to the annual conference. You can delegate responsibility for many of these functions to the Board of Directors. Some areas have a district conference between the officer in charge and the annual conference, but this is not a universal agreement. Annual conferences cover defined geographic areas; ordain and license ministers, vote on constitutional issues, oversee pensions and allowances, and exchange ministers with other annual conferences by episcopal act; and elects lay and service delegates to General Conference every four years. The General Conference is the legislative body of the Church, meeting every four years; bishops preside, and much of the conference's work is done in committees, the reports of which can then be adopted by the general conference.

AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH Charter: 1814 Membership: Approximately 2,500,000 in 6,200 congregations (1999) The African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC) is one of the oldest and largest Methodist organizations (see METHODIST CHURCHES) in the world. It was founded by Richard Allen (1760–1831), a rescued former slave from Delaware. Allen had converted while he was still a slave and began preaching to freed African-Americans in Philadelphia up to five times a day. He regularly visited St. George, where African Americans were generally welcome but separated from whites. In 1787, Absalom Jones (1746–1818), who later became the first African-American Episcopal minister, fell to his knees in prayer as white trustees physically led him to the rear of the church. When the church leadership endorsed this discrimination, Allen and Jones removed black members from the church. In 1793, Allen founded the Bethel Church for black Methodists in Philadelphia. Although Francis Asbury dedicated the Philadelphia chapel and ordained Richard Allen as a minister, Bethel Church was the center of controversy within the Methodist system. Whites in the denomination tried to prevent Allen and his congregation from controlling his property, but in 1816 the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled in Allen's favor. During this struggle, the Bethel Congregation and five other predominantly black Methodist churches left the Methodist Church and formed AMEC in 1814. Allen was ordained Asbury's first bishop in 1816.

Other African American churches in the urban North followed suit. Bishop Allen clung firmly to the Methodist liaison system and after 1816 attempted to bring the new Zion Church (see ZION AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH) under his umbrella, but Zion members responded by forming their own denomination. In the years before the Civil War, AMEC was largely confined to the northern states; After the war, membership grew rapidly in the South. Today it can be found throughout the country. There are 19 bishops (including the first female bishop elected in 2000), 12 general officers, and 18 liaison officers in thirteen districts; a general conference is held every four years. Overseas missions are supported in South Africa; West Africa; India; London England; Caribbean; and South America. The Church maintains six colleges and two theological schools. Journalism has been a central part of the church's work since the earliest years; the AME Book Concern dates from 1816 and the weekly Christian Reader has been published since 1848.

ZION AFRICAN METHODIST CHURCH Charter: 1821 Membership: 1,276,662 in 3,125 congregations (1999) This church dates back to 1796 when it was organized by a group of people opposed to racial discrimination at John Street Methodist Church in New York City they protested. The first church called Zion was built in the 18th century, and this word later became part of the name of the denomination. Richard Allen attempted to bring the new Zion Church under the authority of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (see AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH), but Zion retained its independence. The first annual conference was held at this church in 1821 with nineteen ministers from six black Methodist churches in New Haven, Connecticut; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Newark, NJ. James Varick (ca. 1750–1827), who led the John Street dissent, was elected the first bishop. The present name was approved in 1848. The Church spread rapidly throughout the northern states, and by 1880 there were fifteen annual conferences in the South. Livingstone College in Salisbury, North Carolina, the largest educational institution in the Church, was founded in 1879. Missionary, Educational, and Publishing Departments were established in 1892, Ministerial Aid, etc. Home missions are supported in Louisiana, Mississippi, and several western states, primarily Oklahoma. There are also missionaries in Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, South America, and the West Indies. The Church has five secondary schools and two colleges.

METHODIST CHRISTIAN EPISCOPAL CHURCH Constitution: 1870 Membership: 784,114 in 3,069 congregations (1999) This body was organized in 1870 by amicable agreement between white and black members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South (see METHODIST CHURCHES). At the time of Emancipation, there were at least 225,000 slaves in the Church of the South, but after the Civil War, all but 80,000 joined one of two independent black bodies, the African Methodist Episcopal Church or the African Methodist Episcopal Church. of Zion. When the General Conference of the Southern Methodist Episcopal Church met in New Orleans in 1866, a committee of black members proposed separation into a separate church. The request was granted and the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church was formed. This name was retained until its general conference in Memphis in May 1954, when it was changed to its present name. The doctrine of the church is Methodist, but this denomination adds a quarterly conference to the usual Methodist district, annual, and quadrennial conferences. There are ten episcopal districts, each headed by a presiding bishop, and together they form the college of bishops. Ten departments oversee the national work, each headed by a bishop appointed by the episcopal college. The General Secretaries of the different departments are elected every four years by the General Conference, and the President of the Women's Missionary Council is elected every four years by the quadrennial meeting of the Missionary Council. The Church publishes two magazines and has five colleges, a seminary, a hospital, and several low-cost housing projects for the elderly. In the last decades of the 20th century, the ministry of the Church promoted the economic growth of African Americans.

CONGREGATIONAL METHODIST CHURCH Constitution: 1852 Membership: 14,738 in 187 churches (1995) This church was organized in Georgia in protest against certain features of the episcopate and the itinerant movement of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South (see METHODIST CHURCHES). Again, by the late 1880s, more than half of that body had withdrawn to join the Congregational Church (see CONGREGATIVE CHURCHES). Local pastors are called by local churches; Annual conferences issue licenses, ordain ministers, and review local reports. Annual and general conferences are recognized as ecclesiastical courts with authority to adjudicate violations

Canon Law and coordinate, plan and promote the general activities of the Church. There is a missionary program among the Navajo people in New Mexico and Mexico. Wesley College and the faith's headquarters are in Florence, Mississippi.

EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF NORTH AMERICA Founded: 1968 Membership: 12,369 in 132 congregations (1998) When the Methodist Church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church to form the United Methodist Church in 1968 (see UNITED METHODIST CHURCH), several churches became They merged and the brothers resignedly moved to form the Evangelical Church of North America. The new church was organized in Portland, Oregon, eventually including congregations across the country, though the strength is still in the Northwest. In 1982 it merged with the North West Canadian Conference and Holiness Methodist Church. The teaching position of the Evangelical Church is Wesleyan-Arminian. In the organization, conference superintendents oversee each district and annual conference; General administration is handled by annual conference meetings, the conference board of trustees, and program agencies such as evangelism, mission, Christian education, and stewardship. A General Superintendent is the overseer of the work of the denomination.

CONGREGATIVE EVANGELICAL CHURCH Founded: 1894-1928, roots in 1800 Membership: 22,349 in 143 congregations (1999) Residents of Pennsylvania in the early 19th century Albright helped organize the Evangelical Association, which later became the Evangelical Church, which eventually merged with the Church of the United Brethren merged to form the Evangelical Church of the United Brethren. In 1891, in a bitter dispute over episcopal authority, seven annual conferences and some 60,000 members of the Evangelical Church withdrew from this body to form the United Evangelical Church. The two churches reunited in 1922, but again a minority opposed it and stayed away from the merger. The Eastern Pennsylvania Conference and various churches in the Central, Pittsburgh, Ohio, Illinois, and West Virginia Conferences continued to exist separately under the former name, which was changed to the Evangelical Congregational Church in 1928. This church, as its mother church

Evangelical Church, is "Methodist in politics, Arminian in doctrine." The emphasis is on the inspiration and integrity of the Bible and the "fellowship of all the followers of Christ." Each congregation owns its property, determines its membership, manages its affairs, and chooses its church affiliation. Within defined geographic areas there are annual conferences that oversee local congregations through regional conference elders/overseers. The Oversight/Parks Committee, composed of the bishop and elders/conference superintendents, assigns pastors to congregations annually. The various annual conferences send representatives to a general conference every four years. The Missions Department, with two adult helpers, oversees the missions programs. There are missionaries abroad and in the United States, with 163 nationals working in different countries. The summer camp will be held at three camps strategically located near the conferences, with four ten-day camp sessions. The church headquarters, the Evangelical School of Theology, and the Evangelical Congregational Church Retreat Village are located in Myerstown, Pennsylvania.

EVANGELICAL METHODIST CHURCH Constitution: 1946 Membership: 8,615 in 123 congregations (1997) The Evangelical Methodist Church is "fundamental in doctrine, evangelistic in program, and congregational in government." It is a double protest against a government seen as autocratic and undemocratic on the one hand and a modernist trend in the Methodist Church on the other (see METHODIST CHURCHES). The Church is Arminian in theology and Wesleyan in doctrine. Members seek to apply the spirit and renewing zeal of original Wesleyanism to the needs of contemporary society. Fundamentalists in theology reject the "substitution of evangelical messages by social, salvific, educational or other cultural variants." Local churches own and control their own assets and elect their own pastors. There are six districts, each with a district superintendent and a general superintendent. The General Conference meets every four years; The international headquarters is in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Church maintains missionary work in Bolivia and Mexico.


Constitution: 1860 Membership: 70,556 in 971 congregations (1999) The Free Methodist Church is one of the most conservative major organizations of American Methodism, both in doctrine and in the standards of Christian practice. Its founders were the Rev. BT Roberts (1823–1893) and his associates, who opposed "new school" Methodism, which they believed threatened the Church's Wesleyan standards. They called for a return to a stricter doctrine and lifestyle in the Methodist Church (see METHODS CHURCHES). These included the abolition of slavery, the abolition of the practice of renting banks, combating secret societies, and more freedom in worship. They were "read" from their churches and founded the Free Methodist Church in Pekin, New York. In doctrine, Free Methodists emphasize the virgin birth, the deity of Jesus, and his vicarious atonement and resurrection. No one can be accepted as a member without confession and forgiveness of sins, and the experience of complete sanctification is sought in all members. The church is associated with a council of four bishops who oversee the church's four basic geographic areas, a general conference that meets every four years, annual conferences, and districts according to a basic Methodist pattern. The headquarters are in Indianapolis, Indiana. The publisher of the Church is Light and Life Communications. The Free Methodist Church became a worldwide fellowship consisting of ten General Conferences (Burundi, Canada, Congo, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Japan, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, and USA) with a common constitution. There are Free Methodist Churches in 59 countries; membership outside the US exceeds 500,000. The Church operates six four-year colleges and one seminary, and maintains a seminary endowment in association with Asbury Theological Seminary and Western Evangelical Seminary. Social services include a hospital, a home for single mothers, five nursing homes and nursing homes, and many day care centers for children.

PILLAR OF FIRE Founded: 1901 Members: Statistics not available The Pillar of Fire grew out of the evangelistic efforts of its founder, Alma White (1892-1946), who preached from the pulpit of her husband, the Rev. Kent White, to a circle of Mounted Methodist ministers in Colorado. at a time when he

The Methodist Episcopal Church (see METHODS CHURCHES) was reluctant to have women ministers in its pulpits, Alma White's fervent admonitions on regeneration and holiness, or sanctification as the second ultimate work of grace, brought them into conflict with church leaders. Finally, in 1901, White withdrew to found Pentecostalism. The name was changed to "pillar of fire" in 1917 based on the imagery in Exodus 13:21. The Pillar of Fire states that the purpose of the organization is "the formation of Christian character among all men." His theology is essentially Wesleyan, with an emphasis on repentance, justification, the sanctity of the second blessing, premillennialism, future judgment, and the inspiration and authority of Scripture. The sacraments include baptism and the Lord's Supper. Pillar of Fire churches are located in California, Colorado, Illinois, New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. From its headquarters in Zarephath, New Jersey, a bishop and a general secretary oversee the organization's activities. The church has specialized in radio ministries and Christian academies throughout its history. A pioneering Christian radio station, KPOF, which launched in 1928, is recognized by National Religious Broadcasters as "the oldest Christian network radio station" in the United States. Pillar of Fire sponsors Christian schools in California, Colorado, Illinois, and New Jersey and supports Belleview College in Westminster, Colorado. Missionary work is done in England, India, and Malawi.

PRIMARY METHODIST CHURCH, USA Founded: 1840 Members: 6,031 in 77 congregations (1999) This church grew out of camp meetings in England, inspired by the American evangelist Lorenzo Dow (1777-1834). At an all-day meeting held at Mow Cop, Staffordshire, on May 31, 1807, two local ministers, Hugh Bourne and William Clowes, were dismissed from the Wesleyan Church. A group of converts as a result of the open-air meetings joined Bourne and Clowes in 1810. Such was the growth that in February 1812 the group adopted the name Society of Primitive Methodists (see METHODIST CHURCHES), a name which was refers to the practice of early Methodist evangelists of preaching in the open air. Four missionaries were sent to the United States in 1829 to work with the Primitive Methodists, who were settling mainly in the East and Midwest. Their ministries prospered and the American Early Methodist Church was organized in 1840. The denomination has an annual conference that is both administrative and legislative, with the churches divided into six districts. The president is elected every four years and there is an employee, a manager. EITHER

Clergy relationships and agreements are reviewed annually and vacancies are filled with student pastors or ordained deacons and elders. Headquarters are in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. In doctrinal terms, early Methodists embrace a Wesleyan form of fundamentalism that emphasizes the Bible as the inspired Word of God, the deity of Christ, the fall of Adam and Eve, the need for repentance and regeneration for all believers, the return of Christ, and eternal rewards and punishments for all people. This denomination is closely associated with the Evangelical Congregational Church, the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, and the Southern Methodist Church.

SOUTHERN METHODIST CHURCH Founded: 1939 Members: 7,686 in 117 congregations (1999) The Southern Methodist Church evolved from the Southern Methodist Episcopal Church (see METHODIST CHURCHES). Its members opposed that church's merger with the Northern Methodist Episcopal Church in 1939 on the grounds that "appalling disloyalty and apostasy were found in it." They do not see the Southern Methodist Church as an apostate body, but as a church "created to carry on the faith of John Wesley." There are no bishops, but there are the usual Methodist annual and general conferences; every four years a president is elected from among the elders of the clergy. Laity and clergy have equal voice and voice at conferences. Local churches own and control their own property and buildings and appoint their own pastors who must be approved by their annual conferences. There is a college and a publishing house, Foundry Press, both in Orangeburg, South Carolina.

UNITED METHODIST CHURCH Founded: 1968, roots 1784 Members: 8,377,662 in 35,609 congregations (1999) Two major mergers produced the United Methodist Church. The first merger was actually a merger of three separate Methodist groups (see METHODIST CHURCHES) in 1939 when the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church of the South, and the Protestant Methodist Church merged under a new name, The Methodist Church. 1968 than

Merged with the United Evangelical Brethren (U.S.B.) to form the United Methodist Church. Both the Methodists and the E.U.B. Over the years, the churches have been keenly aware of their common historical and spiritual heritage. Their teachings were similar. Both were Episcopalians in government and trace their origins to John Wesley. They had similar textbooks. His ministers often changed pulpits and congregations, worked together, and shared the same buildings. The only big difference was the language: German for the Brethren, English for the Methodists; but over time that barrier began to matter less and less. Talks about a merger began as early as 1803; but the long-contemplated merger was not complete until the two churches became the United Methodist Church on April 23, 1968 in Dallas, Texas. There was some disagreement in Dallas; Fifty-one churches and nearly eighty ministers of the Evangelical United Brethren withdrew from the Pacific Northwest Conference to form the Evangelical Church of North America (see EVANGELICAL CHURCH OF NORTH AMERICA); Eighteen EUB congregations in Montana set out to organize the North American Evangelical Church in Montana. However, some 750,000 brethren accepted the union, and their strength gave the new United Methodist Church a membership of nearly 11 million when it was founded. No major doctrinal or policy changes were made to this association. The creed of the Evangelical United Brethren Church, adopted in 1962, was placed alongside the Methodist Articles of Religion. Similar systems of bishops and conferences were used in both denominations and the format is still maintained. In addition to the sixty-four annual conferences, there are five jurisdictional conferences established for geographical convenience on administrative matters. These meet every four years, sometimes appointed by the Council of Bishops, to elect new bishops and appoint members of larger councils and commissions. Outside the continental United States, central conferences are equivalent to jurisdictional conferences; They meet every four years and, if they have the authority to do so, they can elect their own bishops. All bishops are elected for life (except in some foreign conferences, where the term is four years), and a council of bishops meets at least once a year "for the general supervision and promotion of temporal and spiritual affairs." of the whole church." "The General Conference consists of 1,000 delegates, half lay and half clergy, elected proportionally by the annual conferences. The Council on the Judiciary shall determine the constitutionality of any act of the General Conference that is subject to appeal, and shall hear and decide any appeal of a bishop's decision on a legal matter at a district or annual, central, or jurisdictional conference.

The national church organizations are the General Council on Finance and Administration, the General Council on Ministries, the General Board of Church and Society, the General Board of Discipleship, the General Board of Global Ministries, the General Board of Higher Education and Ministry, the General Board of Pensions and Health Benefits, the General Commission on Archives and History, the General Commission on Christian Unity and Interfaith Affairs, the General Commission on United Methodist Men, the General Commission on Religion and Race, the General Commission Status and Role of Women, the General Communication Commission and the United Methodist Publishing House. In the Departments of Social Affairs and Education, the Church operates or supports 225 nursing and long-term care homes, 70 hospitals and health care facilities, 50 day care centers, 30 services for people with disabilities, 8 two-year universities, 82 four-year institutions. year nurseries schools, 10 universities and 13 theological schools. United Methodists donate more than $3.65 billion a year to support charitable clergy, build local churches, and provide debt relief and operating expenses. The Church also provides significant financial support to the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States. The World Methodist Council was founded in 1881 and is dedicated to Wesleyan heritage. The 1972 General Conference expanded on the Church's doctrinal foundations in the first revision since the 18th century. The classic merger documents of the United Brethren Methodist and Evangelical Churches were maintained, but the doctrinal door was left open to theological changes and revisions. A revised statement was adopted in 1988: "In theological reflection, the resources of tradition, experience, and reason are essential to our study of the Scriptures, without substituting faith and practice for the primacy of Scripture." a social creed that emphasizes human rights and environmental concerns. The Church has addressed the issue of homosexuality in various general conferences. At the 2000 conference, a large majority of lay and clergy delegates voted to affirm that the practice of homosexuality is inconsistent with Christian doctrine and that no professing practicing homosexual can be ordained as a clergyman or appointed as a pastor.

AMERICAN RELIGION Contrary to popular belief, Christianity, in one form or another, is the main religion among Native Americans. The first missions were mainly Roman Catholic (see CATHOLIC CHURCHES), especially in the Southwest. There, the Pueblo and Yaqui peoples adapted Christian beliefs and practices to tribal traditions and created innovative religious syncretism. The various Protestant denominations were generally more hostile to tribal rituals. Most Native American Christian churches today are evangelical in orientation and teach that members should have a personal conversion experience. The Cook Christian Training School in Phoenix is ​​an important institution for contemporary Native American missions. Tribal religions are still practiced in the United States wherever Native Americans have communities. Since tribal religion is based on oral tradition, it is difficult to determine how much it has changed since contact with Europeans, but oral tradition was the glue that held tribes together in the face of white hostility. It is impossible to give a concise statement on the details of the various tribal religions. Suffice it to say that there is more diversity than uniformity among traditional native religions in terms of practice and belief. In the closing years of the 20th century there was a revival of interest in traditional beliefs and practices among the tribes, and schools were established to preserve the languages ​​in which the ancient stories are passed down. Native American spirituality has also become a topic of great interest in mainstream culture, primarily through the so-called New Age movement. The Black Elk Speaks book is an essential guide for whites and natives who want to connect with a nature-based mysticism where "Mother Earth" and all her inhabitants live in ecological and spiritual harmony. Shamanism, sweat lodges, vision quests, and other features of some tribal religions have become part of the American religious economy. There have also been attempts to create new types of indigenous religions that unite people from all tribes without supporting Christianity. Around the turn of the century, a group of Native Americans formed the Native American Church, with members concentrated primarily in the Southwest. Their beliefs and practices are syncretic, mixing elements of Christianity with various traditional tribal practices. It was founded in 1918 and has around 300,000 members. Popularly known as the "peyote religion," but incorrectly because the cocoon or garland of the hallucinogenic peyote, a plant of the cactus family, is often used in its ceremonies, the Native American Church is a uniquely American religion dedicated to to the spirit of peyote Devotees perform ceremonies throughout the night singing to the rhythm of a water drum while consuming the peyote. EITHER

The reason for its use is not individual ecstasy, but rather serves as a community ritual to foster bonding relationships. men assume leadership roles; The central figure is the shaman, who is believed to have psychic abilities. Despite its reputation as a "drug" church, the Native American Church is fairly conservative and has a proven track record in treating drug and alcohol abuse among Native Americans.

ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES With more than 200 million members worldwide, the Orthodox churches represent one of the three main branches of Christianity (the others being Roman Catholic and Protestant). Unlike the Roman Catholic Church (see ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH), the Orthodox Churches (also known as Eastern or Eastern Orthodox Churches) do not have a single hierarchical institution. Instead, there are dozens of national bodies, each praying in its native language with its own independent (autocephalous) hierarchy. Each Orthodox Church thus reflects its own national heritage and ethnic customs in its liturgy. Unlike Protestant churches, which also have a wide variety of institutions and forms, most Orthodox churches are in communion with each other and share the same basic theology, based on the ancient creeds of Christianity. However, some major Eastern bodies reject the statements of the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451), particularly the proposition that Jesus Christ is one person of two natures, one divine and one human. These are known as Eastern Orthodox or non-Chalcedonian churches. These bodies include the Armenian Church, the Coptic Church, the Ethiopian Church, the Eritrean Church, the Syrian Church of Antioch, and the Indian Syrian Church of South India. Some Orthodox groups are also in communion with the Roman Catholic Church and are known as Uniate Churches (see EASTERN/UNITED CATHOLIC CHURCHES). Orthodox services are elaborate, ritualistic, and beautiful. Almost all the architectural elements of the sanctuary, all the movements of the priest and all the words of the faithful have a symbolic value. The liturgy is an ancient drama celebrating the incarnation, crucifixion, and resurrection of Christ. Illumination, spiritual garments and altar decorations, icons, music, and consecrated bread and wine bring the kingdom of God to the present. The word orthodox means "true glory" (as well as "correct doctrine"), and "giving glory to God is the purpose of life" is the keynote of this tradition. Praising God, giving thanks to God, and receiving God's presence in the holy gifts wins the heart of worship. Through worship and in God-informed relationships and responsibilities, these Christians intend to move closer to sanctification. The Christian goal is theosis, "perfection" or "divinization," of living in true union with God here and now and for all eternity. History. Western history books often state that the Orthodox Churches of the East split from the Catholic Church (see CATHOLIC CHURCHES) of the West, but this is not an accurate account. The Eastern Orthodox tradition claims direct descent from Christ and the apostles. For centuries, Christianity was primarily Eastern in orientation, with most of the early Church's seats in Greece, Turkey, Egypt, and Syria. The Ecumenical Councils

they continue to define the faith of the majority of Christians in the world, were held in the East and were attended primarily by Eastern bishops and theologians. Of the five patriarchal sees—Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem—only the Roman one was in the west. For centuries, councils and patriarchs guided the church. The bishops of the two capitals of the Roman Empire after 330, Constantinople and Rome, had the greatest authority. In 1054, the bishops of Constantinople and Rome, along with their followers, excommunicated each other, creating a formal rift in Christianity that is only beginning to heal. It is still the practice in Orthodox churches that no patriarch is responsible to another patriarch. All are under the jurisdiction of an Ecumenical Council of All Churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, who bears the title of Ecumenical Patriarch. Long before the official East-West schism, the two churches had developed certain fundamental differences that caused confusion. The East was mainly Greek in language and attitude, while the West was Latin and Roman. The change of capital from West to East meant a change in the center of political, social and intellectual influence. The Church of the East was closely associated with the Byzantine Empire, and the great cathedral of the Hagia Sophia ("Holy Wisdom") in Constantinople was the center of the Church and the Empire. Various divisions in the East were political and theological, the most important of which was over the understanding of the person of Christ. In Syria, some churches adopted the views of Nestorius (b. after 351; d. after 451), who held that in the incarnate Christ there were two separate persons, one divine and one human. In Egypt and Armenia, other churches accepted the teaching of Cyril of Alexandria (died 444) expressed in the phrase "an incarnate nature of the Word." However, most of the Eastern Churches remained in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople. When the Roman Empire in the West fell and the barbarians began to invade Italy and Gaul, the Bishop of Rome became a symbol of unity and stability for Westerners. When the Pope crowned Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in the year 800, it marked a clear break with the Eastern Roman Empire (commonly called the Byzantine Empire). The conflict between the Pope in Rome and the Patriarch in Constantinople intensified. A major point of contention was the addition of the words "and the Son" (filioque) to the Nicene Creed in connection with the procession of the Holy Spirit. As the Byzantine Empire expanded to the west and north, Orthodox missionaries such as the famous brothers Cyril (826–869) and Methodius (c. 815–885) converted the Slavic peoples of Bulgaria, Serbia, and Russia to Christianity. The Divine Liturgy and the Holy Books were translated into the Slavic languages, and monasteries and schools were established throughout Eastern Europe. As these towns gained political independence, national Orthodox churches were gradually established, the first being the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.

The Orthodox churches were deeply affected by the dramatic rise of Islam in the seventh century. Three of the old patriarchal sees (Antioch, Alexandria, and Jerusalem) quickly fell under Muslim control and were effectively cut off from Constantinople. Christianity continued to exist in Muslim countries as a minority religion that lived under severe restrictions. The hardest blow to Orthodoxy came when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1454, putting an end to the Byzantine Empire. Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque and the ecumenical patriarch was forced to remain loyal to the Muslim rulers. For centuries, the Orthodox churches of the Balkans struggled to survive under Turkish rule. During this time, the Russian Orthodox Church would grow in power and prestige until Moscow was declared the "Third Rome". With the fall of the Ottoman Empire, other Slavic churches asserted their independence from Greek and Russian rule while remaining in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch. The Russian Revolution of 1917 and the spread of communism in Eastern Europe after World War II led the Eastern Orthodox Churches of Poland, Finland, Estonia, and Latvia to assert their independence. Despite the persecution, the Orthodox Church managed to survive the communist regime. After World War II Estonia and Latvia rejoined the Russian Orthodox Church. Almost all of the European and Asian bodies of this ancient church established dioceses in the United States; some are ruled by one of the five patriarchates, while others have declared themselves independent and autonomous (autocephalous). In the United States today, the Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Carpathian Russian, and Syrian churches are under the authority of bishops of their respective nationalities and are generally associated with their respective mother churches in tradition and spirit. . If not in the administration. The Patriarch of Moscow and Alexandria is responsible for specific parishes. beliefs and practices. The Nicene Creed in its original form is foundational to the Orthodox faith in all its branches. It is recited every time the Divine Liturgy is celebrated and is at the heart of Orthodox theology and mysticism. Since a creed for the Eastern churches is "a worship creed of the church dedicated to worship", their faith is expressed more fully in their liturgy than in a doctrinal statement. It is the long tradition of the Church, not the pronouncements of individual theologians or canon law, that defines what is orthodox. This tradition includes the decisions of the seven ecumenical councils, as well as the tradition of the Divine Liturgy itself. Many of the teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches are rejected as insufficient innovations. For example, the dogma of the pope as the only "representative of Christ on earth" is rejected, as is that of papal infallibility. Members of Orthodox churches honor the Virgin

Mary as theotokos ("god-bearer"), but does not adhere to the principles of immaculate conception and adoption. They show reverence for the cross, the saints, and the nine orders of angels, but reject the treasure doctrine of the saints' merits and the doctrine of indulgences. Icons (consecrated images) of revered people and events are central to Orthodox devotion, and Protestant iconoclasm, or opposition to icons, is condemned. Orthodox Christians hold that since God became man in Christ, God's human nature can be represented in a sacred image. The refusal to venerate an icon is seen as a denial of the concrete reality of the Incarnation; However, the Orthodox reject three-dimensional sculpture. The mysteries, or what are called sacraments in the Western Church, are central to Orthodox life. Mysteries are physical objects or actions that convey spiritual reality. The seven that are definitive in the Roman Catholic Church (baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, last rites, ordination, and marriage) are also present and important in the Orthodox tradition, but there are few provisions to formally limit that number. . Other rites have a sacramental character. In fact, for the Orthodox, the cult itself is a mystery or sacrament. For some orthodox mystics and theologians, even creation is a sacrament. The Holy Eucharist or Communion is the "mystery of mysteries." It is the main service of all Sundays and holidays and is treated with great reverence. All Orthodox churches teach that the bread and wine are the body and blood of Christ, but this is not known as transubstantiation. The mysteries cannot be defined by the human intellect. Purgatory is rejected, but prayers are offered for the dead. It is believed that the dead can and do pray for the people of the earth. Both faith and works are considered necessary for salvation. Policy. The government of all the Orthodox Churches is episcopal and to some extent hierarchical. There is usually a synod of bishops headed by an elected archbishop, metropolitan, or patriarch. In the US, each jurisdiction is incorporated, with an ecclesiastical assembly made up of bishops, clergy, and laity. There are three orders of service: deacons (who help with the work of the church and administer the sacraments), elders, and bishops. Deacons and priests may be secular or monastic. Candidates for the diaconate and the priesthood may marry before priestly ordination, after which they are prohibited from marrying. Bishops are chosen from among the members of monastic communities and are therefore bound by vows of poverty, chastity, and lifelong obedience. The history of the Orthodox in North America is primarily one of immigration and ethnic identity. The church was a way for immigrants to stay connected to their homeland, their language, and their customs. However, membership statistics are confusing and often unreliable, since membership is based on them.

Baptismal record in lieu of communicant status. There are at least 3.5 million Orthodox in the United States. After at least a century of "growing disunity" within American Orthodoxy, during periods of heavy immigration and the formation of various Orthodox denominations, there have been moves toward closer cooperation. One such movement was the organization in 1960 of the Permanent Conference of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America, made up of nine jurisdictions representing the majority of Orthodox in North America. Another was the formation of two pan-orthodox seminaries. There are several so-called Orthodox churches in the United States that are not canonically recognized as "Orthodox." These irregular Eastern Churches can be called autogenous or self-initiated, but cannot properly be called Orthodox since the Orthodox Churches must have a canonical relationship with the Patriarch of Constantinople and with each other.

AFRICAN ORTHODOX CHURCH Founded: 1921 Membership: approximately 5,000 (1999) This body is generally not in communion with the Orthodox Churches (see ORTHODOX CHURCHES and EASTERN ORTHODOX) but claims apostolic succession through the West Syrian Church of Antioch. It was founded in 1921 by George Alexander McGuire (1866–1934), who immigrated to the United States from Antigua. McGuire served as a priest in the Protestant Episcopal Church until 1918. He left that body due to racial discrimination, deciding that equality and spiritual freedom would only be achieved in a black denomination with a black administration. This quest for equality led him to Marcus Garvey's (1887-1940) Universal Negro Improvement Association. After McGuire founded the African Orthodox Church, Garvey used his magazine, The Negro World, to spread news about the denomination in Africa. The magazine also published the story of McGuire's consecration by a white bishop named Joseph Rene Vilatte (1854-1929). In 1924 the Church was organized in South Africa, where it became a powerful force among blacks. The Church places great emphasis on apostolic succession and historical sacraments and rituals; celebrates the original seven sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church (see ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH): Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Last Anointing, Holy Orders, and Matrimony. Their worship is a mix of Western and Eastern liturgy, creeds, and symbols, although the liturgy is generally Western with a mix of Anglican (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN

CHURCHES), Greek and Roman patterns. The Common, Athanasian, Nicene, and Apostolic Creeds are used. The denomination takes the position that no priest can perform a marriage ceremony for the guilty party in a divorce and innocent parties remarry only with the special permission of a bishop. The government is, of course, episcopal; The bishops are responsible for the dioceses or jurisdictions; and groups of dioceses form a province, each headed by an archbishop and a primate. The primate, in turn, presides over the provincial synod. At its head is a Primate Metropolitan Archbishop, general supervisor of all the work of the Church, which now encompasses the United States, Canada, Latin America and South Africa.

Albanian Orthodox Archdiocese of America Established: 1919 Membership: approximately 40,000 (1999) The Albanian Orthodox Archdiocese of America has been part of the Orthodox Church of America since 1971 (see ORTHODOX CHURCH OF AMERICA), but its bishops and ministers continue to serve the Church Orthodox of America special needs of the Albanian community in the United States. The history of the Church in Albania is complex, filled with a series of persecutions and changes in the religious and political struggles in the Balkans. Christianized by Latin and Greek missionaries, Albania, as part of Illyria, had both Latin and Greek rite Christians and was at various times under the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES) and the Pope. When the Turks conquered Albania in 1478-1479, half of the population became Muslim. The Christian minority remained divided between Latin rite Christians in the north and Greek rite Christians in the south. When Albania became an independent nation in the 20th century, its people demanded a liturgy in their language, not Greek. They turned to the Russian Orthodox Church for help, and in 1908 the Russian Orthodox Church in America established an Albanian diocese under an Albanian Archimandrite administrator, Father Theophan S. Noli (1880-1965), who translated the liturgy into Russian. With the outbreak of the Russian Revolution, ties with the Russian Church were severed and Noli was ordained a bishop in 1923 in the Cathedral of Korche, Albania, as Archbishop and Metropolitan of Durres. In doing so, he became the first bishop of a fully independent Albanian archdiocese, a "mother church" that curiously extended its influence as far as Albania. Noli returned home to establish a metropolitan throne based in Boston. Due to the official closure of all religious institutions in Albania in 1967, communication between the American Church and the Albanian Church was not possible until the collapse of communism.

Another body, the Albanian Orthodox Diocese of America, was established in 1950 under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. It has two parishes with about 2,000 members.

CARPATHIAN GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH OF AMERICAN Founded: 1938 Members: 13,120 in 80 parishes (1999) Carpathian Russians take their name from the Carpathian mountainous region of Eastern Europe, where they have lived for centuries. The Mother Church endured conflicts between Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism for many years. Under political pressure in the 17th century, it became a Uniate Church (see EASTERN CATHOLIC/UNIATE CHURCHES) with Eastern rites and customs, but recognized the sovereignty of the Roman Catholic Pope. The struggle to break away from Rome and become fully Eastern moved to North America as large numbers of members immigrated to the United States, particularly to the industrial and mining areas of the Northeast. In 1891, Alexis Toth, a Uniate priest from the Carpathians and Russia, brought his Minneapolis parish back to the Orthodox Church (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES). Along with several other pastors and congregations, he joined the Russian Orthodox Church in the United States (see ORTHODOX CHURCH IN AMERICA). In 1938, Benjamin I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, established and canonized a new Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Diocese of Carpathian Americans. Orestes P. Chornock (1883–1977) became its first bishop. Both the diocesan headquarters (Cathedral of Christ the Savior) and Christ the Savior Seminary are located in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The diocese maintains a youth camp, retreat, and conference center in Mercer, Pennsylvania, and a monastery in Tuxedo Park, New York.

ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN ARCHDIOCESE OF ANTIOCH, NORTH AMERICA Founded: 1975, with roots in 1895 Membership: est. 65,000 in 227 parishes (1999) Antioch, Syria was one of the first cities evangelized by the Apostles and was one of the most important patriarchal seats of the early Church. The believers managed to maintain the existence of the Church during centuries of Muslim rule and even adopted Arabic as their liturgical language, but just like the Ottoman Empire.

collapsed at the end of the 19th century, thousands of Antioquian Christians immigrated to North America. His spiritual needs were met first through the Syrian Arab Mission of the Russian Orthodox Church (see ORTHODOX CHURCH IN AMERICA). In 1895, a Syriac Orthodox charity was founded in New York City by immigrants from Antioch with Dr. Ibrahim Arbeely, a prominent Damascene physician, serving as the first president. Arbeely persuaded Raphael Hawaweeny, a young Damascene minister who is a professor of Arabic at the Orthodox Theological Academy in Kazan, Russia, to come to New York to found and lead the first Arabic-speaking congregation on the continent. Hawaweeny was ordained a bishop in New York in 1904, becoming the first Orthodox bishop of any nationality to be ordained in North America. He traversed the United States and Canada, gathering scattered immigrants into parishes. He founded the magazine al-Kalimat (The Word) in 1905 and published many liturgical books in Arabic for use in his congregations, in the Middle East, and in immigrant communities throughout the world. The mission suffered from Hawaweeny's early death in 1915, interruptions from World War I, and the Russian Revolution. The Syrian-Arab Mission disintegrated until 1975, when judicial and administrative unity was restored through the merger of the Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of Antioch of New York and the Archdiocese of Antioch of Toledo. The resulting archdiocese is divided into four chanceries in New Jersey, Ohio, Kansas, and California. The General Assembly, the highest legislative body of the archdiocese, is made up of all the pastors and representatives of each parish and mission. It meets every two summers for a congress. There are nearly four hundred priests and deacons ministering locally. Ordained candidates graduate and then receive their theological training at St. Vladimir's in New York or at St. John of Damascus near Tripoli, Lebanon. The program is complemented by specialized courses offered annually by the Antioquia House of Studies and are held for two weeks at the Heritage and Learning Center in Ligonier, Pennsylvania. Twenty-four established departments and commissions address the specific needs of the archdiocese, such as communications, translation, spiritual formation, and community development. A pioneer in the use of English in Orthodox churches (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES), the Church has translated and published liturgical and devotional works into English since the 1930s. Antiochian Village, a 280-acre property in southwest Pennsylvania, serves as a popular summer camp and retreat center that attracts children and youth from all over North America. The São João Damascene Sacred Art Academy is also based in Vila.

ARMENIAN CHURCH Founded: AD 301 (arrived in US in 1887) Ethnicity: est. 774,000 in approximately 108 parishes (1999) Armenia is generally considered to be the first nation to become Christian when Christianity became the state religion in 301. Tradition has it that the apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew were the first to carry the message of Christ to Armenia. Saint Gregory the Illuminator became the first leader of the national church in 314 and was given the title of Catholic Patriarch of All Armenians. A translation of the Scriptures by Saint Sahag and Saint Mesrob and their disciples in the early fifth century is accepted as the official Armenian version of the Bible. The translators created an Armenian alphabet to give the Armenians the scriptures in their own language. The Armenian Church administers seven sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation or Anointing, Eucharist, Penance, Matrimony, Holy Orders, and Last Anointing or Order of the Sick. Baptism, usually of children, is done by immersion. Chrismation (anointing with oil) and communion follow immediately after baptism. The Eucharist is offered on Sundays and on special religious holidays. At the end of the Eucharist, fragments of matzo, simply blessed, are distributed to those who do not receive communion. The hierarchical organization of the Armenian Church consists of the Catholics, the supreme head of the Church, residing in the ancient city of Etchmiadzin, Armenia, and Cilician Catholicism, located in Antelias, Lebanon. The two patriarchates are Jerusalem and Constantinople. According to the tradition of all the ancient churches, there are three main orders of clergy: deacon, presbyter, and bishop. Pastors are generally chosen from married men, but bishops are chosen from celibate clergy. Widowed priests may be promoted to the episcopate. The clergy are trained in seminaries connected to Echmiadzin, Jerusalem and Antelias. One of the most important aspects of the administration of the Armenian Church is its conciliar system. Administrative, doctrinal, liturgical, and canonical norms are defined and approved by a council through a participatory decision-making process. The Council of Bishops (or Synod) is the highest religious authority in the Church. The Armenian Church has led its people through a history marked by tragedy. It suffered from the conflict between the Byzantine Empire and Persia and was persecuted by the Turks, culminating in the 1915 genocide. Thousands of Armenians fled to North America before World War I, but most emigration occurred after the war. war. The first Armenian Church in the United States was founded in Worchester, Massachusetts in 1891. The Armenian Diocese of America was established in 1898 and headed by a primate appointed by Mother

See St. Echmiadzin in Armenia under whose jurisdiction the diocese operated. In 1933, a dispute over church affairs in Soviet Armenia led to a schism in the church in the United States. One group of churches, the Armenian Apostolic Church of America, chose to remain independent until 1957, when those churches came under the jurisdiction of the Holy See of Cilicia in Antelias. The other group, the Armenian Church of America, remained under the jurisdiction of the Mother See of Etchmiadzin. Dogma and liturgy were not affected by the division. Deacons, priests, bishops, and archbishops are ordained and elevated by the hierarchical authorities of their respective jurisdictions. The Armenian Church of America has seventy-two churches; the separate apostolic church has thirty-six. The Church of Armenia is in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES), sometimes referred to as the Minor Eastern Orthodox Churches. Also known as Monophysites ("one nature of Christ"), these are churches that did not adhere to the doctrinal statements adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451. It should be noted that the Armenian Church accepts the decisions of the first three ecumenical councils. The Christological formula of Saint Cyril of Alexandria (died in 444) confirms: "One is the nature of the Incarnate Divine Word. The union of divinity and humanity is imperturbable, immutable and indivisible." In 1990, theologians and officials of the Eastern and Eastern Orthodox Churches agreed to a formal declaration that their theological understanding, particularly their Christology, was “orthodox.” The declaration called for unity and communion between the Eastern and Eastern Orthodox Churches.

BULGARIAN EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH Founded: 1938 Membership: 70,000 in 23 parishes (1990) Christianity was introduced to the Bulgarian people in the 9th century during the reign of Tsar Boris. For centuries, the Church fought for the independence of Constantinople, an independence it briefly won. At the end of World War II there was a schism between the Bulgarians and the Ecumenical Patriarch. Before the outbreak of the Macedonian revolution in 1903, very few Bulgarians immigrated to the United States. In 1940 there were still around 60,000 inhabitants. They brought with them memories of the Church's long struggle for the independence of Constantinople. The first Bulgarian Orthodox church in the United States was built in Madison, Illinois in 1907. In 1922, the Bulgarian Orthodox Mission of the Holy Synod of Bulgaria began attempts to organize the Bulgarians. In 1938 he founded a diocese.

This church is directly related to the Holy Synod of Bulgaria and is made up of descendants of immigrants from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thrace, Dobrogea and other parts of the Balkan Peninsula. Services are held in Bulgarian and English, and the teaching is consistent with that of other Eastern Orthodox churches (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES).

GREEK ORTHODOX ARCHDIOCES OF NORTH AMERICA Founded: 1922 Membership: 1,954,500 in 555 congregations (1998) The Greek Orthodox Church is one of the largest (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN CHURCHES) in the United States due to mass immigration of Greeks to the United States 1890 and 1929. Greece was one of the earliest and most vibrant centers of Christianity, but the capture of Constantinople by the Turks and the patriarch's submission to Muslim rule dealt a heavy blow to the Greek Orthodox Church. In the 19th century, the Church in Greece established a Holy Synod independently of (but in communion with) the Ecumenical Patriarch. Orthodox priests were sent to the United States by the Holy Synod of Greece or the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. In 1864, the first Greek Orthodox Church in the United States was organized in New Orleans, Louisiana. By 1910 there were some thirty-five congregations in different parts of the country. From 1908 to 1922 there was a period of confusion when the jurisdiction of the American churches passed from the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople to the Holy Synod of Greece and vice versa. This was finally resolved with the founding volume of 1922 establishing the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of the Americas. Archbishop Athenagoras Spyrou of Corfu was appointed head of the Greek Church in America in 1931, and under his leadership the church grew to 286 parishes. In 1948 Athenagoras was elected Patriarch of Constantinople and was succeeded by Archbishop Michael Constantinides of Corinth, who was enthroned in the Holy Trinity Cathedral in New York. Archbishop Spyridon, appointed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, has headed the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North America since 1996. He oversees the work in nine dioceses, each headed by a bishop. Worship, doctrine, and politics follow historical orthodox patterns, with worship being the center of congregational life. The Church maintains eighteen parochial schools; nine summer camps; a school for orphans and children from broken families; Hellenic College and Holy Cross School of Greek Orthodox Theology, both in Brookline, Massachusetts; three youth homes; and a retirement home.

HOLY ORTHODOX AND APOSTOLIC CHURCH OF THE EASTERN APOSTOLIC CHURCH IN NORTH AMERICA, INC. Founded: 1927 Membership: est. 4,300 in 19 congregations (1998) This church dates back to the Russian Orthodox Church. Also known as the American Orthodox Catholic Church, it claims to be the first Orthodox Church (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES) established in North America specifically to serve the English-speaking faithful, but this claim is not supported by other accepted Orthodox bodies . The Church was founded by the North American Synod of Bishops of the Russian Patriarchal Church (Moscow and All Russia). Archbishop Aftimios Ofiesh of the Syrian Mission was elected leader of the new church. Over the years, the Church has adopted more of the Western rite while remaining theologically in the Eastern tradition. It can be found in twelve states and has a religious order, the Society of Saint Basil.

MALANKARA SYRIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH and MAR THOMA SYRIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (Indian Orthodox) Established: 1978 in USA; 1988 Membership: approximately 42,000 in 125 congregations (1997) These are the two main bodies of independent Indian Christian churches in the United States. The Church in India is ancient and historically had close ties to the Nestorian Church in Persia, founded by refugees from Syria. (The Church of India actually used Syriac in worship.) The Perso-Syrian Church was called "Nestorian" because it adhered to the teaching attributed to the fourth and fifth century theologian Nestorius that Christ was two distinct persons, one human and one divine. . In 1599, under the influence of Portuguese missionaries, the majority of Malankara Christians (living in southwestern India) rejected Nestorianism. Many joined Rome as a Uniate Church (see EASTERN CATHOLIC/UNIATE CHURCHES). However, others have turned to the Syrian Orthodox Church (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES) for guidance. In the 19th century, Christianity in India experienced further fractures during the period of British rule. Malankara Church is named after a town believed to have been the site of Thomas's arrival in India in AD 52. It uses the liturgy, calendar, language and traditions of the Syrian Orthodox Church. The American Diocese was established in 1978 to serve Indian immigrants to the United States and their children. It has around 12,000 members in 60 parishes.

Mar Thoma Church was founded to save the native Indian church from forced Latinization by Portuguese settlers from the Malankara region. It is in communion with the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch and uses the Orthodox liturgy and calendar. However, the Church is independent and also in communion with the Anglican Church. The American diocese was established in 1988 to serve members of the immigrant community. It has about 25,000 members in 65 congregations.

ORTHODOX CHURCH IN AMERICA (Russian Orthodox) Founded: 1970, roots 1794 Membership: about 1,000,000 in 710 congregations (1999) The Orthodox faith (see ORTHODOX AND EASTER ORTHODOX CHURCHES) came via Alaska, which was part of Russia until 1867 , In the USA. . Russia itself joined the Orthodox flock with the baptism of the Grand Duke Vladimir of kyiv in AD 988. The Church was initially governed by metropolitans appointed or approved by the Patriarch of Constantinople, but an independent patriarchate was eventually established in Moscow, which was considered "the Third Rome" by the Slavs. Eight Russian Orthodox monks arrived in Alaska in 1794, established their headquarters in Kodiak, and built the first Orthodox church in North America. Orthodox monks and bishops created a printed alphabet and grammar in the Aleut language, translated parts of the Bible, and built a cathedral in Sitka. In the early 19th century, a chapel was built at a Russian trading post near present-day San Francisco. The bishopric moved to this city in 1872, but was moved to New York City in 1905 when waves of immigration brought thousands of Slavs to the eastern states. For many years, the Russian hierarchy in the US has catered to immigrants from other Orthodox countries such as Serbia, Syria, and Bulgaria. Many Eastern Rite Catholics (see EASTERN RITE/UNITED CATHOLIC CHURCHES) of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire also came under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church, rather than accepting the administration of the Irish and Italian Catholic bishops. Bishop Tikhon, who later became Patriarch of the Russian Church, founded the first Russian Orthodox Theological Seminary in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1905. Bishop Tikhon also moved the bishopric and its ecclesiastical consistory from San Francisco to New York City. York, where that hemisphere's headquarters of Russian Orthodoxy still stands. St. Nicholas Cathedral in New York was built under Tikhon in 1901. In 1919, the Russian Church in America held its first sobor, or general council, in Pittsburgh.

The history of the Church in the United States is closely linked to political events in Russia. In 1917, the Bolsheviks took over the government of Russia and introduced a restrictive religious policy. The Patriarch and the Holy Synod resisted, but the government found some priests and bishops willing to support the new regime. These officials held a convention that deposed the patriarch, endorsed communism, and declared itself the governing body of the Russian Church. This group, calling itself the Renewed or Living Church, changed the old disciplinary rules and introduced liturgical reforms. With the support of the Soviet authorities, who hoped thus to divide and weaken the Church, this body remained in control for several years, but was never recognized by the vast majority of the clergy or the people. The government considered opposition to the Living Church a civil offense and, on this basis, sent thousands of bishops, clergy, monks and laymen to forced labor camps. The Living Church in Russia faction, backed by the communist government, sent an emissary to secure control of Russian Orthodox Church properties in the United States; he obtained possession of the cathedral in New York City through lawsuits in the civil courts. In 1924, to avert further fear, an assembly of the Diocese of North America declared that it was temporarily administratively, legislatively, and legally independent of the Church in Russia. However, this independence was not recognized by the Moscow Patriarchate, nor by the Russian Orthodox Church outside Russia, then based in the former Yugoslavia. In 1927, the Soviet government persuaded Metropolitan Sergius, the locum tenens (i.e. temporary deputy) of the then vacant patriarchal see, to submit church policy entirely to the Soviet regime. Stalin had a small group of bishops meet to elect Metropolitan Sergius as Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia. Sergio urged his people to support the government in defending their country during World War II, and this marked a turning point in Soviet policy toward the Church. The Living Church was rejected, and the authority of the patriarch was recognized by the state. Many surviving clergymen and exiled bishops were allowed to return, and gradually the patriarchal administration again became the sole authority in the Russian Orthodox Church. However, a group of Russian émigrés founded the Russian Orthodox Church outside of Russia in 1920 under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarch. They claim that the Moscow Patriarchate has lost its right to be considered a true Orthodox Church because it has adopted a position of submission to the atheistic Soviet regime, not only in terms of politics and foreign policy, but also in terms of its politics and domestic affairs. policy. In 1950 this church came to the United States. It has about 175 parishes dedicated to the traditions of the pre-Soviet Russian church.

Despite the ecclesiastical conflicts in Russia, the main body of believers in the US maintained its institutional life and worked to unite other Slavic peoples into a vibrant Orthodox Church. On May 18, 1970, a delegation of hierarchs, clergy and laity from the Russian Orthodox metropolis in America, headed by Bishop Theodosius (current Primate of the Orthodox Church of America), traveled to Moscow to receive Thomas of Autocephaly -es that is, the Document of Independence, from the leader of the Russian Orthodox Church. Since then, the Orthodox Church in America has been independent. From the administrative offices in New York City, the Primate of the Orthodox Church in America oversees the work of 11 dioceses, which in turn are governed by bishops. The primate and the bishops form the Holy Synod of Bishops, which is the highest decision-making body of the Church. The service units of the Church include Education and Congregational Life Services, Mission and Stewardship Services, Pastoral Services Services, Witness and Communication Services, and Church Order Services. The Church operates three theological seminaries: St. Tikhon's in Pennsylvania, St. Vladimir's in New York, and St. Herman's in Alaska.

ROMAN ORTHODOX EPISCOPE OF AMERICA Founded: 1929 Members: about 25,000 in 55 parishes (2000) Christianity arrived in Romania in the 4th century. Originally Western and Latin in orientation, the Church there gradually came under the authority of Constantinople and adopted Greek liturgical practices and customs (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES). In 1859 the church declared itself independent from Constantinople as a national church, which was officially recognized 25 years later. The Church in the USA was organized at a conference convened in Detroit, Michigan, by representatives of the clergy and laity of the Romanian Orthodox communities in the US and Canada. It remained under the canonical jurisdiction of the Romanian Orthodox Patriarchate in Bucharest until political circumstances forced its separation; it is now a diocese under the autocephalous Orthodox Church in America (see ORTHODOX CHURCH IN AMERICA). The worship and theology of the church correspond to orthodox thought and action. Politically, the Church is governed by an Ecclesiastical Congress and an Episcopal Council, both made up of representatives from parishes and aid organizations. An archbishop presides over the two bodies; He is also a member of the Holy Synod of the Orthodox Church in America, and the diocese is recognized as an autonomous administrative body. The Church has offices in Jackson, Michigan, and publishes monthly Solia/The Herald in Romanian and English.

SERBIAN EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH Founded: 1921 Members: 65,000 in 140 parishes (1998) Saints (and brothers) Cyril (826-69) and Methodius (815-85) were instrumental in establishing Christianity among the Serbian people. From the 7th to the 13th century, the Church in Serbia was under the Patriarchate of Constantinople (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES). In 1219, during the Western occupation of Constantinople, it became an independent Serbian national church. The church made notable contributions to art and architecture during the glory days of the medieval Serbian Empire and played an important role in the Serbian struggle for independence during the long period of Turkish invasion and rule. In 1879, the Church regained independence from Constantinople after the nation was freed from Turkish control. At the end of the First World War, the ecclesiastical and political situation in the Balkans was turbulent and complicated. Attempts were made to unite different Orthodox groups into a single church, these efforts were successful in 1920 when the union of five autonomous bodies was proclaimed. Metropolitan Dimitriji of Belgrade was appointed patriarch, combining the historical titles of Archbishop of Ipek, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci, and Patriarch of the Serbs. Serb immigrants to the United States, coming for political rather than economic reasons, arrived in large numbers around 1890. They first worshiped in Russian churches, accepting the services of Russian priests and the supervision of Russian bishops. The Serbian Patriarchate of Yugoslavia approved the organization of the diocese of the United States and Canada in 1921, and in 1926, when 35 Serbian churches formed the American diocese, Archimandrite Mardary Uskokovich was ordained by Patriarch Dimitriji of Serbia as the first bishop of the Serbian diocese. Orthodox of America. As of 2000, the Eastern Serbian Orthodox Church has two dioceses in North America: the Metropolitan Diocese of America and Canada of Nova Gracanica, based in Libertyville, Illinois; and the Diocese of Western America, based in Alhambra, California. Built and dedicated in 1945, the Cathedral of the Church of Serbia is located in New York City. The ongoing conflict in the Balkans in the 1990s brought great suffering to Serbs living in North America. The Serbian Orthodox Church played an important role in conveying information to Serbs in the United States and Canada and in providing spiritual and psychological support. He also tried to present a complete picture of Serbian life and culture to the American audience.

SYRIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH OF ANTIOCH (Archdiocese of USA and Canada) Founded: 1957 Members: 32,500 in 22 parishes (1999) The Syrian Orthodox Church dates back to the apostolic era and tradition says that Peter established the first patriarchate in Antioch. Christianity in Syria split during the Nestorian controversy. The followers of Nestorius, who taught that in the incarnate Christ there are two separate persons, one divine and one human, were persecuted and found refuge in Persia. The main body of Christians in Syria adopted a Monophysite position (one nature) which they understood to be the teaching of the first three ecumenical councils. When the Council of Chalcedon adopted a formula that seemed to support Nestorius' ideas, the Syro-Orthodox refused to bow to the Patriarch of Constantinople. The Church was persecuted in the Byzantine Empire but found tolerance under Muslim rule in the Middle Ages. It continues to have its patriarchal seat in Damascus with 23 archdioceses in other countries. The Syrian Orthodox use the ancient liturgy of Saint Mark in worship. The Syriac script is one of the oldest translations of the Bible and remains crucial to Syriac Christianity. In the early 20th century, Syrians were few in the United States. Syriac Orthodox silk weavers from Diyarbakir, Turkey, settled in New Jersey, a major area of ​​the silk industry. The families from Harput, Türkiye moved to Massachusetts. The first priest, Rev. Hanna Koorie, arrived in 1907; Its first patriarchal vicar, Archbishop Mar Athanasius Y. Samuel, was appointed in 1949. On November 15, 1957, Patriarch Ignatius Yacoub III sealed the document formally establishing the Archdiocese of the Syrian Orthodox Church in the United States and Canada. The following year a cathedral in Hackensack, New Jersey, was dedicated in the name of Saint Mark. It moved to a new compound in Teaneck, New Jersey in 1994. From the 1960s to the 1980s, new Syriac Orthodox congregations were established in California, Michigan, Illinois, Massachusetts, Oregon, and New York. After the death of Archbishop Samuel in 1995, the Holy Synod of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch divided the Archdiocese of North America into three separate patriarchal vicariates: the Syrian Orthodox Archdiocese for the Eastern United States under His Eminence Mor Cyril Aphrem Karim the Syrian Orthodox Archdiocese Archdiocese of Los Angeles and vicinity under His Eminence Mor Clemis Eugene Chaplain and the Syrian Orthodox Archdiocese of Canada under His Eminence Mor Timotheos Aphrem Aboodi.

ORTHODOX CHURCH OF UKRAINE USA Founded: 1924 Membership: Approximately 20,000 in 105 parishes (2000) Tradition has it that the Apostle Andrew preached the gospel in the early years of his apostolic ministry in what is now Kyiv (Kiev), the capital of Ukraine. Around the year 862, the first Orthodox Christian community was founded on the outskirts of Kyyiv during the rule of two princes, Askold and Dyr. Significantly involved in the popularization of Orthodox Christianity (see ORTHODOX AND EASTERN CHURCHES) in Russia-Ukraine was the Kiev princess Olha, baptized in 975, grandmother of Saint Volodymyr (Vladimir) the Great. After careful consideration and investigation, Volodymyr (baptismal name Basil) in 988 declared Orthodox Christianity to be the official faith of his kingdom of Rus-Ukraine. ORTHODOX AND EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES). This autonomy ended in 1686 with the forced submission of the Mother Church of Ukraine to the Moscow Patriarchate. As a result of the 1917 revolution, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church severed legal relations with Moscow and declared autocephaly in 1921. The autocephalous Ukrainian Orthodox Church was restored twice in the 20th century, first in 1941 and again in 1989 as a result of glasnost and perestroika. The Sobor (Council) of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church on June 5, 1990 in the newly independent Ukraine established its own Patriarchate and elected Metropolitan Mstyslav, then Primate of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the United States, as its first Patriarch. Patriarch of Kiev and All Ukraine until his death in 1993. After his death, two patriarchs were elected, Dmytriy, head of the jurisdiction of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, and Volodymyr, head of the Patriarchate of the Orthodox Church. Ukrainian-Kyyivan. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church USA, currently headed by His Eminence Metropolitan Constantine, was founded in 1924 when its first bishop, Metropolitan Ioan (John) Theodorovych, arrived from the Ukraine. He served as head of the church until his death in 1971. He was succeeded as metropolitan by Mstyslav, who served from 1971 until his death in 1993 at the age of 95, when he was succeeded by Constantine. Metropolitan Constantine led the Church through its merger with the former Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America in 1996. The Church has congregations in 25 states; the highest concentration is in the New York-New Jersey-Pennsylvania area. Three geographically separate eparchies (episcopal territories) are headed by archbishops. The church houses the St. Andrew Center, a Ukrainian cultural center in South Bound Brook, New Jersey. The center houses the St. Andrew's Memorial Church, a monument of Ukrainian Cossack Baroque architecture, and the Hagia Sophia Seminary.

Pentecostal Churches Pentecostalism is a modern American Christian movement that grew out of the Holiness Movement (see Holiness Churches) in the early 20th century. Two key figures in the rise of Pentecostalism were Charles Fox Parham (1873-1929), founder of Bethel Bible College in Topeka, Kansas, and William J. Seymour (1870-1922), an African-American evangelist from Louisiana. Through his study of Paul's epistles, Parham came to believe that the gifts of the Holy Spirit that were evident in apostolic times are also available to Christians in modern times. Of particular interest was speaking in tongues, which he began at Bethel Bible College in 1901. Five years later, Seymour, who had studied with Parham at Bethel, led a revival that lasted several months on Azusa Street in Los Angeles. The participants experienced a “baptism in the Holy Spirit”. Some were healed of diseases while others spoke in tongues. Thousands of people from across the United States traveled to Azusa Street and carried the message back to their home states. The movement eventually became known as the "Pentecostal Movement" because of its resemblance to the first Pentecost, fifty days after Christ's resurrection, when the Spirit came upon the first Christians, enabling them to speak in unknown tongues. There are a variety of Pentecostal churches, most of which are theologically and socially conservative. In general, Pentecostals hold to the evangelical tradition and teach that the Holy Spirit continues to work as he did at the first Pentecost. Many Pentecostal churches teach that Christians today can receive the same spiritual gifts as the apostles and use the word apostolic in their names. Seeking and receiving the gift of tongues is considered a sign of the baptism in the Holy Spirit and is a requirement for full discipleship in many Pentecostal churches. Other gifts of the Spirit, such as healing, love, joy, prophecy, and answered prayer, also constitute the Pentecostal experience of God. Pentecostals are generally less attached to traditional forms of worship than other churches, and many have adapted contemporary music for evangelistic purposes. Pentecostal churches, which downplay traditional liturgical practice, refer to rites such as baptism as "ordinances" rather than "sacraments". The term "Neo-Pentecostal" is often used to describe churches that embrace charismatic practices such as speaking in tongues, but not the holiness tradition of older Pentecostal churches. Even traditional liturgical churches like the Episcopal Church (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES) now have charismatic or Pentecostal churches. In general, Pentecostal churches are Protestant and Evangelical, but many have been influenced by the Fundamentalist movement (see FUNDAMENTALIST/BIBLICAL CHURCHES). They generally believe in original sin, salvation through the atoning blood of Christ, the virgin birth, and

Divinity of Jesus, divine inspiration and literal inerrancy of Scripture, premillennialism (the return of Jesus Christ before his millennial reign on earth), and future rewards and punishments. In most groups there are two sacraments: baptism, usually by immersion, and the Lord's Supper. Some of the lower bodies also observe the washing of feet. Pentecostals are generally trinitarian; but they put a lot of emphasis on the direct work of the Holy Spirit, which is manifested in a "baptism of Spirit" with spiritual gifts. Originally strongest among the rural population of the South and Midwest, early Pentecostalism also found a home among the urban poor in the 1930s. The movement has now spread to all fifty states and represents a cross-section of American society. .

ASSEMBLIES OF GOD, GENERAL COUNCIL Established: 1914 Membership: 2,574,531 in 12,055 congregations (1999) The General Council of the Assemblies of God is actually a group of congregations and congregations that met in 1914 in Hot Springs, Arkansas. The founders were former evangelical pastors who wanted to unite for the sake of doctrinal unity, more effective preaching, and an expanded missions crusade. Theologically, the Assemblies of God are Arminian (according to Jacobus Arminius, 1560-1609) and emphasize the atoning death of Christ for all people, the freedom of the human will, and the need for conversion. There is also a strong belief in the inerrancy and inspiration of the Bible, the fall and redemption of mankind, the baptism of the Holy Spirit, a life of holiness and separation from the world, divine healing, the return of Jesus, and the millennial reign of he. , eternal punishment for the wicked and eternal happiness for the believers. Two ordinances are practiced, baptism and the Lord's Supper. Members of the Assemblies of God particularly insist that the baptism of the Holy Spirit be evidenced by speaking in tongues. They believe that all the gifts of the Spirit should be evident in a New Testament modeled church. Congregational government is an unusual hybrid of the Presbyterian and Congregational systems. Local churches are independent in politics and the conduct of local affairs. District officers have pastoral ministry in all churches and are responsible for promoting local missions. The work is divided into fifty-six districts in the United States and Puerto Rico, including ten foreign language districts, each with a district presbytery that reviews and recommends clergy credentialing. The General Council is made up of all ordained ministers and lay representatives from local churches. This biennial general assembly elects general officers, sets doctrinal standards, and provides supplies

for the expansion and development of the Church. The General Superintendent and other general officers of the church serve at the national headquarters in Springfield, Missouri. The denominational publisher, Gospel Publishing House, produces curriculum and other resources, as well as several periodicals, including The Pentecostal Evangel weekly, which has a circulation of approximately 280,000. There are nine Bible colleges in the United States; a college of arts and sciences; six institutes; and a non-traditional college and seminary in Springfield. Missionary work is carried out under the direction of a central missionary committee; More than 1,500 foreign missionaries work there. The church sponsors 417 Bible schools abroad.

ASSEMBLIES OF THE LORD JESUS ​​CHRIST Established: 1952 Members: 413 churches (2001) Three Pentecostal groups known as the Assemblies of the Church of Jesus Christ, the Apostolic Church of the One God Jesus, and the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ merged in 1952 and incorporated the name "Congregations of the Lord Jesus Christ". The assemblies promote many basic Pentecostal doctrines (see Pentecostal Churches), including the infallibility and direct divine inspiration of the Scriptures, the fall of humanity, salvation by grace, a millennial tribulation, water baptism, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit. , Holy Communion, the washing of feet adoration, divine healing and holiness in life. However, the Church is not trinitarian, but believes that "the only true God manifested himself in various ways in the Old Testament, in the Son walking among men, as the Holy Spirit after the Ascension." Members are prohibited from attending theater or dance performances, even in public schools; therefore, private Bible schools are preferred. Another distinctive teaching of the Church is that Christians must obey the government in all matters except the bearing of arms. Therefore, members are conscientious objectors. The Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ has churches in 35 states, with a focus on the Midwest and South. It maintains offices in Memphis, Tennessee. Management is comprised of a General Superintendent and three Assistant Superintendents. The Church maintains the Parkersburg Bible Institute in West Virginia and the Memphis School of Ministry in Tennessee; supports missions in eight countries outside of the United States; and conducts prison chaplaincy, Native American chaplaincy, and church building programs throughout the United States.


Founded: 1957 Membership: Approximately 300,000 in 350 churches worldwide (1995) Bible Way Church is an organization of Pentecostal churches. At a ministerial conference of African-American Pentecostal pastors in September 1957, Smallwood Apostle Edmond Williams led some seventy congregations of The Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith (see CHURCH OF OUR LORD JESUS ​​CHRIST) in establishing the Church by the biblical way, all over the world. The Founder's vision was to promote evangelistic goals. The fundamental beliefs of the Church include the resurrection of Christ and the second coming before the millennium, the resurrection and translation of the saints, the priesthood of all believers, and the final judgment of humanity. Baptism is by immersion, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit is necessary for the second birth. Foot washing is also practiced. The Church has reported phenomenal growth, but exact numbers are hard to come by. Bible Way Church has twenty-seven dioceses, six of which are outside of the United States. A council of bishops governs the church and individual bishops preside over the various dioceses. General conference is held annually in July, and the Church sponsors several rallies. A Washington, D.C. publisher. distributes magazines, religious pamphlets and audio recordings.

CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN CHURCH Founded: 1896 Members: 2,728 in 7 churches (1996) The Catholic Christian Church (Catholic in the sense of "universal") was officially organized by John Alexander Dowie (1847-1907), a church minister dedicated to the divine healing. prescribed. He also founded Zion City, Illinois in 1901 as the theocratic center of his church. Dowie had extensive plans for educational and cultural projects. He criticized the injustices of capitalism and the excesses of labor leaders, alcohol, tobacco, medicine and the medical profession, clandestine stores, and the press. He was also a tireless advocate for racial equality and inclusion. A few years after the Church was established in Zion, Dowie claimed to be Elijah the Restorer. He held the leadership of the group until 1906, when he was deposed and succeeded by Wilbur Glen Voliva, Michael J. Mintern, Carl W. Lee, and presently Roger W. Ottersen. Theologically, the Christian Catholic Church has its roots in evangelical orthodoxy. The scriptures are accepted as the rule of faith and practice. Other teachings call for repentance from sin and personal trust in Christ for salvation, baptism by triune immersion, the second coming of Christ, and tithing as a practical method of Christian stewardship.

Some of Dowie's followers joined the Assemblies of God in 1914 (see ASSEMBLIES OF GOD). Since then, the Christian Catholic Church has placed less emphasis on healing. He has increasingly identified himself as evangelical in teaching and practice.

CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF NORTH AMERICA, GENERAL COUNCIL Established: 1948 Membership: 7,200 in 96 churches (1999) Originally known as the Italian Christian Church, this organization grew out of a meeting of Italian Pentecostal ministers in 1927 in Niagara Falls, New York. The leader was Luigi Francescon (1866–1964), who left the Roman Catholic Church in 1892 and joined the First Italian Presbyterian Church in Chicago. He was baptized in 1903 and founded the first Italian-American Pentecostal church in Chicago in 1907. When the church was organized in Pittsburgh in 1948, it was called the Missionary Society of the Christian Church of North America. The current name was adopted in 1963 when the body was reorganized as a denomination. The General Council of the Christian Church of North America upholds the fundamental beliefs of Pentecostalism (see Pentecostal Churches) and emphasizes the inerrancy of Scripture, the Trinitarian (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) understanding of God, and salvation through faith in Jesus Christ. . While the Spirit affirms the experiences of salvation and baptism, the body does not teach the doctrine of complete sanctification. Two ordinances are recognized: baptism and the Lord's Supper. Members are encouraged to live a life of personal holiness and to be an example to others. It takes a conservative position regarding marriage and divorce. The form of government is congregational in nature, but the district and national agencies are headed by superintendents. General departments direct missions programs in more than forty countries, issue ministerial credentials, develop resources for Christian education programs in churches, and support various lay organizations for men, women, youth, and children. Headquarters are in Transfer, Pennsylvania. Vista Magazine is the official organ of the Church.

CHURCH OF GOD (Cleveland, Tennessee) Founded: 1886; 1907 Membership: 870,039 in 6,328 congregations (1999) The Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) claims the distinction of being the oldest Pentecostal church. Dating back to 1886 in Monroe County,

Tennessee when the Christian Union was founded by Richard Spurling (1810-1891), a Baptist (see BAPTIST CHURCHES) and his son R. G. Spurling (1857-1935). The Spurlings were drawn to the Bible to stem the tide of "spiritual indifference, formality, and conformity to modern culture" from the church. In 1892 a second church was organized in Cherokee County, North Carolina, under the leadership of William F. Bryant (1863–1949); Four years later, this group experienced speaking in tongues for the first time. R. G. Spurling joined the North Carolina group and others, and two more congregations were added in subsequent years. The small organization was renamed the Holiness Church in 1902. In 1903 Ambrose J. Tomlinson (1865–1943) of the American Bible Society joined the Holiness Church. In January 1907, the name was changed again to Church of God, and the headquarters were moved to Cleveland, Tennessee. Tomlinson was elected General Superintendent in 1909, and the Church began publishing the Gospel of the Church of God the following year. The Church of God adopted Pentecostal practices (see Pentecostal Churches) and grew rapidly in the South and Midwest. In 1923 a crisis occurred which raised concerns about Tomlinson's personal role (see CHURCH OF GOD OF PROPHECY) and, more importantly, the nature of church government and the authority of the leader. The majority, with whom the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) continually works, rejected Tomlinson's leadership and elected F.J. Lee as superintendent. The main teachings of the church mix many Protestant themes with those that are specifically Pentecostal: justification by faith, sanctification, baptism in the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues, the need to be born again, fruitfulness in the Christian life, and a strong interest in the Millennial Coming Christi prior to Monday (Christ will come again before he reigns a thousand years on earth). The Church of God trusts the Bible "as a whole well divided, and not in any written creed." Practice divine healing; condemns the consumption of alcohol and tobacco; refuses to participate in secret societies; and accepts baptism, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing as ordinances. The Church of God elects its officers at a general assembly held every two years. The church's administration includes a general superintendent, three assistant superintendents, a general secretary, and an eighteen-member International Executive Council responsible for the day-to-day operations of the church. Administrative divisions include education, world evangelism, church ministries, welfare ministries, and support ministries. Pathway Press is the publisher of the Church and produces Christian educational resources and books for both clergy and laity. The Church of God administers Lee University and the Church of God School of Theology in Cleveland, Tennessee; a service school; and a preparatory school. His missions abroad are extensive, serving in Africa, Asia, Europe, Central and South America.

CHURCH OF GOD IN CHRIST Established: 1897 Members: about 5,500,000 in 15,300 churches (1991) Ministers Charles H. Mason (1866-1961) and Charles P. Jones, from Baptist groups (see BAPTIST CHURCHES) in Arkansas for what were considered one overemphasis on holiness was dispelled (see HOLINESS CHURCHES), they jointly founded the Church of Christ (Holiness) USA in 1895. This church emphasized the doctrine of complete sanctification. Mason also started a church in Lexington, Mississippi in 1897 which he called the Church of God in Christ. In 1907, Mason went to Azusa Street in Los Angeles, California, to observe the Pentecostal revival taking place there (see Pentecostal Churches); While he was there, he had his first experience of speaking in tongues. Mason then raised the issue of the Pentecostal experience at a meeting of Church of Christ (Holiness) USA leaders. Charles P. Jones and others did not share Mason's enthusiasm for Pentecostalism and turned away from him. Mason then called a meeting of clergymen in Memphis, Tennessee, who supported Pentecostal doctrine. With this group he organized a general assembly of the Church of God in Christ, of which he was appointed General Superintendent and Chief Apostle. Mason remained head of the church until his death in 1961. The doctrine of the Church of God in Christ is Trinitarian and emphasizes repentance, regeneration, justification, sanctification, speaking in tongues, and the gift of healing as evidence. of the baptism of the Spirit. The sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit is now considered a prerequisite for a holy life separated from the sin of the world. The ordinances include baptism by immersion, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing. Generally recognized as the largest African-American Pentecostal church in the United States, the Church of God in Christ organization is credited with biblical authority. There are presiding bishops, vice-presidents, and regional bishops; a general board and a national board of trustees; district superintendents; shepherds; evangelists; deacons; and head of department. The directors are elected in a general assembly that meets every four years. General departments include Sunday School, Youth, Evangelism, and Mission. The denomination's headquarters are in Memphis, Tennessee, as are the publishing department and a Sunday school printing press to provide literature for the denomination. There are missionaries in South Africa, Thailand, Jamaica, Haiti, Liberia, and on the west coast of Africa. Charles H. Mason Theological Seminary is a unit of the Interdenominational Theological Center in Atlanta, Georgia.


Established: 1,923 Members: 75,112 in 1,862 churches (1999) The Church of God of Prophecy is one of the churches that grew out of the work of A. J. Tomlinson (1865-1943); see CHURCH OF GOD [CLEVELAND, TENNESSEE]). After his death, his son M. A. Tomlinson was appointed General Superintendent, a position he held until 1990. He emphasized church unity and unlimited fellowship across social, racial, and political differences. The current General Superintendent, Billy D. Murray, Sr., has made the promotion of Christian unity and world evangelism his priorities. From the beginning, the Church based its faith on "the whole Bible well divided," accepting the Bible as the holy Word of God, inspired, blameless, and inerrant. The Church affirms that there is one God who exists eternally in three persons. He believes in divinity, the virgin birth, sinlessness, miracles, atoning death, bodily resurrection, ascension to the Father, and the bodily return of Christ. The Church affirms that salvation is by grace alone through faith in Christ, that being born again by the Holy Spirit is essential for the salvation of sinners, and that sanctification by the blood of Christ makes personal holiness possible. The Church emphasizes the ultimate unity of believers based on John 17 and the sanctity of marriage and the family. Other official teachings include spiritual baptism in tongues as evidence; divine healing; the second millennial coming of Christ; baptism by immersion; abstinence from tobacco, alcohol and drugs; and holiness in lifestyle. In addition to the Lord's Supper, the Church practices foot washing. The church is racially integrated at all levels, with women playing a prominent role in church affairs, including pastoral roles. The General Oversight Group consists of at least two bishops who, along with the General Overseer, are responsible for setting the vision for the entire congregation. Area elders are bishops strategically located around the world to assist in doctrinal matters and leadership development. The doctrinal and commercial concerns of the Church are discussed in the general assembly, which is held every two years. Church administrative departments include global public relations, leadership development and discipleship, special services, communications and publications, and administrative services.

FAITH APOSTOLIC CHURCH OF OUR LORD JESUS ​​CHRIST INC. Established: 1919 Membership: approximately 30,000 in 450 churches (1998) This church was organized in Columbus, Ohio, in 1919 by Robert C. Lawson as a “continuation of the great revival that began in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost

33 AD . .” Later that year, Lawson moved to New York City, where he founded the Refuge Temple, which he pastored until his death in 1961. He also led the entire organization as Chief Apostle until his death. His successor as pastor of the church (now the Great Refuge Temple) was William L. Bonner, who later also became the Chief Apostle of the Apostolic Faith Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Inc. the apostles and prophets ”, with Christ as the cornerstone. The fundamental emphases are the resurrection of Christ and the millennial second coming, the resurrection and translation of the saints, the priesthood of all believers, and the final judgment of mankind. The church is non-trinitarian and believes "in the unity of God, who was the Father at creation, the Son at redemption, and the Holy Spirit in the church today." Baptism is by immersion, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit is necessary for the second birth. Foot washing is practiced, but not as an ordinance. The Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith, Inc. has congregations in 32 states, the British West Indies, Africa, the Philippines, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and London, England. It operates a Bible School in New York City where it maintains its headquarters and carries out various ministries in the communities it serves. A national assembly meets every year. The national ministers are the Chief Apostle, the Presiding Apostle, the Council of Apostles, the Council of Bishops, and the Council of Elders.

CHURCH OF THE LIVING GOD CHRISTIAN WORKERS FOR THE CHURCH Founded: 1889 Members: Approximately 100 Temples (2000) This corporation claims to be the first black church in the United States not founded by white missionaries. The Church of the Living God, Christian Workers for Fellowship, grew out of an organization founded in 1889 in Wrightsville, Arkansas by William Christian (1856–1928), a former slave. At a time when many white Christians treated black people as less than human, Christian formed a group that claimed that many of the prominent people in the Bible, including Jesus and David, were black. Christian served as "superintendent" in the new church and was succeeded by his wife and eventually his son. The Christian adhered to the doctrine of the Trinity and accepted Pentecostal practices (see Pentecostal Churches), such as speaking in tongues, without requiring the practices of the members; however, he held that the inspired speech must be delivered in recognizable languages. The Church of the Living God, Christian Workers for Fellowship observes three ordinances: water baptism, foot washing, and the sacrament of water and unleavened bread.

Christian was also fascinated by Freemasonry and developed a church structure that resembled a fraternal organization. He insisted that his "organism" was known as "operative Masonry" and characterized the three ordinances as the "first three corporal degrees". A senior bishop is the president of the organization. Members tithe their income to support their churches, which they call temples.

CHURCH OF THE LIVING GOD, THE PILLAR AND BASE OF TRUTH, INC. Established: 1903 Members: approximately 2,000 in 100 congregations (1988) Mary Lena Lewis-Tate (1871–1930), later known as Mary Magdalena Lewis-Tate, was the First Chief Overseer and Mother in True Holiness of the Church of Living God, the Pillar and Ground of Truth, Inc. Lewis-Tate was moved by the Holy Spirit to go out into the world and preach the gospel, first in Steele Springs, Tennessee. She chose her two sons, Walter Curtis Lewis and Felix Early Lewis, as her partners. Two of her early converts were her sisters in Paducah, Kentucky, who also became ministers and bishops of the Church. By 1908, Lewis-Tate had several local congregations in many places, and that year she organized the first general assembly of the Church in Greenville, Alabama. After her death in 1930, her son Felix hers became the senior overseer of the church; and in 1968, after Lewis's death, Helen M. Lewis became chief superintendent. The Church went through two great schisms, one during the Founder's lifetime and another later. Doctrinally, the Church promotes fundamental Holiness (see HOLY CHURCHES) and Pentecostal (see Pentecostal Churches) beliefs, including belief in the Holy Trinity, water baptism by immersion, Spirit baptism with evidence of speaking unknown/foreign languages , communion (with water instead of wine ), sanctification, prayer and fasting. The King James Version of the Bible takes precedence in worship and study. The Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of Truth, Inc. has offices in Nashville, Tennessee, where the Church's publisher, New and Living Way Publishing Company, is located. A general assembly is held annually.

SAINT'S CONGREGATIVE CHURCH Founded: 1921 Members: Approximately 10,000 in 187 congregations (2000)

The Congregational Holiness Church was founded in January 1921 by clergymen formerly associated with the Pentecostal Holiness Church (see INTERNATIONAL PENTECOSTAL HOLINESS CHURCH). The dividing issue was the nature of divine healing; Those who founded the new church affirmed that while all blessings, including divine healing, derive from the merits of Christ's atonement, God bestowed the gift of medicine for human well-being. The Church is identified with the holiness wing (see HOLINESS CHURCHES) of Pentecostalism (see Pentecostal Churches). It emphasizes the sanctity of life in contrast to what is seen as the prevailing worldliness of contemporary culture. Doctrinally, the Congregational Holiness Church affirms the inspiration of the Scriptures; the trinitarian understanding of the Godhead; the virgin birth of Jesus Christ; the death and resurrection of Christ for the salvation of men; the gift of eternal salvation through Christ to those who repent of their sins and believe in Christ; the eternal punishment of those who reject Christ; sanctification as a second work of divine grace in the life of believers; and the imminent personal return of Christ before his reign on earth. The Church emphasizes the baptism of the Holy Spirit, with speaking in tongues as the expression of the Spirit providing the preliminary evidence of this experience. The ordinances include baptism by immersion, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing. The leadership of the church is the congregation. In the early days of the denomination there were no elected leaders. A general conference was held every two years. This arrangement lasted until 1935 when there was an organizational change. Local churches are grouped into eight geographic districts, all located in the southeastern United States. Each district has a five-member presbytery. Districts have the power to license and ordain clergy. The District Judicial Elder acts as a committee that selects candidates for service and makes recommendations to the district conference. Members of the District Presbytery, the General Council (which includes the General Superintendent), and General Department heads form the General Committee, which governs the Church between biennial general conferences. The General Conference is the highest governing body of the Church. Offices are in Griffin, Georgia. Congregational Holiness Church pastors are elected by a majority vote of the congregation to which they are called; Men and women are ordained. Although the church does not have its own seminary, it supports several conservative evangelical schools as training centers for those entering the ministry. The Church has missions in India, Cuba, Brazil, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Belize, Panama, and Mexico.


Founded: 1947 Membership: about 21,000 in 190 churches (1997) This institution is the result of the Elim Ministerial Fellowship, founded in 1933, and the work of alumni of the Elim Bible Institute in Lima, New York, founded in 1924 by Ivan and Minnie Spencer. The group was formed in 1947 as the Elim Missionary Assemblies; the current name was adopted in 1972. Members of the Elim Church have basic Pentecostal tenets (see Pentecostal Churches), beginning with the affirmation of the Bible as the inspired and inerrant Word of God. The Lord's Supper advocates the Trinitarian understanding of the Godhead, the atoning death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, salvation, sanctification, water baptism, the celebration of communion among believers, the baptism of the Holy Spirit manifested in the charismatic gifts and ministries, divine healing and resurrection of the saved and unsaved to eternal reward or punishment. The organizational pattern of the Elim community is congregational, with autonomous decision-making by each church. An annual convention meets in Lima, where the General President has offices. More than 150 fellowship-affiliated missionaries work in Africa, Asia, Europe and South America.

COMMUNION OF FULL GOSPEL CHURCHES AND MINISTERS, INTERNATIONAL Founded: 1962 Membership: 275,200 in 896 churches (1998) This fellowship was formed in Dallas, Texas at a meeting called by Gordon Lindsay to support, encourage, and promote ministry or apostolic ministry (see Pentecostal churches). As Lindsay and others envisioned, the organization would express the essential unity of those who believe in Christ and the work of the Holy Spirit. It should not be a denomination as such, but a service community. The organization also made it easy for independent churches to obtain tax-exempt status with the Internal Revenue Service. While individual churches or groups of churches affiliated with Full Gospel Fellowship have doctrinal and ecclesiastical autonomy, certain fundamental beliefs form the foundation of the fellowship. Proposed tenets of faith include belief in the Bible as the inspired Word of God, Trinitarian understanding of the Godhead, the atoning death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, the need for personal salvation and sanctification, the return and lordship of Jesus Christ, and in heaven and in hell.

The fellowship strongly supports the baptism of the Holy Spirit as evidenced by the gift of tongues. Regional congresses and an annual international congress are held; and various collaboration services, including curriculum development, are supported by the organization. The community maintains offices in Irving, Texas.

INDEPENDENT ASSEMBLIES OF GOD, INTERNATIONAL Established: 1922 Membership: Statistics not available This group is to be distinguished from the Assemblies of God (see Assemblies of God), but shares a common heritage in early Pentecostalism (see Pentecostal Churches). It harkens back to the 1906 Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles, which soon spread across the country and across ethnic lines. In 1918, Scandinavian Pentecostals, particularly interested in preserving the tenets of Congregationalism (see CONGREGATIVE CHURCHES), organized Scandinavian Assemblies of God in the United States, Canada, and other countries. This group essentially operated as a fellowship of like-minded churches until 1935, when they merged with the Independent Pentecostal Churches to form the Independent International Assemblies of God. From a doctrinal perspective, the Church's creed encompasses common tenets of Pentecostalism, such as belief in the Bible as the inspired and inerrant Word of God, the Trinity, the reality of Satan, and the need for the baptism of the Holy Spirit as evidenced by for them in tongues they speak. The ordinances include baptism by immersion and the sacrament. The churches in this assembly are autonomous but work together in common ministries. The Assemblies of God International is governed by a General Superintendent, an Assistant General Superintendent, and a Director of International Missions. Independent Assemblies of God, International has offices in Santa Ana, California. The Church supports missionaries and national pastors in Africa, Central America, South America, Mexico, India, and the Philippines.

INTERNATIONAL CHURCH OF THE FOURSQUARE GOSPEL Founded: 1927 Members: 233,412 in 1,836 congregations (1999) Organized during the evangelistic ministry of Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1944), this church is a tribute to the organizational talents and impressive methods of her church

Founder. Born in Ontario in 1890, McPherson was converted under the preaching of her first husband, Robert Semple, an evangelist. Semple died while she was on a mission to China, and Aimee Semple returned to the United States in 1911, where she led evangelistic crusades throughout North America. In 1918, after her remarriage, Aimee Semple McPherson and her children, Roberta and Rolf, settled in Los Angeles. With the help of her followers, she built and dedicated the Angelus Temple on January 1, 1923. She also founded the Echo Park Evangelistic Association, the Lighthouse Bible Institute of International Foursquare Evangelism (L.I.F.E.), and the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. . With her ability to speak and her belief in praying for the sick, McPherson drew thousands to her meetings. Critics of her found the meetings too spectacular, while others appreciated her presentation style. There was great concern for the sick and the poor; It is said that "over a million and a half" were fed by the Angelus Temple during the Depression years. McPherson was president of the Church during her lifetime and, along with a board of directors, she oversaw the expansion of the denomination. After her death in 1944, her son Rolf Kennedy McPherson became president. After his retirement in 1988, John R. Holland took over, followed by Paul C. Risser in 1998. The "fourfold gospel" refers to four central Pentecostal teachings (see Pentecostal Churches) that predate McPherson, but that popularized throughout the country. They are (1) salvation, (2) Spirit baptism, (3) divine physical healing, and (4) the second coming of Jesus Christ. The broader doctrine of the Church is set forth in a 21-paragraph creed written by McPherson. It is strongly fundamentalist (see BIBLICAL/FUNDAMENTALIST CHURCHES) and emphasizes the return of Christ before his reign on earth, personal holiness (see HOLINESS CHURCHES), and the Trinitarian conception of God. The Bible is stated to be “true, unchangeable, constant, immutable, as its Author, the Lord Jehovah.” The baptism of the Holy Spirit, with the initial evidence of speaking in tongues, follows conversion and healing power is given in answer to the prayer of faith. The ordinances of baptism and communion are observed in the church. The official affairs of the Church are conducted by a Board of Directors, a Missionary Cabinet, and a Board of Directors made up of senior officers. The most authoritative seat is the annual Foursquare Convention, which has sole authority to make or amend the church bylaws and elects the church president for a four-year term. District supervisors are appointed to ten districts in the United States and are ratified every four years by the pastors of the respective districts. Pastors are appointed by the denominational board and supported by the local church board. Congregations are subordinate units of the denomination and contribute monthly to the house and

missionary work abroad. The official publication of the Church is the bimonthly Foursquare World ADVANCE magazine. Although membership is highest on the West Coast, there are Square Churches in all fifty states. Abroad, the Foursquare gospel is preached in 107 countries with more than three million members and followers in more than 26,000 churches and meeting places. In addition to L.I.F.E. Bible College in Los Angeles and L.I.F.E. Bible College East in Christiansburg, Virginia, the Church supports numerous Bible colleges and institutes throughout the world. There is also an extensive youth camp program. The Church sponsors the Los Angeles radio station KFSG-FM.

INTERNATIONAL PENTECOSTAL CHURCH OF CHRIST Founded: 1976 Membership: 5,572 in 69 churches (1999) The International Pentecostal Church of Christ, headquartered in London, Ohio, grew in 1976 as a result of the merger of the International Pentecostal Assemblies and the Pentecostal Church of Christ (see Pentecostal Churches). The International Pentecostal Assemblies were organized in 1921 and were headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. It grew out of the founding of the Groom's Messenger in 1907, which remains the official governing body of the current denomination to this day. The Pentecostal Church of Christ was organized in Flatwoods, Kentucky, in 1917 by John Stroup, a former Methodist elder (see METHODISTIC CHURCHES); Later this group was headquartered in Ashland, Kentucky, and later in London, Ohio, where the Church's headquarters are now located. The International Pentecostal Church of Christ is committed to the fundamental doctrines of Holiness (see HOLINESS CHURCHES) and Pentecostalism, with an emphasis on perfecting the body of saints in the image of Christ. The Church affirms the Bible as the revealed Word of God and the New Testament as the only rule of discipline and government; and proclaims a trinity of God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The baptism of the Holy Spirit as manifested in tongues, as the Spirit gives utterance, and divine healing as provided by Christ's atoning death are central elements in the creed of the body. The ordinances include baptism by immersion, Holy Communion, foot washing, and the consecration of children. Beulah Heights Bible College in Atlanta, Georgia is owned and operated by the International Pentecostal Church of Christ. Other denominational ministries include Christian education, global missions, home missions and evangelism, women's ministries, and youth ministries. The denomination also maintains a nursing home in West Virginia and a conference center in Ohio. Asset

Missionary work is being done in Brazil, French Guiana, India, Kenya, Mexico, the Philippines, and Uruguay.

PENTECOSTAL HOLINESS CHURCH INTERNATIONAL Founded: 1911 Members: 185,431 in 1,771 churches (1999) The Pentecostal Holiness Church International traces its origins to an organization founded in 1898 in Anderson, South Carolina by various holiness associations (see HOLY CHURCHES); At the time, the group was called the Fire Baptized Holiness Church. That same year, another group was organized in Goldsboro, North Carolina as the Pentecostal Holiness Church. In 1907, G. B. Cashwell (1826–1916), a participant in the Azusa Street Revival, led a Pentecostal revival in North Carolina, leading both groups to Pentecostalism (see Pentecostal Churches). The two bodies merged in 1911 as the Pentecostal Holiness Church; and a third body, the Tabernacle Pentecostal Church, joined them in 1915. The current name was adopted in 1975. The theological standards of Methodism (see METHODS CHURCHES) are applied with some modifications in the International Pentecostal Holiness Church. The denomination accepts the doctrine of the millennial Second Coming, holding that Christ's return will precede his millennial reign on earth, and believes that provision was made in the Atonement for the healing of the human body. Divine healing is practiced, but not excluding medicine. Three distinct experiences are taught: two works of grace, justification by faith and sanctification, and the baptism in the Spirit witnessed by speaking in other tongues. Worship services are often marked by "joyful displays." Two ordinances are observed: water baptism and Holy Communion. The ten-member General Council of the Church is elected by a four-year conference for a four-year term; Members are limited to two consecutive terms in each office. There is a general superintendent, three assistant general superintendents, a treasurer, and five counselors who represent geographic areas and the Church as a whole. Assistant Superintendents serve as directors of the World Mission, Evangelism, and Christian Education departments of the church at large. Twenty-eight regional conferences or judicial bodies cover the US, but the main forces are in the Carolinas, Virginia, Oklahoma, Florida, Texas, and California. The main offices are in Bethany, Oklahoma. Pentecostal Holiness Church International sponsors Emmanuel College in Georgia and Southwestern College of Christian Ministries in Oklahoma, both accredited four-year colleges. The Church operates a children's home in Falcón,

North Carolina; a children's recreation center in Bethany, Oklahoma; and a retirement home. Overseas missionary work is carried on in ninety countries.

OPEN BIBLE STANDARD CHURCHES, INC. Established: 1935 Membership: Approximately 46,000 in 371 churches (2000) This union of churches originally consisted of two revival movements rooted in the Azusa Street congregations of 1906 (see Pentecostal Churches): Bible Standard, Inc., incorporated in Eugene, Oregon by Fred Hornshuh in 1919 and the Open Bible Evangelistic Association founded by John R. Richey in Des Moines, Iowa in 1932. The Iowa group expanded to Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, Florida, and Pennsylvania. The two groups, similar in doctrine and government, merged on July 26, 1935, adopting the common name Open Bible Standard Churches, Inc., headquartered in Des Moines. There are now churches in thirty-one states, centered in the Midwest and Far West. The teachings of the Open Bible Standard Churches are "fundamental in doctrine, evangelical in spirit, missionary in vision, and Pentecostal in witness." These include emphasis on the infallibility of God's Word, atonement through the blood of Christ, divine healing, the baptism of the Holy Spirit, personal holiness, the return of Jesus Christ before his reign on earth, and baptism by immersion. Open Bible Standard churches are grouped into five geographic regions divided into 25 districts; The district superintendents direct the work under the supervision of the regional superintendents. Individual churches are governed by the congregation, are locally owned, and affiliated with the national organization by charter. Sixteen departments of the Ministry function under the direction of six Executive Directors, assisted by the Committee of Committees under the supervision of the National Directorate. The highest governing body is the General Assembly, which meets every two years. The congregation consists of all ordained and licensed ministers, with one lay delegate for every 100 church members. The association serves in 32 countries outside the United States and sponsors 12 Bible colleges with more than 440 students. The focus of the mission is to train nationals for service. The Missions Department publishes a monthly magazine, World Vision, and a biannual magazine, Outreach. A separate editorial board is responsible for the production of books and Bible studies, publishes a monthly magazine, Message of the Open Bible, and, in cooperation with a Christian Education department, provides teaching materials for Sunday schools. Open Bible Standard churches sponsor Eugene Bible College in Oregon and many of the Institute of Theological Extension (INSTE) groups in the United States.

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc. Founded: 1907 Membership: Approximately 1,500,000 in 1,750 churches (1998) This body dates back to the Azusa Street Revival of 1906 and is the oldest "unity" Pentecostal church (see Pentecostal Churches), which which means that she is only baptized in the name of Jesus. The purpose of Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc. is to spread the message that Jesus Christ is Lord of all people. From the beginning, the group, including its leadership, was multiracial; However, the church today is predominantly African American. Two of its most influential leaders were G. T. Haywood, who led the Church through a period of consolidation from 1924 until his death in 1931, and Samuel Grimes, a returned missionary, who led the Church through a period of expansion from 1937 until his death. of the. in 1967. Basic Pentecostal and Holiness doctrine and practice (see HOLINESS CHURCHES) is followed, except for the rejection of the Trinitarian understanding of God. The Church emphasizes the sanctity of life and affirms that believers must be completely sanctified in order to fully participate in salvation. Strict rules are observed for clothing and leisure activities. Baptism in water and communion are practiced, the latter with wine. Only the King James version of the Bible is accepted as the true Word of God. The Pentecostal Assemblies of the world hold two major conferences each year, bringing their members from all over the world to worship and fellowship with one another. The Church is headed by a Presiding Bishop, who provides spiritual guidance to its members. There is also an executive board with a vice-president bishop, general secretary, general treasurer, and lay directors. The Organization's Administrator and staff conduct their business from their principal offices in Indianapolis, Indiana. This body is heavily focused on urban areas like Chicago, Detroit, and Indianapolis, but there are ministers serving in all fifty states. Aenon Bible College, located in Indianapolis, Indiana, serves to train Pentecostal clergy and lay members. The university has affiliated institutes in the United States and two overseas affiliates in Liberia: Samuel Grimes Bible Institute and Haywood Mission.

Pentecostal Church of God Established: 1919 Members: 105,200 in 1,237 churches (1999)

This body was organized in Chicago under the name of "United States Pentecostal Assemblies." to better organize early Pentecostalism (see Pentecostal churches) in the Midwest for evangelism and to support churches of unethical preachers who profess to be Spirit-filled. When the church was reorganized in 1922, the name was changed to "Pentecostal Church of God." "of America" ​​was part of the name for several years, but was dropped in 1979. The Pentecostal Church of God is Evangelical and Pentecostal in faith and practice. Doctrines of salvation, divine healing, the baptism of the Holy Spirit (with evidence of speaking in tongues), and the second coming of Christ are strongly emphasized. The ordinances include water baptism, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing. A general assembly of the Church meets every two years. The denomination's leaders include a General Superintendent, a General Secretary, a World Mission Director, a National Mission/Evangelism Director, and an Indian (American) Mission Director. The headquarters is in Joplin, Missouri. The Church has six regional departments, each headed by an Assistant General Superintendent. Most divisions have annual conventions. The Pentecostal Church of God carries out missionary work in 49 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and America; 37 missionaries serve on the field. Outside the United States, more than 4,950 churches have been planted and more than 2,500 national ministers have been commissioned. The group sponsors 22 Bible schools, 57 training centers and 51 day schools around the world. Messenger College, Messenger Publishing House, and Messenger Towers, all in Joplin, are maintained by the Church. The Pentecostal Herald is the official publication.

PENTECOST FREE WILL BATIST CHURCH, INC. Founded: 1959 Membership: Approximately 28,000 in 150 churches (1998) Free Will Baptist Church was formed in 1959 through a merger of four Free Will Baptist conferences in North Carolina. These various groups trace their origins as Free Will Baptists (cf. BAPTIST CHURCHES) to the work of Paul Palmer (died 1750) in the Carolinas during the first half of the 18th century. The Pentecostal aspect of Church doctrine developed in response to the preaching of G. W. Cashwell (1826-1916), who had attended the Azusa Street Revival of 1906 in Los Angeles, California (see Pentecostal Churches). Cashwell launched a series of meetings in North Carolina on New Year's Eve, 1906; In response, many voluntary Baptists and churches adopted Pentecostal doctrine and practice.

The church's doctrine is a mix of Baptist and Pentecostal beliefs. Key claims include Biblical inerrancy, being born again by faith in the shed blood of Christ, sanctification as the second definitive work of grace (after the new birth), Pentecostal Holy Spirit baptism evidenced by speaking in tongues, divine healing and the Vor -Second Coming - Millennial of Christ. The ordinances include baptism by immersion, the Super of the Lord, and foot washing. A meeting of members of the Free Pentecostal Baptist Church is held every two years in August; Lay and ministerial representatives participate. Church officers include a general superintendent, a general secretary, and a general treasurer. Offices are in Dunn, North Carolina, where Heritage Bible College was founded in 1971. Most of the group's churches are in eastern North Carolina; but missionary work is being done in nine other countries, and Bible institutes are being established in Mexico, the Philippines, and Venezuela.

HOLY UNITED CHURCH OF AMERICA, INC. Established: 1918; 1886 Membership: Statistics not available This is a Pentecostal/Holiness body first organized as a regional body in Method, North Carolina, in 1886 (see Pentecostal; Holiness Churches). Originally known as the Holy Church of North Carolina, it was reorganized as the Holy United Church of America, Inc. in 1918. Its purpose is to establish and maintain sacred assemblies, assemblies, conventions, conferences, public worship, and educational and missionary efforts. The Articles of Faith contain statements of faith in the Trinity, the Bible's record of God's revelation, redemption through Christ, justification with immediate sanctification, baptism in the Holy Spirit, divine healing, and final government. of Christ on earth. Baptism by immersion, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing are observed as ordinances. The Holy United Church believes in speaking in tongues and considers Spirit baptism normative, although it shares the position of many Pentecostal groups that speaking in tongues is not a requirement for full membership, full discipleship, or even spiritual baptism. . The church's headquarters are in Greensboro, North Carolina. The Chief Officer is the President General. Other employees include two General Vice Presidents, a General Secretary of Record, a General Secretary of Finance and a General Treasurer. A council of bishops oversees the work of the church. The flagship of the United Holy Church is The Holiness Union.

UNITED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH INTERNATIONAL Founded: 1945 Members: Approximately 600,000 in 3,876 churches (2000) The United Pentecostal Church International (UPCI) was founded in 1945 through the union of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ and The Pentecostal Church, Inc. The Assemblies in they were the result of mergers of other Pentecostal churches in the 1930s. All constituent members were "Oneness" ("Jesus Only") Pentecostals who withdrew from the Assemblies of God in 1916. The Holiness movement (see HOLINESS, except for the "second work of grace", the historical doctrine of the Trinity, and the traditional trinitarian formula in water baptism. Holiness of life is understood as an aspect of God's salvation of an individual, not As a result, the vision of unity espoused by the UPCI affirms that God “revealed himself in the Old Testament as Jehovah and revealed himself in the New Testament in his Son Jesus Christ.” Jesus Christ is therefore the only true God, manifested in the flesh and the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God/the Risen Christ Baptism is performed only in the name of Jesus. The Church holds the Pentecostal view that speaking in tongues is the first sign of receiving the Holy Spirit. For the UPCI, the Bible is the inerrant and inerrant Word of God, and the church rejects all extra-biblical revelations and scriptures, such as church creeds and articles of faith. UPCI's policy is essentially congregational, with autonomous local churches. The General Conference of the Church meets annually to elect officers. A general superintendent, two assistants, and a secretary/treasurer serve on a general committee that also includes district superintendents, senior elders, and department heads. The denominational offices are in Hazelwood, Missouri, as is World Aflame Press, the Church's publisher. The press publishes books, Sunday school materials, and a wide variety of religious literature. The Pentecostal Herald is the official organ of the UPCI and there are several departmental publications. The Church also sponsors Harvest Time, an international radio program. Patrons of the UPCI Foreign Missions Program work in 136 countries outside the United States. More than 15,800 national ministers serve nearly 21,000 churches with nearly 2,000,000 members. In the United States, the church maintains seven Bible colleges and will open a graduate theology school in St. Louis, Missouri in 2001. Other UPCI ministries include children's homes in Tupelo, Mississippi, and Hammond, Louisiana; a pastoral program for people in prison; and a chaplaincy program for the armed forces.

VINEYARD CHURCHES INTERNATIONAL Founded: 1983 Members: Approximately 500 Churches (2000) The Vineyard movement began in California in the 1970s and has grown rapidly ever since. In the early 1980s, the Church embraced charismatic principles and focused on the work of musician John Wimber among students at Fuller Theological Seminary. Christian rock music has been used effectively in evangelical outreach through recordings and radio broadcasts. The church embraces evangelical and charismatic/Pentecostal theology (see Pentecostal churches) related to the inerrancy of Scripture, the fall of humanity, the need for a salvation experience, and the spiritual gifts of healing and speaking in tongues. The Vineyard also emphasizes informal worship and fellowship for disaffected youth. Since the death of founder John Wimber in 1997, the movement has wrestled with problems of organization and future direction. The US branch, known as the Association of Vineyard Churches and VineyardUSA, moved its offices from California to Stafford, Texas in late 2000.

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES Originating between 1534 and 1560 during the Protestant Reformation in France and Switzerland, the Presbyterian denomination takes its name from a church led by presbyters (from the Greek word presbuteros, meaning "elder") who represent the local community. The central theologian of the Presbyterians (as well as of the Reformed churches; see REFORMED CHURCHES) was the Protestant Reformer John Calvin (1509-1564). Calvin left his native France for Switzerland during the turbulent years of the early Reformation. He helped reorganize religious, social and political life in Geneva and made the Swiss city the capital of the reform movement throughout Europe. Fundamental to Calvin's thought is God's sovereignty over the world and human life, including the human response to God's authority and will, known through the Word and the Spirit. His system was summed up in five main points: human impotence, unconditional predestination, limited atonement, irresistible grace, and maximum perseverance. According to Calvin, God is the sovereign and eternal ruler of the world; Human beings are totally controlled and dependent on God. Cerebral and verbal rather than emotional and aesthetic, Reformed theology particularly values ​​understanding, learning, and personal responsibility. The Presbyterian and Reformed churches emphasize active human responsibility because of their understanding of the covenant relationship between God and people. Calvinism helped build an intelligent ministry, liberate the oppressed and persecuted, and establish democratic forms of government in church and state. In Calvin's mind is the germ that in time destroyed the divine right of kings; he gave the people a new dignity and brought representative government to parliaments and church officials. Calvin dealt the final blow to feudalism and gave a spiritual and moral tone to nascent capitalism. However, strictly speaking, Calvin did not found Presbyterianism; He alone laid the foundation on which Switzerland, Holland, France, England, Scotland and Ireland were built. The work of John Knox (c. 1513-1572) in Scotland was particularly important to Presbyterians in North America, as Scottish and Irish immigrants brought Presbyterianism to the United States during the colonial period. A delegation of Scots sat at the Westminster Assembly of Divines (1643-1648) with 121 English ministers, ten peers and twenty members of the House of Commons to settle the dispute over the compulsory use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. This assembly was a milestone in Presbyterian history because it produced a Larger Catechism and a Shorter Catechism; a record for the public worship of God; a form of government; and the Westminster Confession of Faith, the

it became the doctrinal standard of Scottish, British, and American Presbyterianism. Presbyterians dominated the Westminster Assembly and soon dominated the British government during the English Civil War and the Interregnum. Oliver Cromwell completed the removal of King Charles I in 1649 and founded the Commonwealth. When the Commonwealth dissolved after Cromwell's death in 1658 and the monarchy was restored, British Presbyterians fled to North America with the Puritans. An attempt to establish an episcopate in Scotland after 1662 sent many Scottish Presbyterians to Ireland, where economic hardship and religious inequalities drove them to the United States. From 1710 until the mid-18th century, between 3,000 and 6,000 Scottish immigrants arrived annually, initially settling in New England and the intermediate colonies. Presbyterians in the United States. The first American presbytery, or association of local churches, was formed in Philadelphia in 1706. At a general synod in 1729, Presbyterians adopted the Westminster Creed, along with the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, "good forms of sound words and Christian systems of doctrine". Doctrine." The same synod stripped civil officials of all power over the church and forbade persecution of individuals because of their religious beliefs. Presbyterians quickly began looking for qualified clergy and organized a "log college" in a cabin in Neshaminy , Pennsylvania, with three of his four sons as first students.This family school became the leading Presbyterian college in the colonies.From there sprang the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) and a number of Presbyterian preachers who played a leading role in the Great Awakening of the early 18th century Among them were William Tennent Jr. (1705–77) and his brother Gilbert (1703–64) followed British evangelist George Whitefield (1714–1770) in preaching an emotional “birth again” revival that was at odds with ancient Calvinist beliefs.Born as a Presbyterian institution, the camp meeting revival grew out of this enthusiasm for the Great Awakening. However, the Presbyterian objection to emotional revival ran deep, and in 1740 it divided the Church. Preachers from the "old side" opposed the revival, while those from the "new side" defended it, arguing that less attention should be paid to the college education of the clergy and more to the recruitment of regenerate common men. The two sides feuded until they united in 1757. The following year, at the first unified synod, there were 94 ministers in the Colonial Presbyterian Church with 200 congregations and 10,000 members. One of the ablest preachers of the new camp was John Witherspoon (1723-1794), president of Princeton, a member of the Continental Congress, and the only member of the clergy to sign the Declaration of Independence. Witherspoon may have been instrumental in the General Synod's decision to ask the Presbyterian churches for "support and support".

promote” the resolutions of the Continental Congress. The Scotch-Irish welcomed the revolution with enthusiasm; Their persecution in England and Northern Ireland made them staunch anti-British dissidents. His ancient exclamation "There is neither bishop nor king" was heard in England: Horace Walpole (1717-1797) is said to have remarked that "Cousin America" ​​had eloped with a Presbyterian minister. Presbyterians moved quickly to strengthen their church after the colonial victory at Yorktown; The synod met in Philadelphia in 1788 while the nation's new constitution was being written in the same city. From 1790 to 1837, the membership of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (as it was then known) increased from 18,000 to 220,557, due to the revival that swept the country and a plan to unite with the Congregationalists (see CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES). . Under this plan, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers and laymen who moved into the new western territory worked and built together. The ministers of the two groups preached from the pulpits of the other, and the members had the right of representation both in the congregation and in the chancel. In general, the plan worked well, absorbing the fruits of the national revivals and giving a real impetus to missionary work at home and abroad. In 1810, some Presbyterian ministers in Tennessee withdrew from the church over the issue of predestination and ordination requirements. Over time, his group grew in number, eventually holding a general assembly in 1829 in the 20th century. Disagreements then arose between "old school" and "new school" Presbyterians over disciplinary matters and the disbursement of missionary funds. The General Assembly of 1837 expelled four synods from the New School, who quickly met in their own assembly to form a new General Assembly. The Presbyterian Church USA (PCUSA) remained divided between representatives of the New School who wanted to continue working with the Congregationalists, and representatives of the Old School who distrusted Congregational theology. The South Church. In 1846 the Old School congregation did not consider slavery an impediment to Christian fellowship, but in the same year the New School condemned the practice in the strongest possible terms. In 1857 several synods of the New Southern School withdrew to form the United Synod of the Presbyterian Church. The greatest schism occurred in 1861, after the outbreak of the Civil War, when forty-seven old-school southern presbyteries organized the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America. In 1867, after the war, the United Synod and the Confederate Churches combined to form the Presbyterian Church in the United States (CPSU).

The CPSU, originally antiquated in doctrine, continued to develop its own style of belief and practice. Presbyterianism had been well established in the South since colonial times. In fact, Presbyterian leaders helped bring law and order to many parts of the South before colonial officials could take over such functions, and ministers taught school before public school systems were established. Presbyterians were prominent during the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution, and along with Baptists laid the political, spiritual, moral, and intellectual foundations for the famous Jeffersonian Religious Liberty Establishment Act, the Virginia Declaration, and others such as preceded .in the constitution. and elsewhere The church government of the CPSU developed parallel to that of the northern churches. Offices were gradually centralized in Atlanta under the General Council Committee on Missions. Missionary work has always been done on a global scale, which is a special source of pride for Southern Presbyterians. In 1982, just before reuniting with the Northern churches to form the Presbyterian Church (USA), the CPSU membership numbered 814,931 in 2,704 churches, with 61 presbyteries (17 already functioning as "united" with presbyteries). of the United Presbyterian Church in the USA) . ), USA [UPCUSA]) and seven synods. The lists included 6,077 ordained ministers. The Church-sponsored seminars were in Austin, Texas; Columbia, Georgia; Louisville, Kentucky; and Union in Richmond, Virginia, and the Presbyterian School of Christian Education (Virginia), a unique institution. Several secondary schools and missionary schools were also supported, as well as colleges, children's homes and homes for the elderly. The National Church (North). The Old School and New School bodies of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUSA) had held separate meetings since 1837, but were united in 1870 on the basis of the Westminster Confession. Most of the Cumberland Presbyterian churches acceded in 1907; Welsh Calvinist Methodists joined in the 1920s. In the 1920s to 1950s an emphasis on theology in a liberal/conservative struggle was evident. There was also an emphasis on unity, manifested in the proposed merger with the Protestant Episcopal Church (see EPISCOPAL/ANGLICAN CHURCHES), which did not take place, and in the merger with the United Presbyterian Church of North America (UPCNA) in 1958. UPCNA was formed exactly a century earlier by the merger of the Associated Presbyterian Church and the Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church. Its doctrines, traditions, and institutions were preserved in the new Church's Presbyterian style of government through local sessions, presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies. A 44-article confession statement from 1925 contained the content of the Westminster Confession, but limited divorce to marital infidelity, rejected the condemnation of children, extended the sacraments to all who professed faith in Christ and lived a Christian life. , and eliminated the old protest against secret societies. He also abandoned the exclusive use of psalms in worship, retaining and affirming belief in the verbal inspiration of Scripture.

Sufficiency and fullness of God's provision for the needs of the church, emphasized the renewing and sanctifying power of the Holy Spirit, and affirmed that salvation is free for all sinners. When UPCNA and PCUSA merged to form the United Presbyterian Church in the USA (UPCUSA) in 1958, there were no irreconcilable differences; However, disagreements between conservatives and liberals persisted. In general, they all agreed with the Westminster Confession, their accepted doctrine. UPCUSA eventually reorganized its offices into three agencies based in New York City. In 1982, on the eve of the meeting of the churches of the south, the UPCUSA had 2,351,119 members and 15,178 ordained ministers at the national level. Its 8,975 churches were grouped into 151 presbyteries and 15 synods; 17 of the presbyteries were joint "union" bodies with similar units in the CPSU. Policy. Presbyterian churches generally exhibit a basic organizational structure. Each church has a local meeting, attended by elders, with the pastor as moderator. The session directs the local community, receives and disciplines its members, and acts for the good of the community. Presbyteries, consisting of congregations in a local district, examine, ordain, and appoint ministers; review session reports; and listen to any complaints. Synods occupying larger boundaries review Presbyterian records, organize new presbyteries, and help manage denominational affairs. The supreme judicial body is a General Assembly, which meets annually and is composed of lay and clerical delegates elected by their presbyteries on a proportional representation plan. The General Assembly resolves all political and doctrinal matters submitted to it by subordinate governing bodies, establishes new synods, appoints agencies and commissions, and considers all appeals. There are two main officers of the general assembly: a principal secretary (principal, he explained), who is essentially the executive director of the church; and a moderator who presides over the meeting and speaks frequently on behalf of the Church throughout the year.

ASSOCIATED REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Founded: 1782 Membership: 40,600 in 238 congregations (1997) The Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church traces its origins to controversy within the national Presbyterian Church of Scotland in the 18th century, when a group of elders left the national church in protest their separation. on a variety of political and religious topics. The controversy surrounding the "Seceders" and "Covenanters" continued with the Scottish migration to Northern Ireland. Scotch-Irish immigrants from North America modeled churches in the British Isles, but in 1782 two of the separate branches merged.

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founded the Associated Reformed Synod in Philadelphia (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES). Eight years later, the Carolinas and Georgias Associated Reformed Presbytery was organized in Abbeville County, South Carolina, followed in 1803 by the division of the entire Church into four synods and one general synod. In 1822, the Southern Synod was given separate status, and by the end of the 19th century it was the only remaining body of the Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church, as various mergers over the years dissolved the remainder of the denomination into the old United Presbyterian Church. Church. There are now nine presbyteries in North America, the majority in the Southeast. The doctrinal norms of the Apostles' Creed and the Westminster Confession are followed. For some years the only music in this church was the singing of psalms; This was changed in 1946 to allow the use of hymns. The General Synod of the Church meets annually to elect officers and conduct business. The principal officers are the Moderator (one-year term), who presides over the General Synod and is the spokesman for the Church throughout the year, and the Principal Secretary (four-year term), who prepares and maintains the official records for the General Synod. These and other officers serve as the Executive Council of the General Synod. Foreign mission fields of the Associated Reformed Presbyterian Church are located in Germany, Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey, Asia, and the Middle East. The Associate Reformed Presbyterian is published monthly in Greenville, South Carolina; Erskine College and Erskine Theological Seminary are located in Due West, South Carolina. The Church maintains a meeting place, Bonclarken, in Flat Rock, North Carolina, and three retreat centers.

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Founded: 1810 Members: 86,049 in 775 congregations (1999) Cumberland Presbyterian Church dates to its origins on February 4, 1810 in Dickson County, Tennessee, where three Presbyterian ministers, Finis Ewing (1773–1841 ), Samuel King (1775 –1842) and Samuel McAdow (1760–1844), founded a new presbytery (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES). They opposed the Westminster Creed's doctrine of predestination and insisted that Presbyterian standards for the ordination of ministers should be relaxed given the extraordinary circumstances prevailing on the American frontier. The General Assembly of the Church was organized in 1829.

The attempted union with the Presbyterian Church (USA) in 1906 was only partially successful. A sizeable portion of Cumberland's Presbyterian members, dissatisfied with the terms of the merger, perpetuate the church as a separate denomination. In 1814 a creed was formulated, based on the Westminster Confession but restating important points made by the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1810: (1) There are no eternally damned; (2) Christ died for all mankind, not just the elect; (3) there is no juvenile conviction; and (4) the Spirit of God is working in the world at the same time as Christ's atonement to "make all without excuse." This creed was revised in 1883 and again in 1984, each to better articulate the historical truths of the Christian faith for its time. The 1984 document expresses a clear recognition of God's agency in man's salvation, affirming that repentance is a necessary condition for salvation, but not sufficient, since God's grace is the fundamental element. Congregations are located primarily in the southern and border states, with some congregations in Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. The Church sponsors missionaries in Colombia, Japan, Hong Kong, and Liberia in West Africa. Supports Bethel College in McKenzie, Tennessee; Memphis Theological Seminary; and an orphanage in Denton, Texas. Denominational headquarters and a resource center are located in Memphis, Tennessee.

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA Organization: 1874 Membership: 15,142 in 152 congregations (1996) This church arose after the Civil War when African-American pastors and lay members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (see CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH) attempted to form their own organization . It is estimated that around 20,000 African Americans were associated with the Mother Church at the time. Led by Moses T. Weir, a former slave, black clergy formed the Cumberland Synod of Colored Presbyterians in 1869. Other presbyteries and synods were formed in various regions (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES) and in 1874 the first assembly was held. General of the Cumberland Colored Presbyterian Church. The Mother Church offered some financial support in the early years of the denomination and continued to work with the African American body on various issues, including theological formulation. The Cumberland Colored Presbyterian Church eventually became known as the Second Cumberland Presbyterian Church and, in the late 20th century, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America.

The teaching position of the Church is similar to that of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Members of both bodies worked together on the 1984 Creed. This document gives contemporary expression to the historic Presbyterian witness, with special emphasis on God's saving grace. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America now has four synods, primarily in the Midwest and South. Church ministers are trained at Cumberland Presbyterian Church College in McKenzie, Tennessee, and at its seminary in Memphis. Serious discussions continue about a merger with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

EVANGELICAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Founded: 1981 Membership: 63,447 in 197 congregations (1999) The Evangelical Presbyterian Church (EPC) grew out of a series of meetings between pastors and church elders in St. Louis Missouri in 1980-81. Representing various traditional Presbyterian groups (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES), these leaders sought to establish a church informed by the Scriptures and the historic creeds of the Christian faith and committed to evangelism. From these meetings a General Assembly was convened in Detroit, Michigan in 1981, where the EPC was born. The EPC is a conservative denomination made up of eight geographic presbyteries in the United States, with churches in 29 states. It is Presbyterian (rule of elders) in politics, with the ecclesiastical courts being the session (local), the presbytery (regional), and the general assembly (national). “Reformed in doctrine, Presbyterian in politics, and Evangelical in spirit,” the EPC places a high value on church planting in addition to world missions. Some fifty missionaries from around the world serve the mission of the Church at home and abroad. The expansion of women's and youth work is also a high priority. The Westminster Confession and its Catechisms are the doctrinal standards of the Church. Unlike other conservative Presbyterian bodies, it includes Chapter 34, "On the Holy Spirit," and Chapter 35, "On God's love and mission," in the Creed. The historical motto “Essentially unity; in the insignificant, freedom; in all things charity” expresses the Irish spirit of the CEP. For the whole world, the General Assembly testifies on specific issues through position papers. Past position papers on the Holy Spirit, abortion, AIDS/HIV, divorce and remarriage, value and respect for human life,

Accept the ordination of women as elders, homosexuality, and the issues of suffering and death.

KOREAN AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Founded: 1976 Membership: Statistics not available The Korean American Presbyterian Church (KAPC) was founded to minister to Korean immigrants in North America. The Presbyterian Church (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES) is the largest Christian body in Korea, a country with many Christian denominations. The KAPC is theologically conservative; In addition to the Westminster Confession and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, pastors credit a creed that emphasizes biblical inerrancy, the absolute character of God, the sin of Adam and Eve, and the necessity of faith. Works and obedience to God's law result from saving faith. The Church is headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona.

ORTHODOX PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH Founded: 1936 Members: 25,302 in 204 congregations (1999) This church arose as a protest against the supposedly modernist practices of the Presbyterian Church in the US (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES). The dissenters, led by Princeton professor J. Greshammachen (1881–1937), were suspended from the Presbyterian Church USA and organized the Presbyterian Church of America. However, the main authority filed an injunction against the use of that name, and in 1938 the name was changed to the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. Orthodox Presbyterians place great emphasis on the inerrancy and inerrancy of the Bible. They believe that the writers of the books of the Bible "were so directed by [God] that their original manuscripts contained no errors of fact or doctrine." The basic doctrines include original sin; the virgin birth, deity, and vicarious atonement of Christ; his resurrection and ascension; his role as judge at the end of the world and the consummation of the kingdom; the sovereignty of God; and salvation through the sacrifice and power of Christ for those "whom the Father wills to save." Salvation "is not by good works, but by doing good works." The Westminster Confession and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms are accepted as subordinate doctrinal standards or creeds.

The constitution of the church contains the creed, the form of government, the genealogical book and the registry for the worship of God. Local churches are governed by sessions that include teaching elders (ministers) and ruling elders (laity); Women cannot hold office based on interpretation of New Testament practice. The local church focuses on worship, education, evangelism, mercy ministries, and divine discipline. The denomination has sixteen regional churches, each made up of several local congregations and governed by a presbytery made up of all the teaching elders and ruling elders of those congregations. The presbytery looks after the welfare of the various churches in the area and helps resolve conflicts. A General Assembly oversees the work of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church as a whole. This assembly includes teaching and ruling elders from each presbytery; He appoints committees to deal with missions at home and abroad, Christian education, and charity in general. The Orthodox Presbyterian Church published the Trinity Hymnal, probably the only hymnal designed as a worship supplement to the Westminster Confession of Faith. Membership is spread across the country, with concentrations in eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and southern California.

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA Founded: 1973 Membership: 299,055 in 1,206 congregations (1999) This denomination arose in 1973 when delegates from 260 conservative congregations that had left the Presbyterian Church, USA (CPSU) called a general assembly in protest against the liberalism (cf. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES). These congregations opposed the ecumenical activities of the CPSU in the National Council of Churches of Christ, the World Council of Churches and the Consultation of the Union of Churches; they also opposed the upcoming merger with the more liberal United Presbyterian Church in the US. The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) has also upheld the traditional position on women's ordination. Originally known as the National Presbyterian Church, the current name was adopted in 1974. The Westminster Confession of Faith is the primary doctrinal standard of the Presbyterian Church in America. The Church teaches that the Holy Spirit guided the authors of the Scriptures so that the Scriptures would be free from errors of fact, doctrine, and judgment. Other emphasized doctrines are human depravity, salvation by grace, Christ's death for the elect, and the perseverance of the saints. The PCA retains the historic policies of Presbyterian government: elders (or elders) government and tiered courts, the section that governs the local church; the presbytery for regional affairs; and the general assembly of

Nacional level. He distinguishes two kinds of elders: teaching elders (ministers) and ruling elders (laity). In 1982, the Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod (RPCES) joined the PCA, bringing Covenant College in Lookout Mountain, Georgia and Covenant Theological Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri. PCA headquarters is in Atlanta, where it coordinates the work of three program committees: World Mission, North American Mission, and Christian Education and Publishing.

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (USA) Founded: 1983 Membership: 3,561,184 in 11,216 congregations (1999) After formal separation beginning during the Civil War and lasting 122 years, the two largest American Presbyterian churches (CPSU [South] and UPCUSA [National]) met on June 10, 1983 (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES). The setting was a historic communion service celebrated by approximately 15,000 people at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta and by many more via national television broadcast. The referee. J. Randolph Taylor, pastor of Myers Park Presbyterian Church in Charlotte, North Carolina, was chosen to be the first moderator of the new group. He spent much effort over the next fifteen years working out the administrative details of the union of the two denominations and their numerous presbyteries and spiritual groups. Under the Presbyterian Church (USA) system of government, each congregation has a local meeting made up of elders, with the pastor as moderator. The session directs the local community, receives and disciplines its members, and acts for the good of the community. Presbyteries, consisting of congregations in a local district, examine, ordain, and appoint ministers; review session reports; and listen to any complaints. Synods occupying larger boundaries review Presbyterian records, organize new presbyteries, and help manage denominational affairs. The supreme judicial body is the General Assembly, which meets annually and is composed of lay and clerical delegates elected by their presbyteries according to a plan of proportional representation. The General Assembly resolves all political and doctrinal matters referred to by lower governing bodies, establishes new synods, appoints agencies and commissions, and considers all appeals. His decisions are final except that he himself cannot change the constitution of the church. There are two officers of the general council: a confessing secretary (the chief officer of the church) is elected for a renewable four-year term; A moderator is elected each year to lead the meetings and speak frequently on behalf of the Church throughout the year.

The Westminster Confession (1647) has been the basic doctrinal statement of American Presbyterians since colonial times; However, when UPCUSA was formed in 1958, the Westminster Confession was found to be over 300 years old and reflected concerns of an earlier era. Many Presbyterians came to believe that a new explanation was needed to proclaim the gospel in 20th century language. In 1967, after eight years of work, a special commission presented to the General Assembly a draft of the first great new doctrinal statement since 1647, which was ratified. The brief 1967 Confession (4,200 words) avoided what many considered the confusing terminology of the Westminster Confession and emphasized the concepts of love, sin, eternal life, and especially the atoning work in God, Christ, and the Church. Centered on Christ, it often reflects Westminster principles in modern discourse. Some opposition persisted, claiming that the new document weakened the Westminster Confession, but most United Presbyterians accepted that the document reflected true Presbyterianism and provided a broad theological foundation on which all Presbyterians could unite. With the adoption of the new creed, UPCUSA now had a creed of nine creeds: the Nicene Creed of AD 325, the Second Century Apostolic Creed, the Scottish Confession of 1560, the Heidelberg Confession of 1563, the Westminster Confession of 1647, the Greater Catechism of 1647, the Shorter Catechism of 1647, the Barmen Theological Statement of 1934, and the Confession of 1967. These were grouped together in the Book of Confessions, particularly to trace the development of the great Christian claims in the Reformed tradition; Clarify the common beliefs of the majority of the world's Christians; and provide a common foundation for unity. This book of confessions was adopted by the Presbyterian Church (USA) upon reunification in 1983. While Presbyterians can be found throughout the United States, approximately 40% live in the former CPSU area: the South . Membership is highest in major cities, with concentrations in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, Texas, Illinois, and New Jersey. In 1988, the new denomination's national headquarters opened in Louisville, Kentucky, merging the offices of the former National Church of New York and the South Atlanta Church. The Church operated two publishing houses, now combined in Louisville as the Westminster John Knox Press. The official journal is the Monthly Presbyterian Survey, published in Louisville. In the United States there are sixty-eight Presbyterian colleges, eleven seminaries, and six high schools.

REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF NORTH AMERICA Founded: 1,809 Members: 6,105 in 86 congregations (1997)

This church traces its roots to the 18th century Covenanter Presbyterians of Scotland, who opposed the king's attempts to impose religious beliefs and practices on them. Most of the early members merged with the Associated Presbytery in 1782, but a small group reorganized in 1798 under the name of the Reformed Presbytery. In 1809 a synod was constituted in Philadelphia, which divided in 1833 into the Old Light and New Light groups. This dispute concerned citizenship and the right of members to vote or participate in public affairs. The New Lights formed the General Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church and placed no restrictions on participation. Old Lights stubbornly resisted interference in public affairs, and the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America is its heir. However, the restriction was finally lifted in 1964 and members are free to participate in civil government and vote on issues and political candidates committed to Christian civil government principles. The Church places special emphasis on the infallibility of the Scriptures, the sovereignty of God, and the lordship of Christ over all aspects of human life. The government of the church is entirely Presbyterian (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES) except that there is no General Assembly. Members use only the Psalms in their services; Instrumental music is not allowed. Members may not join secret societies. Home missionaries work in seven states under a Church Extension and National Missions Board; Foreign missionaries are stationed in Japan, Cyprus, and Taiwan. Geneva College is in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania and the Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary is in Pittsburgh. A nursing home is also located in Pittsburgh. Crown and Covenant Publications provides print and music resources for the Church.

REFORMED CHURCHES The Reformed family of Protestant churches, like the Presbyterians (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES), traces its origins to the Swiss Reformation, of which John Calvin (1509-1564) was the most important theologian. The Reformed churches, commonly known as Calvinists, were closely associated with the Presbyterians in Scotland, the Puritans (see CONGREGATIVE CHURCHES) in England and New England, and the Huguenots in France. Nationally organized Reformed Churches, particularly in Holland (The Netherlands), Germany, Hungary, Bohemia and Poland. When the Reformed Churches were founded, they were banned throughout Europe until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Their theology and church structure were thus formed amidst persecution and the struggle for religious and political independence. Reformed church government is generally a modified Presbyterian form. The doctrine is based on the Belgian Confession (1561), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the canons of the synod there (1618). Reformed churches emphasize the theological dimension of church life by emphasizing preaching and sound doctrine. More rationalist than pietistic (see BROTHERS and PIETIST CHURCHES), Reformed conservatism takes the form of a strict theological orthodoxy. When they moved to the American colonies, three main ethnic groups of followers of the Reformed tradition formed distinct churches with minor theological differences. Germans, mainly from the Palatinate, founded the Reformed Church in the United States, later known as the Evangelical and Reformed Church, which later became one of the main organizations of the United Church of Christ (see UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST). Dutch colonists founded the Reformed Church in America and the Christian Reformed Church. And the Hungarians founded the Free Magyar Reformed Church in America. Reformed German in the United States. While most Reformed churches today can be traced back to Dutch immigration to the Midwest, Reformed churches in the United States arose with the rush of German immigrants to Pennsylvania in the 18th century. More than half of the Germans there were Reformed by 1730, but the congregations were widely separated along the border and, lacking pastors, often hired teachers to lead services. Johann Philip Boehm (1683–1749) came to southeastern Pennsylvania from Germany in 1720 as a teacher. Shortly after his arrival, Böhm was asked to lead the services and in 1725 he took up the pastoral charge among the Reformed settlers in the Perkiomen valley. Boehm was profoundly influenced by Michael Schlatter (1718-1790), who had been sent to the United States by the (Dutch Reformed) Synod of South and North Holland. In 1747 they organized a coetus

(Synod) in Philadelphia, directly responsible and partly financed by the Synod in the Netherlands. The American Synod declared independence in 1793 and adopted the name of the German Reformed Church; This year 178 parishes and 15,000 communicants were reported. The word German was dropped from the name in 1869, and the denomination was later called the Reformed Church in the United States. Difficulties arose in the early years of the 19th century. Older Germans preferred to use the German language; Members of the second generation demanded English. Some churches withdrew to establish a separate synod but returned in 1837 when concessions were made. District synods of German and English-speaking congregations were created, and in 1924 two Hungarian classes of the Old Hungarian Reformed Church were added. The Evangelical Reformed Church grew out of a union formed on June 26 in Cleveland, Ohio. , 1934, by two bodies with basic doctrinal, political, and cultural similarities: the North American Evangelical Synod and the Reformed Church in the United States. When the union was finally achieved, little difficulty was encountered in reconciling the teachings of the two bodies. Both churches were German in ethnicity and Calvinist in doctrine. The Reformed Church has historically been based on the Heidelberg Catechism (1563); the Evangelical Synod, on the Heidelberg Catechism, the Augsburg Confession (1530) and the Catechism of Martin Luther (1483-1546). These three standards of faith were woven into one in the new constitution of the Evangelical Reformed Church, which became part of the United Church of Christ in 1957. Dutch Reformed in the United States. As early as 1614, what is now the Reformed Church in America had disorganized members in the upper reaches of the Hudson River in the Fort Orange, Albany, New York area. There were no regularly established congregations or churches, but membership was sufficient to require the services of Reformed lay preachers, two of whom arrived from Holland in 1623 as "Comforters to the Sick". By 1628, the Dutch in New Amsterdam had their own pastor, Jonas Michaelius (b. 1577), and an organized collegiate church, the oldest church in the Midway Colonies and the oldest church in the United States with continuous ministry. When the English took possession of New Amsterdam in 1664, Dutch churches flourished in Albany, Kingston, Brooklyn, and Manhattan in New York, and in Bergen, New Jersey. When immigration from the Netherlands stopped, perhaps 8,000 Dutch church members held services in their own language, led mostly by pastors sent from the Netherlands. It was difficult and expensive to send native ministerial candidates to the Netherlands for training and ordination, so a college and seminary were established in New Brunswick, New Jersey. He

The institution later became the New Brunswick Theological Seminary and Rutgers University. The overwhelming majority of the clergy and laity of the Reformed Church supported the American Revolution. Two generals, Philip Schuyler (1733–1804) and Nicholas Herkimer (1728–77), were members of the Reformed Church. As the Dutch became more and more Americanized, English gradually gained a foothold in the churches, but not without a struggle. In the middle of the 19th century, a second emigration from the Netherlands began, bringing with it entire communities and their shepherds. A group led by Albertus van Raalte (1811–1876) established a community called Holland in western Michigan. Van Raalte and his group became part of the Reformed Church in America in 1850, the Reformed Church. Church in America in 1856. Doctrine and Politics. The explicit statements and principles of the Belgian Confession (1561), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the canons of the synod there (1618) remain the doctrinal standards of most Reformed churches in America. The gentle and gentle spirit of the Belgian Confession, with its emphasis on salvation through Christ, is a central theme; the primacy of God's power in human life is central to the sermon, just as it is in the Canons of Dort; and the Heidelberg Catechism, based on the tripartite division of Romans, is used in many kinds of Christian doctrine. The divine authority of Scripture is important. The cult is semi-liturgical, with optional liturgy; only the forms for baptism and communion, the two recognized sacraments, are obligatory. The government of the Reformed Churches is essentially Presbyterian. The governing body of the local church is the session, or council, made up of elders, deacons, and ministers, who collectively assume the administrative functions of the ordinary life of the congregation. Several churches in a limited area are grouped into one class, which has direct authority over the churches and clergy within its borders. The class consists of delegated elders from each congregation and area ministers. Classes are grouped into regional synods, which oversee the planning and programming of churches in the region. The highest legislative and judicial body of the Church is the General Synod, which meets once a year. It is made up of ministers and elders of each class; the size of the delegation depends on the size of the class.

REFORMED CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN NORTH AMERICA Founded: 1857 Membership: 198,400 in 732 congregations (1998)

This Dutch Reformed group originated in Michigan in 1847 and was associated with the Reformed Church in America from 1850 to 1857, when it found itself at odds with the mother church on matters of doctrine and discipline (see REFORMED CHURCHES). A conference held in Holland, Michigan, caused the separation of the True Reformed Church of Holland, which after a series of name changes became what is now the Christian Reformed Church in North America. Emigration from the Netherlands brought several other groups into the new organization, causing its membership to increase rapidly. The Christian Reformed Church (CRC) today primarily speaks English, although Dutch, Spanish, French, Navajo, Zuni, Korean, Chinese, and Vietnamese are used in some churches. Theologically conservative, the CRC maintains the three historic Reformed statements as the basis of the union: the Belgian Confession (1561), the Canons of Dort (1618), and the Heidelberg Catechism (1563). The organization has the usual Reformed features, including a local session or council, 47 classes (35 in the US, 12 in Canada) that meet every four months (every six months in some cases), but no intervening synods or regional between classes; and a general synod, composed of two clergymen and two elders of each class, which meets annually. The General Synod decides on theological, liturgical and ethical questions. He also oversees the services shared by the CRC churches in general. To this end, the Synod created eight boards and agencies to run each ministry, including the General Administration of the Church, Radio Ministry, Calvin Theological Seminary, Calvin College, Home Missions, World Relief, Publishing, and World Mission. Christian Reformed Home Missions provides guidance and financial support to nearly 200 new and established churches that minister to Navajo, Zuni, African American, Asian, Hispanic, and many college campuses. About 300 foreign missionaries are stationed in Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia. The Christian Reformed World Relief Committee runs a service program that ministers in 27 countries. The radio program "La Hora de Regreso a Dios", transmitted by a network of stations in the United States and abroad, reaches Europe, Africa and Asia, and South America; a television ministry also broadcasts in the United States and Canada. The Church sponsors Calvin College and Calvin Theological Seminary in Grand Rapids, Michigan. A publishing house in Grand Rapids provides literature for the Church and its organizations and educational materials for many other churches.

HUNGARIAN REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA Founded: 1924 Members: est. 6,000 in 27 parishes (1998)

Work in the United States among the Hungarian Reformed Churches began in 1891. With the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the impoverishment of the Reformed Church in Hungary, the Church in Hungary transferred jurisdiction from its churches in the United States to the Reformed Church. in the United States in an agreement reached at Tiffin, Ohio, in 1921 (see REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES). Three of the original communities refused to accept the deal. In 1924, in Duquesne, Pennsylvania, they joined with four other congregations to organize the Free Magyar Reformed Church in America, a completely independent and self-governing church. The church's name was changed to the Hungarian Reformed Church in America in 1958. The Church's polity is a combination of Synodal-Presbyterian elements that gradually developed in Hungary from the mid-16th century. It currently consists of three classes: New York, East, and West, which form a synod led by a bishop-elect and a senior lay administrator. The doctrinal standards are those of the Heidelberg Catechism (1583) and the Second Helvetic Confession (1566). The Synod meets every two years and a Constitutional General Synod is held every four years.

DUTCH REFORMED CONSTITUTIONS IN NORTH AMERICA Founded: 1907 Membership: 9,047 in 24 congregations (1999) The Dutch Reformed Congregations in North America split from the Christian Reformed Church due to doctrinal differences (see CHRISTIAN REFORMED CHURCH). This body emphasizes the classical teachings of the Reformed tradition expressed in the Belgian Creed (1561), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the Dort Teachers (1618). It supports various missions at home and abroad and eleven schools with more than 2,000 students. In 1996 a seminary was founded in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

PROTESTANT REFORMED CHURCHES IN AMERICA Established: 1926 Membership: 6,730 in 27 congregations (1999) In 1924 three consistories and pastors from the Grand Rapids East and Grand Rapids West classes of the Christian Reformed Church in North America (see CHRISTIAN REFORMED CHURCH) were heard a difference of opinion over separated the doctrine of universal grace from that denomination. This doctrine asserts that grace is bestowed to a degree to those who are not among God's elect. Those who opposed the doctrine and were expelled from the church formally organized as the Reformed Protestant Churches in America.

1926; The most important of the founders was Herman Hoeksema (1886–1965). He and the other leaders of the new church taught that special grace, that is, grace only for the elect, is an essential aspect of the Reformed faith. The Evangelical Reformed Church adheres to the three basic Reformed creeds (the Heidelberg Catechism of 1563, the Belgian Confession of 1561, and the canons of 1618) as the basis of its belief in the infallible Word of God. In government they are Presbyterian (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES). There are two geographic classes; A general synod meets annually in June. Membership is primarily in the Upper Midwest. The Church maintains a theological seminary in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The Free Reformed Publications Association publishes a bimonthly magazine, The Standard Bearer. The Youth Association publishes a monthly publication, Beacon Lights. Various home and workplace mission fields in the UK are supported; Mission efforts in Singapore established independent churches there.

REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA Constitution: 1792 Membership: 293,147 in 901 congregations (1999) A heated controversy over the authority of the Amsterdam Classis led to the full independence of the Dutch Reformed Churches in the United States (see REFORMED CHURCHES). A general body and five special bodies were created, a constitution was drawn up in 1792, and a general synod was organized in 1794. In 1819, the body was incorporated as the Dutch Protestant Reformed Church, and in 1867 it became the Reformed Church in America. . The Church retains traditional Reformed doctrines, notably the Belgian Confession (1561), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the Canons there (1618); but he interprets them more flexibly than other Reformed groups. The Church also affirms the Apostles' Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the Nicene Creed. In 1978 a contemporary creed, Our Song of Hope, was adopted. Local Reformed churches in America are governed by consistories made up of clergy, elders, and deacons. The next highest congregation is the classis, which is made up of clergy and elders representing local churches in a given region. Several classes together form a regional synod. The Church has more than 900 congregations, 46 classes, and 8 regional synods. The highest assembly, the General Synod, meets annually to discuss matters that affect the entire denomination. The various program and service functions of the

The denominations are overseen by a 63-member General Synod Council, made up of one representative from each class, thirteen general members, and one representative from each of the four ethno-racial councils. The Council is divided into six committees: Community Services; evangelism and church development services; financial services; Ministry and Personnel Services; missionary services; and policy, planning and management services. The denominational team is located at the Interchurch Center in New York City and at various regional centers in the United States and Canada. In 1998, the Church entered into full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (see EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMERICA), the Presbyterian Church (USA) (see PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH [USA]), and the United Church of Christ (see UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST). The Reformed Church in America has a strong missionary history and works in more than 25 countries. Missionary work in North America began in 1786, although work among Native Americans began much earlier. Needy churches in New York, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky were supported by the Albany classis until 1806, when the General Synod, together with the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, assumed the administration of all mission agencies. In 1832 the Council of Foreign Missions was founded; it continued to function through the American Board until 1857, when it began to function independently. Across ethnic/racial councils in North America, the denomination refers to African-Americans, Asian-Pacific, Hispanic-Americans, and Native Americans. The church insisted on seven years of college and seminary training for its clergy, and in 1828 formed the Educational Society of the Reformed Church in America, later known as the General Synod Board of Education. The denomination has two theological seminaries (New Brunswick, New Jersey and Western, Holland, Michigan) and three universities (Central, in Pella, Iowa; Hope, in Holland, Michigan; and Northwestern, in Orange City, Iowa). The greatest numerical strength of the Church is in Michigan, New York, New Jersey, Iowa, and California.

REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES Founded: 1942 Membership: 4,257 in 40 congregations (1998) This body was formed by Swiss and German immigrants who came to the US in the 18th century and was established under the auspices of the Dutch Reformed Synod of the North and South America operated South Holland, but broke away from that synod in 1793. It has been known in the United States as the Reformed Church since 1869. In 1934, most of its churches merged with the Evangelical Church to form the Reformed Church. Reformed Evangelical (see CHURCH OF CHRIST UNITED).

The Eureka Classis of South Dakota refused to join the Uniate Church in 1934, primarily over the question of the authority of the Scriptures. The class claimed that the Bible was "the true word of God" and rejected what they saw as liberal interpretations of Scripture. It remained a separate and independent institution for more than fifty years. Various clergy and congregations joined the class over the decades, and in 1986 it dissolved to reform as the Synod of the Reformed Church in the United States. The church follows the Reformed pattern of government (see REFORMED CHURCHES): Local churches are governed by consistories of ministers, elders, and deacons; four classes of local churches are organized geographically and are made up of representatives of local churches; and the church synod elects denominational officers, including a president, vice president, designated secretary, and treasurer, with representatives from each class. Twelve synod committees oversee the daily ministries of the church. In addition to the authority of Scripture, the Reformed Church in the United States accepts the Belgic Confession (1561), the Heidelberg Catechism (1563), and the Canons of Dort (1618) as standards of doctrine. The denomination emphasizes that Christ is the head of the church and that all human activity must be done for the glory of God. The church has fraternal relations with many other conservative Reformed bodies throughout the world and supports three seminaries in the Reformed tradition: Mid-America Reformed Seminary in Dyer, Indiana; New Geneva Theological Seminary in Colorado Springs, Colorado; and Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The official publication is The Reformed Herald.

THE SALVATION ARMY (and affiliated organizations) The Salvation Army and its affiliated organizations arose out of the concern of the Methodist Church (see METHODS CHURCHES) to reach the impoverished villages of England's growing metropolis. To bring the gospel to these underserved souls, a new type of religious organization was created. It is neither a traditional denomination nor a traditional service organization, but a creative fusion of both. William Booth (1829-1912), an ordained Methodist minister from the New Connexion in England, left that church in 1861 to become an independent evangelist. In 1865 he dedicated his life to the impoverished and non-ecclesiastical masses of the slums of London's East End. He initially planned to supplement the work of the churches, but this proved impractical because many converts did not want to go where they were sent, and often when they did, they were not accepted. Furthermore, Booth soon discovered that he needed converts to handle the large crowds that came to his meetings. He began his work under the name of "Christian Mission" and in 1878 the name was changed to the Salvation Army. Booth initially organized his movement according to Methodist policies with annual conferences preparing reports and planning programs, but when the name was changed the entire organization became dominated by the new title. The Articles of War (a creed) were established, and soon the mission stations became corporations, the soldier members, evangelical officers, and converts called seekers. Booth was promoted to general, and his organization was gradually built on a military pattern that provided a direct line of authority and a practical system for training personnel for effective action. He argued that raising an army of crusaders to save souls was "as valid as sending armies to save a grave." The work spread rapidly throughout England, Scotland, and Wales, and was formally established in the United States in 1880 by a pioneering group led by George Scott Railton (1849-1913). Once committed to an expansionist policy, Booth wasted no time in sending pioneering parties in different directions. They reached Australia and France in 1881; Switzerland, Sweden, India, and Canada in 1882; New Zealand and South Africa in 1883; and Germany in 1886. Today, The Salvation Army operates in more than 100 countries with approximately 25,000 officers; preaches the gospel in more than 140 languages ​​in more than 14,000 gospel centers; and operates more than 5,000 social institutions, hospitals, schools and authorities.

AMERICAN RESCUE WORKERS Founded: 1913 Membership: Approximately 2,500 in 15 churches (1999) Incorporated in 1884 as The Salvation Army (see SALVATION ARMY) and in 1896 as The American Salvation Army, whose name was changed when the charter was written in 1913, the American Rescue Workers, a religious and charitable movement, is a branch of the Christian church. Its membership includes officers (clerics), lay members (called soldiers or followers), members of various activity groups, and volunteers who act as advisers. It provides emergency assistance (housing, clothing, food), transitional shelters and rehabilitation centers for alcohol and drug addicts, shelters for the homeless, workshops and social service programs for the physically and socially disabled, and evangelization. The fact that American rescuers try to run so many charitable programs does not alter their status as a fully-fledged denomination. Baptismal and Communion rites are administered by clergy in charge of local churches (corps), and services and Sunday school services are held in Congregational churches. A minister is ordained after three years of service as an officer and must have completed and been approved by the organization's seminary and/or degree programs. Religion articles include belief in the Trinity, the inspiration of the Scriptures, the Fall, redemption through Christ, and other basic orthodox teachings. The motivation of the organization is the love of God and a practical interest in the needs of humanity. Its purpose is to preach the gospel, spread Christian truths, meet basic human needs, and undertake the spiritual and moral regeneration and physical rehabilitation of all people in need, regardless of race, color, creed, sex, or age. The government is exercised by a Council of Managers elected by the members of the Great Field Council. The structure follows a quasi-military pattern with divisional and territorial commanders at the top. The national headquarters is in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. A magazine, The Rescue Herald, is published in Hagerstown, Maryland.

THE SALVATION ARMY Established: 1880 Members: 472,871 in 1,355 Corps (1999) The Salvation Army carries out its religious and social programs in all fifty states and preaches the gospel to effect spiritual, moral, and physical healing for those under its influence. Through 9,037 centers of

Including 3,793 service units led by more than 5,400 officers, supported by approximately 43,300 personnel and 1.7 million volunteers, the Army reaches out to communities across the United States. The purpose is salvation "by the power of the Holy Spirit combined with the influence of human ingenuity and love." Its social services are a vehicle for meeting the needs of the "whole man" and empowering the socially disenfranchised—the physically and emotionally needy—to rise up. Administratively, the army is under the command of a general. The main unit of the army is the corps, of which there may be several in a city. Each corps is commanded by an officer, from lieutenant to major, who is in charge of the division headquarters. Each of the forty US divisions is made up of several corps, with the work of each division under the direct supervision of a division commander. The divisions are grouped into four territories: East, Central, South, and West, with headquarters in West Nyack, New York; Des Plaines, Ill.; Atlanta Georgia; and Rancho Palos Verdes, Calif. Territorial commanders are responsible for each territory, and the four territorial headquarters are made up of departments to facilitate all phases of the army's work. The national headquarters in Alexandria, Virginia, is the focal point for the entire country. The national commander is the chief executive officer, official spokesperson, and president of all Salvation Army corporations in the United States. Ownership and revenue are held by a board of directors or directors, and civic councils help interpret the work of the military for the general public. Within the army structure, converts who wish to become soldiers (members) must sign the Articles of War (a creed) after which they perform voluntary service as members. The role of officers called to full-time service in The Salvation Army is similar to that of clergy in other churches. Basic training for each officer is a two-year internship course at one of four Army schools in Suffern, New York; chicago; Atlanta; and Rancho Palos Verdes. The main source of officer candidates is the Salvation Army Corps. Military with at least six months of active duty are eligible to apply and, if accepted, enter officer training school, where the curriculum includes, in addition to formal study, field experience and orientation in all Possible areas of Salvation Army service. . The officer graduates from school as a lieutenant and, with further study, can achieve the rank of captain, major, lieutenant colonel, colonel, or commissioner. The Salvation Army's driving force is the religious beliefs of its officers and soldiers, and the basic doctrines of the organization are articulated in the

eleven key statements of the Constitution Act of 1878. These statements include recognition of the Bible Army as the only rule of Christian faith and practice; God as Creator and Father of all mankind; the Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit; Jesus Christ as Son of God and Son of Man; sin as the great destroyer of the soul and of society; salvation as God's remedy for human sin and the last, eternal hope available through Christ; sanctification as the individual's present and mature experience of a life set apart for the holy purposes of the kingdom of God; and an eternal destiny that can triumph over sin and death. The Army's work in the United States includes 162 rehabilitation centers that help more than 174,000 people annually. More than 176,000 people are treated at 53 medical centers each year; 51 campgrounds provide camping facilities for more than 177,000 children, mothers, and seniors. The army has more than 300 boys' and girls' clubs with more than 113,000 members; about 28 million meals are served each year; and basic social services are provided to almost 18,000,000. Approximately 150,000 people make life-changing spiritual decisions in Army service each year. There are also hotels and boarding houses for men and women, missing persons agencies, day care centers, facilities for alcoholics, correctional facilities for inmates and their families, homeless programs, and other related services. These services are provided without regard to race, color, creed, or status; All work is funded largely through voluntary contributions, federal funds, and annual grants.

VOLUNTEERS OF AMERICA, INC. Founded: 1896 Membership: Statistics not available Volunteers of America (VOA) is a Christian church and charity founded in 1896 by Ballington (1857–1940) and Maud (1865–1948) Booth, son and daughter-in-law of William Booth, founder of the Army of Salvation (see SALVATION ARMY). VOA's mission is to reach and uplift all people and guide them to direct knowledge and active service of God. With a presence in communities across the United States, VOA offers more than 160 diverse individual outreach programs and opportunities for individual and community engagement. From rural areas to inner-city neighborhoods, VOA employs more than 11,000 full-time employees and more than 30,000 volunteers in operating programs that address today's most pressing social needs. Responds to the individual needs of the community to serve abused and neglected children, vulnerable youth, the frail elderly, the disabled, the homeless and families, and many others. Every year it helps more than 1.5 million people in need.

American volunteers hold a cardinal set of beliefs or doctrines, consistent with Biblical teaching and traditional Christian thought and practice. Persons commissioned as VOA ministers (after completing all religious study and spiritual training requirements) become licensed ministers and can perform sacramental and evangelical functions. Volunteers of America is governed by a religious body, the Grand Field Council, and a body, the National Board of Directors. The council is made up of all VOA clergy and represents the members of the organization. The Board of Directors is responsible for drafting the Articles of Incorporation, Articles of Incorporation, Articles of Incorporation and regulations and electing its President. The National Council consists of thirty-one honorary members and is responsible for the governance and effective functioning of the organization. The National Ecclesiastical Council is a smaller body of VOA clergy charged with ministerial affairs. The director of Volunteers of America, Inc., elected for a five-year term, is the president of the company and the leader of the church. The national office in Alexandria, Virginia, provides technical and administrative support for local VOA programs and leads other strategic initiatives to fulfill the organization's mission.

SCHWENKFELDER CHURCH Founded: 1782, roots 1519 Members: est. 2,800 in 6 congregations (2000) This church represents a unique branch of the Protestant Reformation, but today it has all but disappeared. The church is named after Caspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig (1489-1561), a Silesian nobleman who experienced a spiritual awakening in 1518. Disappointed in his hopes of reforming the Roman Catholic Church from within, he played a leading role in the Reformation and advocated for a broader reading of the Bible by the laity, citing the need for the power, guidance, and guidance of the Holy Spirit insist and preach that the sacramental participation in the Lord's Supper is a mystical participation in Christ as food for the soul, but that the food is really bread. This interpretation of the Lord's Supper, together with his insistence on the total separation of church and state, led to Schwenkfeld's opposition to Lutheranism (see LUTHERAN CHURCHES). As advocates of "middle way reform," Schwenkfelder and his followers emphasized the supremacy of the spirit over literal interpretations of biblical beliefs and practices. By the end of the 16th century, the movement numbered several thousand, largely brought together by Schwenkfeld's writings and sermons, since he did not organize churches; but the group was persecuted by other religious groups and remained small and widespread.

The Schwenkfelders, as the members are known, came to Philadelphia in six migrations between 1731 and 1737. Unable to find land to purchase together, the immigrants scattered and settled in the region between Philadelphia and Allentown, Pennsylvania. The Schwenkfelders Society was founded in 1782, and the Schwenkfelder Church was incorporated in 1909. Although descendants of the original settlers live in all regions of the United States, the surviving Schwenkfeld churches are found within a fifty-mile radius. from Philadelphia. All theology, members maintain, should be based on the Bible, but without the indwelling Word, Scripture is considered dead. They believe that Christ's divinity was progressive, that his human nature became more and more divine without "losing his identity." Faith, regeneration, and subsequent spiritual growth transform human nature, but justification by faith must not obscure positive regeneration mediated by Christ; therefore, theology is Christocentric.

SPIRITUALIST AND THEOSOPHICAL BODIES The spiritist movement dates from the 19th century and is a precursor of the movement of the new modern age. Central to the beliefs and practices of Spiritism is the ability to communicate with the spirits of those who have left this earthly life. This can be done through mediums, séances, and mystical rites. In recent years, interest in psychic experiments and extrasensory perception has increased. Many spiritualists believe in reincarnation and seek to reconnect with past life experiences. The soul is often called the astral body; At death, the material body dissolves and the soul, like the spiritual body, progresses through a series of spheres toward ever higher existence. In the two lower spheres, people with a bad character or sinful background are purified and prepared for higher existences. Most of the deceased are in a third sphere, the land of summer; beyond are the sphere of the philosopher, the contemplative and advanced intellectual sphere, the sphere of love and the sphere of the Christ. All eventually reach the higher spheres; Spiritualists do not believe in heaven or hell or that both are lost. Christ is often recognized as a medium; The Annunciation was a message from the spirit world, the Transfiguration was an opportunity for the spirits of Moses and Elijah to materialize, and the Resurrection was proof that all people live in the spirit world. The following principles are provided by the National Association of Spiritualist Churches, but are general to most spiritual organizations: 1. We believe in infinite intelligence.

2. We believe that the phenomena of nature, both physical and spiritual, are the expression of infinite intelligence. 3. We affirm that a correct understanding of such an expression and living according to it constitutes the true religion. 4. We affirm that the existence and personal identity of the individual continues after the change known as death. 5. We affirm that communication with the so-called dead is a fact scientifically proven by the phenomena of spiritism. 6. We believe that the highest morality is contained in the Golden Rule: "Whatever you want others to do to you, do to them." 7. We affirm the moral responsibility of the individual and that we create our own happiness or unhappiness by obeying or disobeying the physical and spiritual laws of nature. 8. We affirm that the door of reform is not closed to any human soul, neither here nor in the hereafter. 9. We affirm that the commandments of prophecy and healing are divine attributes evidenced through mediumship. Services or sessions are held in private homes, rented halls, or churches. Most spiritual churches have regular services that include prayer, music, selections from the writings of various spiritualists, a sermon or lecture, and spiritual messages from the departed. Churches and clergy are supported by voluntary donations; The media and pastoral workers are also supported through paid courses and meetings. Attendance at church services is invariably low, averaging twenty to twenty-five. Administration and government differ slightly in the different groups, but most have district or state associations and an annual general assembly. They all have mediums and most have church leaders. Licensing and ordination requirements also vary, but determined efforts are made to raise educational standards and character in larger groups. Spiritualism and its cousins ​​have had a greater impact on American culture and religion than is apparent from enduring institutional forms. Closely related to American Spiritualism is Theosophy, or Divine Wisdom. Theosophists see this divine wisdom as the eternal philosophy underlying all religions. He draws inspiration from both Eastern and Western philosophy and religious teachings.

The main founder of the modern Theosophical movement was Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891), who was born in Russia in 1831 and traveled the world in search of "knowledge of the laws that govern the universe." Came to the United States in 1872 and founded the New York Theosophical Society in 1875 with Henry Steel Olcott (1831-1907) and William Q. Judge (1851-96) Universal Society of Humanity without regard to race, creed, sex, caste or skin color; promote the study of comparative religion, philosophy, and science; and to examine the inexplicable laws of nature and the forces latent in man." Blavatsky drew on the teachings of great thinkers from various religions, sciences, and philosophies, both ancient and current at the time. Starting from the premise that God is immanent in the latent forces of nature and that man can achieve perfection by his own strength, she described God as the absolute principle of pantheistic Hinduism, the Tao of Taoism, and the deity of Christianity. Every human being is part of God and in all there is a divine potential; therefore, they are all related. Blavatsky held that all religions descended from a hierarchy that included Jesus, Buddha, and other master thinkers who underwent a series of rebirths or reincarnations to ultimately achieve godhood. Reincarnation is a central theme in Theosophy. It is the method by which people get rid of all impurities and develop their inner potentials through various experiences. Closely related to the concept of reincarnation is karma, the law of cause and effect; So each rebirth is seen as the result of actions, thoughts and desires inherited from the past. Olcott and Blavatsky left New York in late 1878 and in 1882 established the Society's headquarters at Adyer, near Madras, in southern India. When Blavatsky died in 1891, Annie Besant (1847–1933) assumed leadership of the movement, with Olcott as president, until her death in 1907. During this period, conflicts arose between Besant and the leaders of other Theosophical groups in Europe and the United States. Joined. states In 1895, William Q. Judge, one of the three founders and president of the American Society, founded an independent Theosophical Society in America. Besant loyalists worked at the company, which was based in India. More divisions developed in the following years, and the fragmentation is still evident; but Blavatsky's basic teachings still apply to all groups. It does not seem possible to obtain exact membership records among these groups, but it is estimated that there are about 40,000 Theosophists worldwide, perhaps 5,000 in the United States. The Theosophical Society was the first group to publish the philosophy behind the occult. Its influence can be felt in many other occult groups that have nothing to do with any Theosophical Society, thanks to the current interest in Eastern philosophy and religion.

US NATIONAL SPIRITUAL ALLIANCE Founded: 1913 Membership: Statistics not available This organization was founded by G. Tabor Thompson and incorporated in Lake Pleasant, Massachusetts; The headquarters are in Keene, New Hampshire. In accordance with the general spiritist teachings, the Alliance emphasizes paranormal and impersonal manifestations and communication with the world of spirits. Salvation is seen through personal character development: “You reap what you sow, but . . . All things work together for good and evolution is taking place continuously in all human beings. Local alliance groups elect their own officials and elect their own ministers. A three-day congress is held annually in which delegates from all churches elect national officers: president, secretary, and treasurer. An official board directs the work of certified ministers and mediums; University training is not required, but a minister must have completed a course organized by the federal government. Mediums may baptize, but only ministers may officiate at ordination and marriage ceremonies. The alliance's work includes charitable, literary, educational, musical, and scientific activities.

NATIONAL SPIRITUALIST ASSOCIATION OF CHURCHES Founded: 1893 Membership: est. 3,000 in 136 churches (1999) The National Spiritualist Association of Churches was formed in Chicago at the time of the World Parliament of Religions, which increased American interest in Eastern religions and esoteric philosophies. Fundamental to the union is the belief that Spiritism is a science, religion and philosophy based on the reality of communication with the world beyond. Influential far beyond its immediate membership, this association provides literature for the entire American spiritual movement. In 1994, the association established the College of Spiritual Sciences in Lily Dale, New York, offering a degree program for members, graduate students, healers, mediums, national spiritual teachers, and ordained ministers leading to an Associate of Arts in Religious Studies . Founded in Milwaukee in 1901, the Morris Pratt Institute offers a correspondence course in modern spiritualism, a two-week classroom course in pastoral skills, and special seminars on spiritualism, and maintains an extensive research library. The NSAC also has a Benevolent Spiritualist Society which awards scholarships to committed members.

financial difficulties. An annual legislative session is held, and officers are elected every three years.

Swedenborgian Church (New Jerusalem General Convention in the USA) Founded: 1817 Members: 2104 in 44 churches (2000) One of the leading figures in Spiritism and Theosophy was Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772). Born in Stockholm, Sweden, he was an Enlightenment-era scientist who excelled in mathematics, geology, cosmology, and anatomy before turning seriously to theology. Although he was certain that he was commissioned by God to teach the doctrines of the "New Church," Swedenborg never preached or founded a church. However, his followers felt that the need for a separate denomination was implicit in the new revelation in Swedenborg's monumental work Arcana Celestia, in which they believed he deciphered the hidden meaning of Scripture and recounted his conversations with great dead during a long time. The Church of Swedenborg centers its worship on the present, risen and glorified reality of Christ and seeks the establishment of the kingdom of God in the form of a universal church on earth. In this new church all people will fight for peace, freedom and justice. Swedenborg corps often use the name "Churches of the New Jerusalem" to indicate the intrusion of the eschatological reality described in the New Testament. The New Church as an organization originated in London in 1783 when Robert Hindmarsh (1759-1835), a printer, gathered some friends to discuss Swedenborg's writings. They established a General Conference of their Societies in 1815. The first Swedenborgian Society in the United States was organized in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1792, and in 1817 the New Jerusalem General Convention was established in the United States. It was founded in 1861. The faith and purposes of the church declare that “the Lord Jesus Christ has returned, not in physical appearance, but in spirit and in truth; not in a single event, but in a progressive manifestation of his presence among men." Adherents claim that the symbols of the coming of Christ are in the explosion of scientific development, the rise of the inquiring mind, the advance toward political and intellectual freedom, and the self-deepening sense of national and international responsibility that characterized the it was modern. The teachings of the New Jerusalem General Assembly are based on the Bible, which is understood to have literal historical significance and deeper spiritual significance. The Church teaches that there is only one God who knows himself

many names, and that the Christian Trinity means aspects of this God. Humans are believed to be essentially spirits clothed in material bodies that are shed at death; the human spirit lives in a spiritual world determined by its attitudes and behavior on earth. Therefore, Swedenborgians believe that followers should live their religious beliefs in all aspects of life. Societies meet in a general assembly, which meets annually. Each society is autonomous, with general ministers and pastors (responsible for state associations). Services are liturgical and based on the Book of Worship published by General Convention. There is a theological school in Newton, Massachusetts, and the Swedenborg Foundation is in West Chester, Pennsylvania; J. Apfelkern & Co. of San Francisco distributes books and pamphlets based on Swedenborg's writings. Another Swedenborg body, the General Church of the New Jerusalem, split from the earlier group in 1890. It shares many of the larger body's teachings, but acknowledges Swedenborg's writings as divinely inspired. The headquarters are in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, where a cathedral was built. THE CHURCH AND THE KINGDOM OF GOD IN CHRIST TRIUMPS, INTERNATIONAL Founded: 1902 Members: Statistics not available This Christian body grew out of the holiness movement (see HOLINESS CHURCHES) but has developed some unique qualities, most notably an emphasis on continuing revelation. It was founded by Elias Dempsey Smith, a Methodist minister from Mississippi who was made an Apostle by his followers. Through revelation, Smith taught that complete sanctification is an instant work of grace and that the baptism of the Holy Spirit can be obtained by faith. the bishops direct the church and administer its affairs; the main leader is the main bishop. There is an International Religious Congress that takes place every four years. Triumph has a strong presence in Africa, particularly in Liberia. UNIFICATION CHURCH Founded: 1954 Membership: Statistics not available One of the most controversial churches in modern times is Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. This church originated in Korea and exploded

on the American scene in the 1970s. His teaching is a blend of traditional Eastern philosophy and evangelical Christianity. Members claim that Satan distorted the original harmony of creation, but through Jesus' sacrifice and revelations to Rev. Moon, that harmony is being restored. The core of Moon's teaching is that God is a balance between masculine and feminine qualities (essentially the yin and yang of Taoism) and that humans can restore this harmony of polarities through spiritual marriage. People can also connect with the spiritual world and experience spiritual growth through right actions, attitudes, and devotion that combine Eastern and Western elements. Sun Myung Moon was born in Korea in 1920 and studied at a Confucian school. By the 1930s, his parents had become staunch Presbyterians, and the young Moon became a Sunday school teacher. At Easter 1935, while praying in the mountains of Korea, Moon had a vision of Jesus asking her to continue the work Jesus had begun on earth nearly 2,000 years earlier. Sun Myung Moon studied the Bible and many other religious teachings to unlock the mysteries of human life and history. Embracing asceticism, he understood God's own suffering and wished to reunite with God's children. In 1945, Moon organized the teachings that came to be known as Divine Principle and began his public ministry. On May 1, 1954, Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, popularly known as the Unification Church, in Seoul. Despite opposition from other churches and the government, including the arrest of Moon and other leaders, the church quickly spread throughout South Korea. In 1959 the first missionaries arrived in the United States. Marriage is central to the Church's teachings, and Moon's marriage to Hak Ja Han in 1960 was seen by his followers as the marriage of the Lamb foretold in the book of Revelation, marking the beginning of humanity's restoration to the lineage of God Sun Myung Moon and Hak Ja Han established the position of True Parents and are considered the first couple who had God's full blessings and were able to have children without original sin. The Church teaches that all people, married or single, can receive God's blessings on their marriage through the position of the moons as True Parents. The number of couples who received this blessing in large wedding ceremonies was 360,000 in 1995. In 1971, Moon expanded his ministry by coming to the United States. He led a "Hope Day" speaking tour of the United States in the early 1970s with the goal of reviving traditional Judeo-Christian values. He was invited to the White House where he met President Richard Nixon. On two occasions, Moon has spoken with members of the United States Congress, both the House of Representatives and the Senate. In 1975, Reverend Moon sent missionaries to 120 countries and made the Unification Church a worldwide faith. Luna and his controversy continued

followers, and in the 1980s he was sentenced to thirteen months in the United States for tax evasion. In 1992, Reverend Moon declared that he and his wife are the Messiah and the True Parents of all mankind. For followers, this marks the beginning of the Age of the Fulfilled Testament. Since then, Ms. Moon has taken a more active role in the work of the Church throughout the world. UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST ASSOCIATION Founded: 1961 Membership: 216,931 in 1,040 churches (1999) In May 1961, the Unitarian Universalist Churches of the United States and Canada consolidated into the Unitarian Universalist Association of North American Congregations, one of the largest liberal churches influential. The two bodies had different and interesting backgrounds and histories. evenly The basic tenet of Unitarianism is that there is only one God; therefore, Jesus was not intrinsically divine. Unitarians often claim that their thought dates back to the early Christian centuries, before the concept of the Trinity was developed. However, Unitarianism as we know it today began with the Protestant Reformation among anti-Trinitarians. The movement spread from independent thinkers such as Michael Servetus (ca. 1511–53) and Faustus Socinus (1539–1604) and Anabaptists (see MENONITE CHURCHES) to Switzerland, Hungary, Transylvania, the Netherlands, Poland, and Italy. In England it found advocates in such leaders as the scientist and mathematician Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704), and the poet John Milton (1608-1674), but no attempt was made until the end. Movement to organize the eighteenth century. American Unitarianism developed in what were known as liberal Christian Congregational churches in New England. The schism within Congregationalism (see CONGREGATIVE CHURCHES) came to a head in 1805 when Unitarian Henry Ware (1764-1845) was appointed Professor of Divinity at Harvard University, the bastion of Congregational education. The schism widened in 1819 when William Ellery Channing (1780-1842) of Boston delivered his famous Baltimore sermon in which he described the Unitarian perspective. Channing defined the true church in these words: “By His church our Savior does not mean a party bearing the name of a human leader, distinguished by some form or opinion, and by virtue of that distinction denying name and character to all but to the Christians themselves. . . . These are the men of the Church, improved, sanctified, virtuous by their religion, men who hope in their promises and keep their commandments.

Finally, in 1925, Unitarian Congregationalists formed the American Unitarian Association. It was devoted to certain moral, religious, educational, and charitable purposes that non-Unitarians may find just as instructive as an analysis of their religious or doctrinal statements. They were: 1. Spreading knowledge and promoting the interests of the religion that Jesus taught as love of God and love of man; 2. Strengthen churches and fellowships that unite to do more and better work for the kingdom of God; 3. Plant new churches and associations for the spread of Unitarianism in our own countries and in other countries; and 4. Foster sympathy and cooperation among religious liberals at home and abroad. The organization was liberal Congregational. Independent local churches were grouped into local, district, state, and regional conferences and formed into an international association for fellowship, counsel, and the promotion of common interests. At the time of the 1961 merger, there were four Unity Seminaries, two high schools, 386 churches, and approximately 115,000 members. Universalist Universalism refers to the belief that all people are saved regardless of their religious belief or disbelief. Universalists find evidence of their thought and philosophy in many cultural streams, and the doctrine has much in common with various religions around the world. Universalists claim roots in early Christian Gnostics Clement of Alexandria (c. 150–c. 215) and Theodore of Mopsuestia (c. 350–428), certain Anabaptists (see MENONITE CHURCHES), and 17th- and 18th-century German mystics such as as Jacob Boehme (1575-1624). In 1759 James Relly (1722-78) of England wrote Union, in which he opposed the Calvinist doctrine of the choice of a few. Relly's belief in universal salvation profoundly influenced John Murray (1741-1815), a Wesleyan evangelist who arrived in New Jersey in 1770 and found world-minded groups scattered along the Atlantic coast. He became a minister for such a group in Gloucester, Massachusetts, and later served briefly as a Revolutionary War chaplain in the armies of Washington and Greene. His Gloucester Independent Christian Church became the first organized Universalist church in the United States in 1779. A group of Universalists met in Philadelphia in 1790 to draw up their first statement of faith and plan of government. They promoted pacifism, the abolition of slavery, testifying by affirmation rather than oath, and free public education. He

The Philadelphia Declaration was approved in 1793 by a group of New England Universalists. At about the same time, Hosea Ballou (1771–1852), an itinerant teacher and preacher in Vermont, was ordained to the Universalist ministry. He broke radically with Murray's thought and published the Treatise on the Atonement in 1805, giving the Universalists their first consistent philosophy. Ballou rejected the theories of total depravity, endless punishment in hell, the Trinity, and miracles. Humanity, Ballou said, is potentially good and capable of perfection; God, being a God of infinite love, recognized the heavenly nature of humanity and loved the human race as God's own offspring. The meaning of atonement was not in the bloody sacrifice to appease divine wrath, but in the heroic sacrifice of Jesus, who was not God, but a son of the universal God, who revealed the love of God and wanted to conquer all men. . towards this love . Universalists of the 19th century were active in the early reform movements for recluses and working women. They opposed slavery from the beginning, advocated the separation of church and state, and maintained a lifelong interest in science, labor, administration, civil rights, and human affairs. Universalists founded several nonsectarian colleges and universities, including Tufts, St. Lawrence, Lombard (now affiliated with the University of Chicago), Goddard, and the California Institute of Technology. At the time of the merger, there were 68,949 members in 334 congregations. Unified Universalist Union. In this union, neither organization appears to have lost any of its original ideology, theology, or purpose. Flexibility, freedom of conscience and local autonomy are key values. No clergyman, member, or congregation "shall be bound to adhere to any particular interpretation of religion or particular religious belief or belief." The objectives of the association were established in a revised statement in 1985: The principles and objectives of the member congregations of the Unitarian Universalist Association affirm and promote: (a) the inherent worth and dignity of each person; (b) fairness, justice and compassion in human relations; (c) Mutual acceptance and encouragement of spiritual growth in our communities; (d) A free and responsible search for truth and meaning; (e) the right of conscience and the use of the democratic process in our communities and in society in general;

f) The goal of the world community of peace, freedom and justice for all; (g) Respect for the interdependent network of all existence of which we are a part. In recent years, the association has campaigned strongly on a number of causes and concerns: the issue of racial and cultural diversity in historically white communities; the rise of feminist consciousness; Studies in church history and process theology; ministries in the center of the city; and rights of gay, lesbian and bisexual people. A general assembly, with clergy and laity representatives, is the overall policy-making body that meets annually. The elected directors of the association (moderator, president, two vice-moderators, secretary and treasurer), all elected for four years, along with twenty-four other elected members, form a Board of Trustees, which appoints the executive and administrative members and generally leads policies and guidelines. The members of this body have the usual statutory powers of company administrators; They meet four times a year between ordinary general assemblies. Among the Association's most notable and successful accomplishments are its publisher, Beacon Press, which publishes fifty new titles each year and is one of the most respected independent publishers in the United States; a magazine, The World, distributed six times a year to more than 110,000 member families; the Unitarian Universalist Service Committee, which provides leadership and materials in the area of ​​social change; and a highly regarded religious education curriculum. Continental's headquarters are in Boston; 23 district offices were established. The largest numerical strength is in the Northeast, Midwest, and the Pacific West Coast. Overseas work is now carried out through the International Association for Religious Liberty, based in Oxford, England; The International Association has correspondents in 65 countries. UNITY SCHOOL OF CHRISTIANITY AND UNITY ASSOCIATION OF CHURCHES Founded: 1886 Members: est. 31,000 in 664 churches (1995) Unity is not a church or denomination, but a non-sectarian religious educational institution dedicated to showing that following the teachings of Jesus Christ is a practical way to live, seven days a week. Unity teaches that “the true church is a

consciousness of man." The Association of Unity Churches helps provide resources for congregations committed to the teachings of Unity. Unity has been described as "an 'open' religious philosophy that strives to find God's truth in all life, wherever it is." Unity has no strict creed or dogma; it finds the good in all religions and teaches that people must keep their minds open to receive this good. Unity teaches that reality is ultimately spiritual and that the realization of spiritual truth will enlighten, heal, and prosper humanity Cultivation of healthy emotions such as love, trust, and joy is encouraged Overcoming inhibiting health emotions such as anger is also promoted , hatred and despair. Unity has no rules regarding health, but focuses on spiritual goals, knowing that they will follow healthy lifestyle habits. Some Unity students are vegetarians for health reasons. Unity began in 1886 when Charles Fillmore (1854-1948), broke and crippled, and his wife Myrtle (1845-1931), suffering from tuberculosis, discovered a way of life based on affirmative prayer. They studied Christian Science (see CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST), Bible, Transcendentalism, New Thought, Quakerism (see FRIENDS), Theosophy (see SPIRITUALIST and THEOSOPHICAL BODIES), Rosicrucians, Spiritism, and Hinduism; From his studies emerged an ideology that is based on old truths and concepts but moves in a new direction. This approach is offered today at Unity School of Christianity as healing in many areas beyond physical healing. The Fillmores claimed that "whatever man desires, he can have expressed his desire in the right way in the universal mind." Unity teaches that God is "Principle, Law, Essence, Mind, Spirit, All Good, Omnipotent, Omniscient, Immutable, Creator, Father, Cause, and Source of all that is." Humans are children of God, with the potential for Christ Consciousness. Through Christ or the Christ Consciousness, people achieve eternal life and salvation. Salvation means reaching true spiritual consciousness, becoming like Christ. This transformation does not take place in some future, but "here on this earth" through a process of development and regeneration. A person does not suffer final death, but progresses to better and better states until he finally becomes like Christ. Unity members believe that everyone will have this experience. Prayer and meditation are suggested for all human needs and ailments. The oneness mode of prayer and meditation involves relaxation and affirmation of spiritual truth to develop individual awareness and silent receptivity to "divine spirit" for any seeker's needs. The Bible is constantly used and treasured, but it is not regarded as the sole or ultimate authority for belief and practice; People must be in direct and personal communion with God and not depend on secondary sources such as the Scriptures. Out of the foundation's work grew the Association of Unity Churches, an independent but affiliated organization of licensed ministers and teachers.

generations The association ordains ministers, provides educational and administrative support, and is self-supporting. Unity School trains ministers in a two-year program. It also trains teachers and offers retreat programs. The core work of the Unity School is done through what is called Silent Unity. A great team in Unity Village, near Kansas City, Missouri, is available day and night to pray with the people; Workers answer an average of one million calls and almost two million letters a year. This prayer and affirmation service offers help with every problem imaginable; Each case or call is assigned to a member of the team who proposes the appropriate proposals. The entire team meets several times a day for group prayer and meditation. All calls and inquiries will be answered; This service is free, but offers of love are accepted. Most of the calls come from members of various Christian churches; Correspondents are never asked to leave the churches to which they belong. Unity School publishes approximately 75 million copies of brochures, pamphlets, and magazines annually. These materials are used by many who have never contacted headquarters or become a member of a Unity church. UNIVERSAL FELLOWSHIP OF METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY CHURCHES Founded: 1970 Membership: Approximately 44,000 in 300 churches (1998) This Protestant organization is unique among Christian organizations in that it was formed specifically to reach out and support gay people. The Church believes that theology is the basis for bringing the good news of God's love to a sector of society that is often marginalized and sometimes ridiculed for participating in the life of the Church. This awareness led Troy D. Perry to found a denomination where these marginalized people could find genuine acceptance in a context of Christian worship and service. Perry, himself a homosexual, was fired from the church where he served as pastor and expelled from his denomination. He called a church in Los Angeles, and soon churches were being planted in other cities. In the summer of 1970 the first general conference was held. Straight people can and do belong to the Church, but a large percentage of its members are homosexual. The denomination describes its ministry as divided: laity and clergy, women and men, privileged and disadvantaged, lesbian, gay and straight. 43 percent of the clergy are women. The Church professes traditional Christian theology in teachings such as the Scriptures, the Trinity, and the sacraments. The Bible, "interpreted by the Holy Spirit in conscience and faith," is the guide for faith and discipline. Since its members come from all types of Christian churches, the style of worship, liturgy,

and church practice is eclectic and diverse. Some churches are more or less Pentecostal (see Pentecostal Churches), while others are highly liturgical. Baptism and Holy Communion are the sacraments. Membership in this denomination is active in a variety of ministries, reflecting its primary orientation toward traditions such as social gospel and liberation theology. In particular, he strove to meet the needs of the hungry, homeless, and powerless. He supports freezing nuclear weapons and works to eradicate sexism from his theology and from society at large. The civil rights of all people are a major concern. It also addresses the AIDS epidemic as a major social problem, in part because the incidence of the disease is widespread among its own members. The church addresses the controversy of its existence by stating that its members accept homosexuality as "a gift from God", just as heterosexuality is "a gift from God". However, he points out that “our sexuality is not, nor should it be, the center of our lives. ICM emphasizes that everything in our lives, including our sexuality, must be focused on our relationship with God through faith in Jesus Christ.” The government of the church is exercised by a General Council composed of elders and district coordinators, clergy and lay delegates. The organization applied to become a member of the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States in 1983 and was rejected, but hopes to eventually become part of this ecumenical organization with which it remains in dialogue. Participate in World Council of Churches events as an official observer. WORLDWIDE CHURCH OF GOD Founded: 1933 Membership: approximately 70,000 worldwide (2000) The Worldwide Church of God (formerly Radio Church of God) began its work in 1933 under the leadership of Herbert W. Armstrong (1892-1986 ). The mission of the church was to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ throughout the world and to help members grow spiritually. The church grew rapidly from 1964 to 1974, but controversy arose in the 1970s. Garner Ted Armstrong, the founder's son, was in partnership with him when he founded the rival Church of God International. The original church went through a bitter legal battle and its situation became increasingly unstable during the 1980s. After the death of Herbert Armstrong in 1986, Joseph W. Tkach became senior pastor. Tkach and, after his death in 1995, his son Joseph W. Tkach, Jr., led the Church through an experience of nothing less than religious conversion in the late 1980s and 1990s.

Elder Armstrong saw himself as a latter-day apostle-messenger and therefore assumed absolute authority in the organization. His church would be the Philadelphia church described in Revelation. Churches generally worshiped in rented facilities or in private homes rather than constructing separate buildings. At the time of his death, he left behind a church of some 120,000 members, a budget of $2,000,000, and a publication, The Plain Truth, with a circulation of eight million copies a month. His organization was a worldwide ministry with churches in 100 countries and territories, operated from headquarters in Pasadena, California. The Worldwide Church of God has retained some traditional Christian teachings but has retained many unique theological ideas. Herbert Armstrong taught that there is a God who is the Father. Jesus was accepted as divine and formed a divine family with the Father. However, Armstrong did not believe that the Holy Spirit was a separate person. Regarding human nature, the inspiration of Scripture, the bodily resurrection and the baptism of Christ, the Church has maintained traditional positions and has strongly opposed the bearing of arms and the murder of human life. He rejected the concept of eternal conscious torment in Hell for the unsaved. The Church accepted a number of Jewish customs (see JUDASM) as required by the Scriptures and observed the Lord's Supper, or Passover of Jesus Christ, annually to commemorate the death of Jesus. The Sabbath (from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday) was honored as a day of worship. Seven annual holy days were observed and certain "unclean" meats were avoided. Holidays like Halloween, Easter, and Christmas were condemned as pagan. The three ordinances of baptism, the Lord's Supper and foot washing were practiced. Such was Armstrong's theological conviction that he did not recognize as Christians those who did not observe the liturgical calendar and the practices maintained in it. However, under the leadership of the Tkaches, the Worldwide Church of God took a dramatic theological turn, moving to an essentially evangelical position. While the Church continues to honor Armstrong's sincerity, it has rejected his more unusual doctrinal ideas and practices. Major changes include the reaffirmation of the traditional Christian understanding of the Trinity (1993) and the departure from Old Testament covenant law (1994). The church formally apologized to the wider Christian community for the error and was accepted as a member of the National Association of Evangelicals in 1997. The complete transformation of the entire movement from "a heterodox church on the fringes of Christianity to an evangelical church that believes and teaches orthodox doctrines" is one of the unique events in American religious history. Many followers were disillusioned with the changes after Armstrong's death, and thousands left the Church. Hundreds of employees were laid off, funding and programming ran out, radio and television services were cut off, and the Church's educational center, Ambassador University, was closed. However, the Church enters the 21st century with marked confidence

God will insist on shaping and molding it for the divine purpose. The Church continues to publish The Plain Truth and to participate in various forms of electronic ministry. More than 900 churches remain affiliated around the world, and Azusa Pacific University's Ambassador Center (Wesleyan Theological Heritage; see METHODSTIC CHURCHES) helps provide church members with a Christian education in a liberal arts setting.

Appendix 1 Members of the National Association of Evangelicals (and date of entry) Advent Christian General Conference (1986) Assemblies of God (1943) Baptist General Conference (1966) Church of the Brethren (1968) Church of the Brethren in Christ (1949 ) Christian Catholic Church (Evangelical-Protestant) (1975) The Christian and Missionary Alliance (1966) Christian Church of North America (1953) Christian Reformed Church of North America (1943-51; 1988) Christian Union (1954) Church of God (1944) ) Gottes Church, Mountain Assembly, Inc. (1981) Church of the Nazarene (1984) Church of the United Brethren in Christ (1953) Churches of Christ in the Christian Union (1945) Congregational Holiness Church (1990-92, 1994) Conservative Baptist Association of America (1990) Conservative Congregational Christian Conference (1951) Conservative Lutheran Association (1984) Elim Fellowship (1947) Evangelical Church of North America (1969) Evangelical Congregational Church (1962) Evangelical Free Church of America (1943) Evangelical Friends North American International (1971) Evangelical Mennonite Church (1944) Evangelical Methodist Church (1952) Evangelical Presbyterian Church (1982) Evangelical Missionary Fellowship (1982) Evangelical Bible Church Fellowship (1948) Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas (1978) Free Methodist Church of North America (1944) General Association of General Baptists (1988)

Igreja Internacional do Evangelho Quadrangular (1952) Igreja Pentecostal Internacional de Cristo (1946) Igreja Pentecostal Internacional da Santidade (1943) Mennonite Brethren Churches, USA (1946) Midwest Congregational Christian Fellowship (1964) Missionary Church, Inc. (1944) Open Bible Standard Kirchen (1943) Pentecostal Church of God (1954) Pentecostal Free Will Baptist Church, Inc. (1988) Presbyterian Church of America (1986) Primitive Methodist Church USA (1946) Reformed Episcopal Church (1990) Reformed Presbyterian Church Synod of North America (1946) ) ) Regional Synod of Central America (Reformed Church in America) (1989) The Salvation Army (1990) The Wesleyan Church (1948) Worldwide Church of God (1997)

About 2 members of the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States. UU. African Episcopal Methodist Church African Zion Methodist Episcopal Church The Alliance of Baptist Churches in den EE. UU. American Baptist Churches in EE. UU. Orthodox Christian of Antioch Erzdiözese von Nordamerika Diözese der Armenier Church of America Christian Church (Jünger Christi) Methodist Episcopal Church Christian Church of the Brethren The Coptic Orthodox Church in North America The Episcopal Church Evangelical Lutheran Church in America und Südamerikas Hungarian Reformed Church in America International Council of Churches of the Korean Community Presbyterian Church in America Malankara Orthodox Church Syrian Mar Thoma Church Morava Church in America Northern Province and Southern Province National Baptist Convention of America National Baptist Convention, USA. UU., Inc. National Baptist Missionary Convention of America Patriarchal Orthodox Church of America Members of the Russian-Orthodox Church in the United States. UU. Annual Meeting of the Religious Society of Philadelphia Polish Nationale Catholic Church of America Presbyterian Church (USA) Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc.

Reformed Church in America Serbian Orthodox Church in USA and Canada Swedenborgian Church Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America United Church of Christ United Methodist Church

Appendix 3: Relations of the ecclesiastical bodies among themselves

Appendix 4: Directory of Denominational Headquarters and Websites




Christian Adventist Church

14601 Albermarle Road, PO PO Box 23152, Charlotte, NC 28227


African Methodist Episcopal Church

1134 Calle 11 NW, Washington, DC 20001


African Methodist P.O. PO Box 32843, Iglesia Episcopal Zion Charlotte, NC 28323


african orthodox church

137 Alston Street NW, Cambridge, MA 02139

Albanian Orthodox Archdiocese in America

523 East Broadway, www.oca.org/oca/al South of Boston, MA 02127

American Association of Lutheran Churches

801 West 106th St., www.taalc.org #203, Minneapolis, MN 55420

American Baptist Union

4605 N. State Line Avenue, Texarkana, TX 75503

Batista Americano P.O. Box 851, Churches in the U.S.A. Valley Forge, PA 19482-0851 American CarpathoRussian Greek Catholic Church



312 Garfield Street, www.goarch.org Johnston, PA 15906

American Catholic Church

PO Box 725, www.geocities.com/westhollywood/4136 Hampton Bays, Nueva York 11946

American Evangelical Christian Churches

PO Box 47312, Indianapolis, IN 46277


American Jewish Committee

165 East 56th Street, New York, New York 10022


american rescuers

643 Elmira Street, Williamsport, PA 17701


Anglican Catholic Church

107 Oeste de Broadway, Gettysburg, PA 17325


Anglican Rite Synod at 875 Berkshire www.anglicanrite.org Americas Valley Road, Wharton, NJ 07885 Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of Antioch of North America

550 West 50th Street, Nueva York, Nueva York 10019


Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarenes)

1135 Sholey Rd, Richmond, VA 23231

Apostolic Christian Church of America

3420 North Sheridan Road, Peoria, Il 61604


Apostolic Episcopal Church - Order of Corporate Assembly

PO Box 2401, Apple Valley, CA 92307


Portland OR Apostolic Faith Mission

6615 SE Duke www.apostolicfaith.org Street, Portland, OR 97206

Lutheran Apostolic Church of America

332 Monte Washington www.apostolic-lutheran.org Weg,

Clayton, CA 945171546 Catholic Apostolic Orthodox Church

PO Box 1834, Glendora, CA 91740-1834

www.pe.net/~idyll/para1.htm (unofficial)

Apostolic Overcoming North 24th Street, Holy Church Birmingham, AL of God, Inc. 35234


Armenian Apostolic Church of America

138 E. 39th Street, Nueva York, NY 10016-4885





International Assembly of God

1445 Boonville Avenue, Springfield, MO 65802


International Assemblies of God Association

PO Box 22410, San Diego, CA 92192-2410


Assemblies of the Lord N. White Station www.aljc.org Jesus Christ Road, Memphis, TN 38122 Iglesia Reformed Presbyterian Associate

3132 Grace Hill Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29204


Association of Free Lutheran Congregations

3110 E. Medicine Lake Boulevard, Minneapolis, MN 55441



866 UN Plaza, Suite 1202 www.bahai.org, New York, NY 10017

International Baptist Bible Union

PO Box 191, Springfield, MO 65801


General Conference of Baptists

2002 Sur www.bgc.bethel.edu Arlington Heights Road, Arlington Heights, IL 60005

Missionarischer Bautista P.O. Box 193920, Asociación de América Little Rock, AR 72219-3920


Amish Mennonite Churches with Beaches

3015 Partridge www.mhsc.ca (unofficial) Road, P.O. Box 73, Partridge, KS 67566

Berean Fundamental Church

NIGHT. PO Box 6103, Lincoln, NE 68506

Bible Communal Church

3000 Beca Dr., Whitehall, PA 18052

Bible Way Church of 4949 Two-Notch Our Lord Jesus Christ Road, World Wide, Inc. Columbia, SC 29204



Church of the Brethren (Ashland)

524 College www.brethrenchurch.org Avenue, Ashland, OH 44805

Brothers in the Church of Christ

PO Box A, Grantham, Pensilvania 17207-0901

Bulgarian Orthodox Church

550-A West 50th Street, New York, New York 10019


Charismatic Episcopal 46797 Trailwood Church Place, Potomac Falls, VA 20165




1000 Mohawk Drive, Elgin, Illinois 601203148

Christian and Missionary Alliance

PO Box 35000, Colorado Springs, CO 80935-3500


christian brothers

327 Prairie Avenue, Wheaton, IL 601873408

christian catholic church

Dowie Memorial Drive, Zion, IL 60099

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)

130 This www.disciples.org Washington Street, P.O. Box 1986, Indianapolis, IN 46206

Christian Church of North America, General Council

1294 Rutledge Road www.ccna.org, Transfer, PA 161549005

Christian Churches and Churches of Christ

4210 Bridgetown Road, PO Caixa 11326, Cincinnati, OH 45211

Christian Church, Inc.

804 West Hemlock Street, LaFollette, TN 37766

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

4466 Elvis Presley www.c-m-e.org Blvd., Memphis, TN 38116

Christian Reformed Church in North America

2850 Kalamazoo Avenue SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49560

Church of Christ (Holiness) USA

329 East Monument www.cochusa.com/main.htm Calle, P.O. Box 3622, Jackson, MS 39207

www.cwv.net/christ'n (unofficial)





Christ Church (Temple Grounds)

(Video) Prayers that Rout Demons by John Eckhardt w/ softer background music

200 S. River www.church-of-christ.com Boulevard, P.O. Box 472, Independence, MO 64501-0472

Church of Christ, Scientist

175 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115


Church of God and Saints of Christ

3825 Central Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115


Church of God (Anderson, IN)

PO Box 2420, Anderson, IN 46018-2420


Church of God (Cleveland, TN)

2490 Keith St., Postfach Box 2430, Cleveland, TN 37320-2430


P.O Church of God Box 100, (General Conference) Morrow, GA 30260


Church of God (Holiness)

7407 Metcalf, PO Box PO Box 4711, Overland Park, KS 66204


Church of God (Seventh Day)

330 West 152nd Avenue, PO PO Box 33677, Denver, CO 80233


Church of God by Faith, Inc.

1315 South Lane Avenue, Suite 6, Jacksonville, FL 32206


Church of God in Christ

272 South Main Street, Memphis, TN 38101

Church of God in Christ, International

170 Adelphi Street, Brooklyn, NY 11205

Mennonite Church of God in Christ

PO Box 230, Montículo, KS 67107


Church of God of Prophecy

3720 North Keith Street, PO Box 2910, Cleveland, TN 37320-2910


Church of Jesus Christ P.O. Box 1414, Cleveland, TN 37311 Church of Jesus Christ 2007 Cutter Drive, McKees Rocks, PA (Bickertonite) 15136 Church of Jesus Christ 15 East South Temple Street, of Latter-day Saints Salt Lake City, UT 84150 Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith


444 W. Penn Street, www.apostolic-faith.org Philadelphia, PA 19144

Church of the Brethren 1451 Dundee Avenue, Elgin, IL 60120


Church of the Living God (Christian Workers for Fellowship)

430 Forest Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229

Church of the Living God, El Pilar and Floor of Truth, Inc.

4520 Ashland City www.clgpgt.org Hwy., Nashville, TN 37208

Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America

PO Box 655, Fergus Falls, MN 56538


Church of the Lutheran Confession

501 Grover Road, EauClaire, WI 54701


Church of the Nazarenes

6401 El Paseo, Kansas City, MO 64131


Church of the United Brethren in Christ

302 Lake Street, Huntington, IN 46750


churches of christ

PO Box 726, Kosciusko, MS 39090


Churches of Christ in Christian Union

1426 Lancaster Pike, Feld 30, Circleville, OH 43113





Churches of God, General Conference

700 Melrose Ave., PO Caixa 926, Findlay, OH 45839


Congregational Christian Churches

PO Box 1620, Oak Creek, WI 53154


Congregational Holiness Church

3888 Fayetteville Highway, Griffin, GA 30223


Congregational Methodist Church

PO Box 9, Florence, MS 39073

Conservative Baptist 1501 West Mineral www.cbamerica.org Association of America Ave., Suite B, Littleton, CO 801205612 Conservative Congregational Christian Conference

7582 Currell www.ccccusa.org Boulevard, Suite 108, St. Paul, MN 55125

Conservador 9910 Rosedale Mennonitische Konferenz Milford Centre Road,


Irwin, OH 43029 Baptist Fraternity Cooperative

PO Box 450329, www.cbfonline.org Atlanta, GA 311450329

Coptic Orthodox Church

PO Box 384, Cedar Grove, NJ 07009

Cumberland Presbyterian Church

1978 Union Avenue www.cumberland.org, Memphis, TN 38104


Cumberland 226 Church Street, Presbyterian Church in Huntsville, AL America 35801


divine science

2025 35th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007


Elim society

1703 Dalton Road, Lima, New York 14485



815 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10017


Episcopal Mission Church

600 Oak Hollow Lane, Fort Worth, TX 76112


Protestant church

7733 West River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55444

evangelical church community

100 West Park Avenue, Myerstown, PA 17067

Covenant Evangelical 5101 North Church Francisco Avenue, Chicago, IL 60625



Evangelical Free Church of America

901 East 78th Street, Minneapolis, MN 55420-1300


International Evangelical Friends

1975 Rosinenzentrum www.evangelical-friends.org Hwy., Adrian, MI 49221

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

8765 West Higgins Road, Chicago, IL 60631

Evangelical Lutheran Synod

6 Browns Court, www.evluthsyn.org Mankato, MN 56001


Evangélica Menonita 1420 Kerrway Church Court, Fort Wayne, IN 46805


United Methodist P.O. Box 17070, Indianapolis Church, IN 46217


Evangelical Presbyterian Church

29140 Buckingham www.epc.org Avenida, Suite 5, Livonia, MI 48154

Association of Evangelical-Biblical Churches

5800 South 14th Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68107

Churches Community of Grace Brothers

PO Box 386, Winona Lake, IN 46590

Free Methodist Church P.O. PO Box 535002, North America Indianapolis, IN 46253



Free Baptists, National Association

PO Box 5002 www.nafwb.org Antioch, TN 370115002




General Friends Conference

Calle Arco 1216, no. 2B, Philadelphia, PA 19107


United Friends Meeting

101 Quaker Hill Drive, Richmond, IN 47374-1980


Full Gospel International Assembly

PO Box 1230, Coatesville, Pensilvania 19320

Full Gospel Fellowship 4325 W. Ledbetter of Churches Drive and Ministries, Dallas, TX 75233 Internacional


Generalkonferenz 100 Stinson Drive, General Baptist Poplar Bluff, MO Iglesias 63901


Conferencia general 1300 North Regular Baptist Meacham Road, iglesias de Schaumburg, IL 60173


General Church of P.O. Box 711, New Jerusalem Bryn Athyn, PA 19009


grace evangelical community

2125 Martindale SW, PO Box Caixa 9432 Grand Rapids, MI 49509


Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America

8-10 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10021


Santa Ortodoxa Oriental HC74, Box 419-2, www.theoacna.org Catholic Mountain View, AR and Apostolic 72560 Church House of God, welche die Church of the Living God ist,

866 Georgetown Street, Lexington, Kentucky


column and bulwark of truth


Hungarian Reformed Church in America

13 Grove Street, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601

hutterian brothers

Crystal Spring www.hutterianbrethren.com (inoffiziell) Colony, Box 10, Ste Agathe, MB R0G 1Y0 Canadá

Independent Fundamental Churches of America (IFCA International, Inc.)

3250 Fairlanes, PO PO Box 810, Grandville, MI 49468

1910 International Church W. Sunset the Foursquare Blvd., Suite 210, Gospel P.O. Box 26902, Los Angeles, CA 90026-0176 International Council of Community Churches




21116 Washington www.akcache.com/community/iccc.html Parkway, Frankfort, IL 604233112

International 2245 State Route Pentecostal Church of 42 SW, Christ P.O. Box 439, Londres, OH 43140


International Pentecostal Holiness Church

EVENING. PO Box 12609, www.iphc.org Oklahoma City, OK 73157

Washington Islamic Center

2551 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

Islamic Society of North America

PO Box 38, www.isna.net Plainfield, IN 46168

Jehovah's Witnesses

25 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, Nueva York


11201-2483 Jewish Reconstructionist Federation

78 Avenida Montgomery, Suite 9, Elkins Park, PA 19027


Korean Presbyterian Church in America

PO Box 457, Morganville, NJ 07951

Korean American Presbyterian Church

2853 W. 7th Street, www.kapc.org Los Angeles, CA 90005




International Liberal Catholic Church

(Video) Royal Choral Society: 'Hallelujah Chorus' from Handel's Messiah

1206 Ayers Avenue, Ojai, CA 93023


Lubavitch World Headquarters

7700 Eastern www.chabad-centers.com Parkway, Brooklyn, NY 11213

Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod

1333 South Kirkwood Road, San Luis, MO 63122-7295


Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church

80-34 Commonwealth Boulevard, Bellerose, NY 11426


Mar Thoma Orthodox 2320 S. Merrick Iglesia Siria de India Avenue, Merrick, NY 11566


Churches of the Mennonite Brethren, General Conference

4824 Butler Avenue, Fresno, CA 937275097


Mennonite Church USA

421 South Second Street, Suite 600, Elkhart, IN 46516


missionary church

3811 Vanguard Drive, PO Box PO Box 9127, Fort Wayne, IN 46899-9127


Moravian Church (Union of Brethren)

1021 Center Street, www.moravian.org P.O. Apartado 1245, Belém, PA 18016-1245

Muslim American Post Office Box 1944, Society Calumet City, IL (W. Deen Muhammad) 60409 777 S. R.L. National Baptist Convention of America Thornton Freeway, Suite 205, Dallas, TX 75203


National Baptist Convention of the USA, Inc.

1700 Baptist World Center Dr., Nashville, TN 37207

National Missionary Baptist Convention of America

P.O. Box 512096, Los Angeles, CA 90051-0096


USA Early National Baptist Convention

6433 Hidden Forrest Drive, Charlotte, NC 28213


National spiritual alliance of EE. UU.

Minenstraße 67, Winchester, NH 03470

National Association of Spiritist Churches

PO Box, www.nsac.org Lily Dale, New York 14752

Netherlands Reformed Church 1261 Beckwith N.E., http://home.earthlink.net/~vogelaar/nrc/church.htm Congregations Grand Rapids, MI (unofficial name) 49505 New Apostolic Church 3753 North Troy of North America Street, Chicago, IL 60618




1 a 210

Baptist Conference

Summit Avenue, Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181

Old Catholic Church of 409 N. Lexington www.oldcatholic.org America Parkway, DeForest, WI 53532 Old Deutsche Baptist Church

6952 N. www.cob-net.org/docs/groups.htm (inoffziell) Condado de Montgomery Line Rd, Englewood, OH 45322-9748

Former North American Roman Catholic Church

1207 Potomac, Louisville, KY 40214


Standard Open Bible Churches

2020 Bell Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50315


Orthodox Church in America

PO Box, Sysosset, New York 11791-0675


Ortodoxa Presbiteriana 607 North Easton Church Road, Bldg. E, Caixa P, Willow Grove, PA 19090-0920


Orthodox Union in America

333 Seventh Ave, New York, NY 10001


Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc.

3939 Meadows Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46205





4901 Pennsylvania Pentecostal Church, www.pcg.org Gott P.O. Box 850, Joplin, MO 64802 Pentecostal Free Agency


Baptist Church, Inc. Pillar of Fire

PO Box 9159, Sarepta, NJ 08890


Polish National Catholic Church of America

1006 Pittston www.pncc.org Avenue, Scranton, PA 18505

Presbyterian Church (USA)

100 Witherspoon Street, Louisville, KY 40202


Presbyterian Church in 1852. www.pcanet.org America Place, Atlanta, GA 303454305 Primitive Baptists

www.pb.org (unofficial)

Early Methodist Church in the United States

1045 Laurel Run Road, Wilkes-Barre, PA 18702


National Progressive Baptist Convention, Inc.

601 50th Street, NE, Washington, DC 20019


Reformed Protestant Churches in America

4949 Avenida Ivanrest, Grandville, MI 49418

www.prca.org (unofficial)

Reformed Church in America

Office of the Secretary General, 475 Riverside Dr., 18th Floor, New York, NY 10115


Reformed Church in the United States

6121 Pine Vista Way, Elk Grove, CA 95758


Reformed Episcopalian

826 second avenue,



Sino Azul, PA 19422-1257

Episcopal Church of the Reformed Methodist Union

1136 Brody Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29407

Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America

7408 Penn Avenue, www.reformedpresbyterian.org Pittsburgh, PA 15208

Religious Society of Friends (Conservative)


Reorganized Church P.O. Box 1059, www.rlds.org von Jesus Christ 1001 Walnut Street, von Latter-day Saints Independence, MO 64501 Council of the Roman Catholic Church

3211 Fourth Street, www.vatican.va Washington, DC 20017

Romanian Orthodox 2535 Gray Tower www.roeg.org Episcopate of America Road, Jackson, MI 492019120 Russian Orthodox Church outside of Russia

75 East 93rd Street, www.rocor.org Nueva York, NY 10128

The Salvation Army

615 Slaters Lane, Alexandria, VA 22313


Iglesia Schwenkfelder 105 Seminary St., Pennsburg, PA 18073


Separate Baptists in Christ

10102 N. Hickory Lane, Columbus, IN 47203


Eastern Serbian Orthodox Church in the United States

External Affairs Office, 2311 M St, NW (Suite 402), and Canada Washington, DC


20037 Seventh Day Baptist General Conference

PO Box 167, Janesville, WI 53547-16788

Seventh-day Adventist Church 12501 Old Church Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, MD 20904-6600



Southern Baptist Convention

901 Comercio www.sbc.net Street, Suite 750, Nashville, TN 37203




Southern Episcopal Church

234 Willow Lane, Nashville, TN 37211-4945


Southern Methodist Church

PO Box 39, Orangeburg, SC 29116-0039


swedenborg church

11 Highland Avenue, Newtonville, MA 02460


Syriac (Syriac) 260 Elm Avenue, www.syrianorthodoxchurch.org Teaneck Orthodox Church, Antioch NJ 07661 (Archdiocese in the Eastern United States) Theosophical Society in America

PO Box 270, Wheaton, IL 60189

Triumph the Church and Kingdom in Christ Inc. (Internacional)

213 Farrington Ave SE, Atlanta, GA 30315

Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA

135 Davidson Avenue, Somerset, Nueva Jersey 08873



Unification Church

4 West 43rd St., Nueva York, Nueva York 10036


Union of American Hebrew Congregations

838 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10021


Unitarian Universalist Federation of Congregations

25 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108


United Church of Christ

700 Prospect Avenue, Cleveland, OH 02108


Holy United Church of 312 Umstead http://members.aol.com/newpent/nphca America, Inc. Street, (inoffiziell) Durham, NC 27702 United Methodist Church

Postfach 320, 810 12th Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37202-0320


United Pentecostal Church International

8855 Dunn Road, Hazelwood, MO 63042


United Synagogues of 155 Fifth Ave, Conservative Judaism New York, NY 10010


Unity Churches, Association of


unity of the brothers

PO Box 610, Lee's Summit, MO 64063


Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches

8704 Santa Monica www.ufmcc.com 2 Stock Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90069

Iglesias Vineyard EE.UU.

5340 E. LaPalma www.vineyardusa.org Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92807

Volunteers for America 1660 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-3421


Iglesia Wesleyana


PO Box 50434, Indianapolis, IN 46250

Evangelical Synod of Wisconsin 2929 N Lutheran Mayfair Road, Milwaukee, WI 53222


Worldwide Church of God


300 West Green Street, Pasadena, CA 91123

Suggested Reading General Works on Western Religions Armstrong, Karen. Islam: A Brief History. New York: Modern Library, 2000. Atwood, Craig D. Always Reforming: A History of Christianity Since the 1300s. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2001. Esposito, John L. Islam: The Straight Path. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ———, Ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. 4 volumes New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Neusner, Jacob. An Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and Reader. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991. ———. The Way of Torah: An Introduction to Judaism. 4th Edition Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1988. Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Cults: A Powerful Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Image Books, 1996. Oxtoby, Willard G., eds. World Religions: Western Traditions. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of the Doctrine. 5 volumes Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971-1989. Steinberg, Milton. Basic Judaism. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1986. Walker, Williston, et al. A history of the Christian church. 4th Edition New York: Scribner, 1985. Wuthnow, Robert. Growing up religious: Christians and Jews and their faith paths. Boston: Beacon Press, 1999. General Works on Religion in the United States Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People. 2 volumes New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972. Bloom, Harold. American Religion: The Rise of the Post-Christian Nation. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

Bowden, Henry W., editors Dictionary of American Religious Biography. 2nd Edition Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. Butler, Jon, and Harry S. Stout, eds. Religion in American Life Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999–. Butler, Jon. Awash in a Sea of ​​Faith: Christianizing the American People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990. Gaustad, Edwin Scott. A religious history of America. Revised Edition San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1990. Gaustad, Edwin Scott, and Philip L. Barlow. New Historical Atlas of Religion in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Hatch, Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989. Hill, Samuel S., editors Encyclopedia of Religion in the South. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1984. ———. The South and the North in American Religion. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1980. Lindner, Eileen W., editors Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches 2000: Religious Pluralism in the New Millennium. Issue 68. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2000. Lippy, Charles H., and Peter W. Williams, editors Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience: Tradition and Movement Studies. 3 vol. New York: Scribner, 1988. Marty, Martin E. Modern American Religion. 2 volumes Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of American Religions. 6th Edition, 3 Volumes Detroit: Gale Research, 1999. Moore, R. Laurence. Religious Aliens and the Making of Americans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. ———. Selling God: American Religion in the Marketplace of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Neusner, Jacob, eds. World Religions in America: An Introduction. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994.

Noll, Mark A. A history of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992. Wuthnow, Robert. The restructuring of American religion: society and beliefs since World War II. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988. Works on Specific Topics in American Religion Balmer, Randall. My Eyes Have Sown the Glory: A Journey into America's Evangelical Subculture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Frazier, E. Franklin. The Black Church in America. New York: Schocken Books, 1974. James, Janet W., editors, Women in American Religion. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980. Lincoln, C. Eric, and Lawrence H. Mamiya. The Black Church in the African American Experience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990. Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Church from Frazier. New York: Shocken Books, 1973. Marty, Martin E. Protestantism in America: Righteous Empire. 2nd ed. New York: Scribes; London: Collier Macmillan, 1986. Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Ruether, Rosemary Radford, and Rosemary Skinner Keller, eds. Women and Religion in America. 3 vol. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1981. Sernett, Milton C., eds. Afro-American History of Religions: A Documentary Testimony. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1985. Work on Specific Churches and Movements Ammerman, Nancy T. Baptist Battles: Social Change and Religious Conflict in the Southern Baptist Convention. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990. Beckford, James A. The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1975. Blumhofer, Edith L. Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Bokenkotter, Thomas S. A Brief History of the Catholic Church. Rev. Ed. New York: Image Books, 1990. Brackney, William H. The Baptists. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. Bratt, James D. Dutch Calvinism in Modern America. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1984. Bucke, Emory S., eds. History of American Methodism. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1964. Buehrens, John A., et al. A Chosen Faith: An Introduction to Unitarian Universalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1998. Burgess, Stanley M., and Gary B. McGee, eds. Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements. Grand Rapids: Regency Reference Library, 1988. Crews, Mickey. The Church of God: A Social History. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990. Dayton, Donald W. and Robert K. Johnston, eds. The Diversity of American Evangelicalism. Downer's Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1991. DeWitt, John. The Christian Science way of life. Boston: Christian Science Publishing Society, 1971. Doan, Ruth A. The Miller Heresy, Millennialism, and American Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987. Durnbaugh, Donald F., editors The Brethren's Encyclopedia. 3 volumes Philadelphia: Brethren Press, 1983–84. Eddy, Maria Baker. Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. print. Boston: Christian Science Board of Trustees, 1994. Eisen, Arnold M. America's Chosen People: A Study of Jewish Religious Ideology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983. Fitts, Leroy. A history of the Negro Baptists. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1985. Garrison, W.E. and A.T. DeGroot. The Disciples of Christ: A History. St. Louis: Bethany Press, 1958. Greeley, Andrew. The American Catholic: A Social Portrait. New York: Essential Books, 1977.

Halle, Franz Friends in America. Philadelphia: World Committee of Friends, 1976. Hamilton, JT and KG Hamilton, History of the Moravian Church: The Renewed Unitas Fratrum, 1722–1957. Bethlehem, PA: Interprovincial Board of Christian Education, Moravian Church in America, 1967. Hamm, Thomas D. The Transformation of American Quakerism: Orthodox Friends: 1800–1907. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1988. Hansen, Klaus J. Mormonism and the American Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. Hardon, John A. Modern Catholic Dictionary. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980. Hart, D. G., and Mark A. Noll, eds. Dictionary of the Presbyterian and Reformed Tradition in America. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1999. Horton, Douglas. The United Church of Christ. Its origins, organization and role in today's world. New York: Thomas Nelson, 1962. Hostetler, Beulah Stauffer. American Mennonites and Protestant Movements: A Community Paradigm. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1987. Hughes, Richard T. Revival of the Ancient Faith: A History of the Churches of Christ in America. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996. Idel, Moshe. Hasidism: between ecstasy and magic. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. Johnson, Kevin Orlin. Why do Catholics do this? A guide to the teachings and practices of the Catholic Church. New York: Ballantine, 1995. Langford, Thomas A., eds. Doctrine and Theology in the United Methodist Church. Nashville: Kingswood Books, 1991. Leonard, Bill J., editor Dictionary of Baptists in America. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994. Marsden, George M. Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Making of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism, 1870–1925. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. Meyendorff, John. The Orthodox Church: its past and its role in today's world. 4th Edition Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1996.

Nelson, E. Clifford, Lutheran Publishers in North America. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975. Neufeld, Don. lined Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia. Rev. Ed. Washington, DC: Review and Herald Publishing, 1961. Paris, Arthur Ernest. Black Pentecostalism: Southern Religion in an Urban World. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982. Penton, James. Delayed Apocalypse: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985. Prichard, Robert W. A History of the Episcopal Church. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 1991. Pruter, Karl. A history of the Old Catholic Church. Scottsdale, Arizona: St. Willibrord's Press, 1973. Richardson, Harry V. Dark Salvation: The Story of Methodism as It Developed Among the Negroes of America. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1976. Rosenthal, Gilbert S. The Many Faces of Judaism: Orthodox, Conservative, Reconstructivist, and Reformed. Edited by S Rossel. New York: Behrman House, 1978. Schlink, Edmund. Theology of the Lutheran Confessions. trad. Paul F. Keohneke and Herbert JA Bouman. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1961. Shipps, Jan. Mormonism: The Story of a New Religious Tradition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985. Sklare, Marshall. Conservative Judaism: An American Religious Movement. New edition. New York: Schocken Books, 1972. Smith, Jane I. Islam in America. Columbia Contemporary American Religion Series. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Smith, Joseph. The book of Mormon. print. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1986 Smith, Timothy L., titled Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes: The Formative Years. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1962. Smylie, James H. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Louisville: Geneva Press, 1996.

Synan, Vinson. The Pentecostal Holiness Movement in the United States. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971. Vanden Berge, Peter M., eds. Historical Directory of the Reformed Church in America: 1628–1978. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978. Ware, Kallistos T. The Orthodox Way. Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1995. Williams, George H. American Universalism: A Bicentennial Historical Essay. Boston: Universalist Historical Society, 1971.

Notes 1. See Nathan O. Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989) for more on this formative period in American history. The connection between Jacksonian democracy and popular religion is particularly revealing.

Handbook of Denominations in the US Eleventh Edition (Back Cover) » About This Article « Copyright © 1985, 1990, 1995, 2001 by Abingdon Press Copyright © 1980 by Abingdon Press Copyright Renewal © 1979 by Frank S. Mead Copyright © 1961, 1970, 1975 by Abingdon Press Copyright © 1956 Pierce & Washabaugh Copyright © 1951 Pierce & Smith All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as expressly permitted by Copyright Law. of 1976 or by written Permits. authorized publisher. Permit applications should be addressed to Abingdon Press, P.O. Box 801, 201 Eighth Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37202-0801. This book is printed on acid-free recycled paper. Cataloging data in the Library of Congress publication Mead, Frank Spencer, 1898 Handbook of Denominations in the United States / Frank S. Mead, Samuel S. Hill.-11th ed. / Revised by Craig D. Atwood p. cm. Includes references and index. ISBN 0-687-08362-1 (Material: Alk. paper) 1. United States Dictionaries of Cults. 2. United States Dictionaries of Religion 1960. I. Hill, Samuel S. II Atwood, Craig D. III. Qualification. BL2525 .M425 2001 200'.973-dc21 2001018872 Scripture citations marked KJV are from the King James or Authorized Version of the Bible. Biblical quotations mentioned in the NIPS are from the Tanakh: The New JPS Translation based on the traditional Hebrew text. Copyright © 1985 by the Jewish Publication Society. Used with permission. The Bible quotations mentioned in the NRSV are from the newly revised version of the Bible. Copyright © 1989 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Use for

Permission. All rights reserved. MADE IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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